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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST 



edition, published in three 



volumes, 1768 — 1771. 



SECOND 


, ,, ten , 


1777— 1784 


THIRD 


, „ eighteen , 


1788— 1797 


FOURTH 


, ,, twenty , 


, 1801 — 1810 


FIFTH 


, ,, twenty , 


1815—1817 


SIXTH 


1 >> twenty , 


, 1823 — 1824 


SEVENTH 


, ,, twenty-one , 


, 1830 — 1842 


EIGHTH 


, „ twenty-two , 


1853-1860 


NINTH 


, ,, twenty-five , 


1875-1889 


TENTH 


, ninth edition and eleven 






supplementary volumes, 


1902— 1903 


ELEVENTH 


, published in twenty-nine volum< 


:s, 1910 — 1911 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 

by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XVI 

L to LORD ADVOCATE 



New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 



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Lambert, Francis; 
Lambert, Nicholson. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XVI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 

A. B. Chatwood, B.Sc, A. M.Inst. C.E., M.Inst.Elec.E. j Lock. 

Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. f 

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classifi- -> Leaf. 
cation of Flowering Plants, &fc. I 

Alexander Campbell Fraser, LL.D. J £ 0C j{ e j onn- 

See the biographical article: Fraser, A. C. ' I ' 

Algernon Charles Swinburne. f » a _j or 

See the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C. \ i«anaor. 

Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D. Iin-kpr-iamivinn 

Sec the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin. I L04 - Ker ^mpson. 

Pierre Marie Auguste Filon. J T „■,,„,.. 

See the biographical articie : FlLON, P. M. A. I ^ aDlcne - 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. 

Professor of English History in the University of London. FeUow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford. Assistant editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- 
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. 

A. Gl. Arnold Glover, M.A., LL.B. (d. 1905) f 

Trinity College, Cambridge; Joint-editor of Beaumont and Fletcher for the Cam- J, Layard. 
bridge University Press. [ 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. ( Laurentius, Paul; 

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. ^ Libertines. 

Arthur George Doughiy, C.M.G., M.A.,Litt.D., F.R. Hist.S., F.R.S. (Canada), f 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. J Tofontaine 
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint editor of Documents relating to the 1 
Constitutional History of Canada. I 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.D., LL.D. ^To n rt; PO o 

See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H. I ^ aoalcea - 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. f 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent J t .__. (• t. r , vl \ 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of " L0 ° 0S Vw pan) ' 
Mysore Educational Service. l 

A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. f 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News -j Lima {Peru). 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901. \_ 

A. L. Andrew Lang. f . _. . 

See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew. \ ^ a uocne - 

A. M. An. Adelaide Mary Anderson, M.A. r 

H.M. Principal Lady Inspector of Factories, Home Office. Clerk to the Royal , T . 

Commission on Labour, 1892-1894. _ Gamble Gold Medallist, Girton College, Cam- i Labour Legislation. 
bridge, 1893. Author of various articles on Industrial Life and Legislation, &c. \ 

A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke. / Lagrange; Laplace; 

See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M. \ Leverrier. 

A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S. f Lammergeyer; Lapwing; 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. [ Lark; Linnet; Loom. 

A. P. C. Arthur Philemon Coleman, MA., Ph.D., F.R.S. { 

Professor of Geology in the University of Toronto. Geologist, Bureau of Mines, i Labrador (in part). 
Toronto, 1893-1910. Author of Reports of the Bureau of Mines of Ontario. [_ 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 



VI 

A. P. Lo. 

A. Se.* 

A. SI. 
A. So. 
A. S. C. 

A. St H. G. 

A. S. M. 
A. S. W. 

A. T. T. 
A. W. H.* 
A. W. Hu. 

A. W. R. 

A. W. W. 

B. D. J. 



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C. F.-Br. 

C. H.* 
C. H. Ha. 

C. J. B.* 
C. L. K. 

CM. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

Albert Peter Low. f 

Deputy Minister of Department of Mines, Canada. Member of Geological Survey < Labrador (in part). 
of Canada. Author of Report on the Exploration in the Labrador Peninsula ; &c. I 

Adah Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. J T arva i i? nrm c 
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology 1 ""V** *Orms. 
in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909. I 

Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P. f 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water- \ Liquor Laws. 

Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. I 

Albrecht Socin, Ph.D. (1844-1890). j" 

Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tubingen. "1 

Author of Arabische Crammatik; &e. I 

Alan Summerly Cole, C.B. f 

Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900-1908. Author of Ancient. 
Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European Silks; 

&c. 

Alfred St Hill Gibbons. 

Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of ' 

Africa from South to North through Marotseland. 

Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Murray, Alexander Stuart. 

Augustus Samuel Wilkins, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. (1843-1905). f 

Professor of Latin, Owens College, Manchester, 1869-1905. Author of Roman J Latin Language (in part). 



Lebanon (in part). 



Lace. 



Lewanika. 



Lamp. 



Literature; &.c. 

A. T. Thomson. 

Official in Life Saving Service, U.S.A. 

Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 

Rev. Arthur Wollaston-Hutton, M.A. 

Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside. Librarian National Liberal Club, 1889-1899. - 
Author of Life of Cardinal Newman; Life of Cardinal Manning; &c. 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws ~ 

of England. 

Adoi.piiis William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Ward, Adolphus William. 

Benjamin Daydon Jackson, Ph.D. 

General Secretary of the Linnean Society. Secretary to Departmental Committee 
of II. M. Treasury on Botanical Work, 1900-1901. Author of Glossary of Botanic' 
Terms ; &c. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Crewe. 

See the biographical article: Crewe, ist Earl of. 

Charles Crawford Whine ry, A.M. 

Cornell University. Assistant editor nth Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britanmca 

Charles Dibdin, F.R.G.S. 

Secretary of the Royal National Life-boat Institution. Hon. Secretary of the Civil 
Service Life-boat Fund, 1870-1906. 

Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright. 

See the biographical article: Wright, Hon. Carroll Davidson. 

Charles F.veritt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Charles Fortescue-Brickdale. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Registrar of the Office of the Land Registry, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Author of Registration of Title to Land; The Practice of the 
Land Registry; Land Transfer in Various Countries; &c. 

Sir Charles Holroyd. 

See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir Charles. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member 
of the American Historical Association. 

Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

University Lecturer in !\ssyriology, Oxford. Author of Light from the East. 

Charles Lethbridce Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary, Hoard of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of 
Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 

Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Tii. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik 
im Zeitalter Cregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstlhums; &c. 



Life-boat: United States. 

[Leopold I. (Roman Emperor); 
\ Levellers. 

\ Leo XIII. 

f Landlord and Tenant; 
Letters Patent; 
Lodger and Lodgings. 

Lodge, Thomas. 



Linnaeus. 



i 



Laprade. 



J La Salle; 

\ Lincoln, Abraham (in part). 



Life-boat: British. 

Labour Legislation: United 
States. 

Light: Introduction and 
History. 

Long Island (Battle). 



Land Registration. 




Lamentations, 



Lancaster, John of Gaunt, 
duke of. 

Lateran Councils. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



vn 



C. Mo. 
C R. B. 

DeB. 

D. F. T. 

D. G. H. 

D. H. 
D. LI. T. 
D. Mn. 

D. M. W. 

E. B.* 



E. C. B. 




E. Da. 




E. D. J. 


W 


E.G. 




E. Ga. 




E. He. 




E. J. D. 




E. 0.* 





E. Pr. 



E. R. L 



4 Leighton, Lord. 



Leif Ericsson; 
Leo, Johannes. 



Lesseps, Ferdinand de. 



Lasso, Orlando. 



William Cosmo Monkhotjse. 

See the biographical article: Monkhouse, W. C. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 

Henri G. S. A. de Blowitz. 

See the biographical article: Blowitz, H. de. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The 
Goldberg Variations, and analysis of many other classical works. ^ 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Latakia; 

Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and ■! Lebanon (* n bart) 

1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at 

Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 
David Hannay. f La Hogue, Battle of; 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal 1 Lauria, Roger de; 

Navy ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 1 Lepanto, Battle of; Lissa. 

Daniel Lleufer Thomas. f 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and -j Llantwit Major. 

Rhondda. (_ 

Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M".A. f 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive J. Leighton, Robert (in pari). 
Congregational Ideals ; &c. l_ 

Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign 
Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of the Institut de Droit Inter-, 
national and Ofncier de l'lnstruction Publique (France). Joint-editor of New 
Volumes (10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt 
and the Egyptian Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c. 

Ernest Charles Francois Babelon. 

Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and 
Antiquities at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Member of the Academie des Inscrip- . 
tions et de Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la Republique Romaine; Traites des 
Monnaies Grecques et Romaines ; Catalogue des Camees de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. (Dublin). [" 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," < Leo, Brother. 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. [ 

Edward George Dannreuther (i 844-1 905). f 

Member of Board of Professors, Royal College of Music, 1895-1905. Conducted J x -. ± 
the first Wagner Concerts in London, 1873-1874., Author of The Music of the] ■ L,lszl " 
Future; &c. Editor of a critical edition of Liszt's Etudes. t 

Edward D. J. Wilson. 

Formerly Leader-writer on The Times. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L. 



Lobanov-Rostovski. 



Leptis. 



Londonderry, 2nd Marquess of. 



\ Lampoon; Lie, Jonas L. E. 



Author of Manual of 



1 



Lighting: Electric (Commercial 
Aspects). 



See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund. 

Emile Garcke, M.Inst.E.E. 

Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. 
Electrical Undertakings; &c. 

Edward Heawood, M.A. r 

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical J. Livingstone Mountains. 
Society, London. [ 

Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac. r 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Author of A. Scarlatti: his Life -I Leo, Leonardo. 
and Works. [ 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner - 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of 
A Manual of A natomy for Senior Students. 

Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. 
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- . 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon 
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Author of Letters 
of a Portugtiese Nun ; A zurara's Chronicle of Guinea ; &c. 

Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Director of the Natural History Depart- 
ments of the British Museum, 1898-1907. President of the British Association, 
1906. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, 
London, 1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 
1891-1898. Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at 
Oxford, 1905. Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The King- 
dom of Man ; &c. 



Liver: Surgery of Liver and 
Gall Bladder. 



Lobo, F. R.; 
Lopes, FernSo. 



Lamellibranchia (in part). 



Mil 

E. V. L. 

F. E. B. 

F. E. W. 

F. G. M. B. 
F. G. P. 

F. J. H. 

F. L* 

F. V. B. 
F. v. H. 

F. Wa. 

F. W. R.* 

F. W. Ra. 

G. A. Gr. 

G. E. 

G. F. B. 
G. F. K. 

G. H. C. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



G. 


Sa 




G. 


S. 


L. 


G. 


W 


T. 


H. 


A. 


L. 


H. 


B. 


W.* 


H 


B. 


Wo 



Edward Verrall Lucas. 

Editor of Works of Charles Lamb. 



Author of Life of Charles Lamb. 



■j Lamb, Charles. 



Frank Evers Beddard, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prosector of Zoological Society, London. Formerly Lecturer in Biology at Guy's . 
Hospital, London. Naturalist to " Challenger " Expedition Commission, 1882— 
1884. Author of Monograph of the Oligochaeta; Animal Colouration; &c. 

Rev. Frederick Edward Warren, M.A., B.D., F.S.A. 

Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds. Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, 
1865-1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with ' 
the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals; The Liturgy and 
Ritual of the Celtic Church ; &c. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 
Formerly Munterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Francis John Havereield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c. 

Sir Franklin Lushington, M.A. 

Formerly Chief Police Magistrate for London. 



Author of Wagers of Battle. 



Leeeh. 

Lection, Lectionary; 

Lector; 

Litany; 

Liturgy. 

-j Lombards (in part). 
■I Liver: Anatomy. 



Legion (in part) ; 
Limes Germanicus. 



Lear, Edward. 



F. Vincent Brooks. 



Lithography. 



Author j Loisy. 

r 

Scotland of '-j Law, John. 



LL.D. (1842-1906). , 

1 898-1906. Joint-author of The New Practice; &c. \ lilen 



J Labradorite; 
I Lapis Lazuli. 



Baron Friedrich von Htjgf.l. 

Member of Cambridge Philological Society; Member of Hellenic Society 
of 7" he Mystical Element of Religion. 

Francis Watt, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law's Lumber Room; 
to-day; &c. 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1 887-1 889. 

Francis William Raikes, K.C., 
Judge of County Courts, Hull 

George Abraham Grierson. CLE., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dubl.). 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of 

India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of -' Lahnda. 

the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of 

The Languages of India; &c. 

Rev. George Edmcndson. M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909- 
19 10. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the' 
British Guiana- Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations. ^ 

George Frederick Barwick. r 

Assistant-Keeper of Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading-room, British -j Lavigerie. 

Museum. [ 

George Frederick Kunz, A.M., Ph.D., D.Sc. 

Gem Expert to Messrs Tiffany & Co., New York. Hon. Curator of Precious Stones, 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. Fellow of Geological Society of 
America. Author of Precious Stones of North America; &c. Senior Editor of Book 
of the Pearl. 

George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. f 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: \ Lepidoptera. 



Limburg. 



Lapidary and Gem-cutting. 



Their Structure and Life. 



I 



La Bruyere; La Fontaine; 

Lamartine; 

La Rochefoucauld; Le Sage. 



Author of Charles J Linton, William James. 






Labid. 



George Saintsbury, D.C.L.. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B. 

George Somes Layard. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple 

Kecne ; Shirley Brooks ; &c. 

Rev. Grifeithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. r 

Professor of Physics in the University of Leiden. Author of La theorie electro- -j Light: Nature of. 
magnetique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants. [_ 

Henry Benjamin .Wiif.atlf.y, F.S.A. f 

Assistant Secretary, Royal Society of Arts, 1879-1909. President of the Samuel j London 
Pepys Club, 1903-19 10. Vice-President of the Bibliographical Society, 1908-1910. 1 

Author of The Story of Loudon; London Past and Present; &c. [ 

Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S. , F.G.S. ("Logan, Sir William E.; 

Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, i Lonsdale William. 



History. 



President Geologists' Association, 1893-1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



IX 



H. Ch. 



H. 


De. 


H. 


F. G. 


H. 


F. P. 


H. 


H.J. 


H. 


M.S. 


H. 


R. T. 


H. 


St. 


H. 


T. A. 


U 


W. B.* 


H 


W. C. D 


H 


Y. 


I. 


A. 



J. An. 



J. A. F. 



J. A. F. M. 



J. A. H. 



J. 


Dr 




J. 


D. 


B. 


J. 


D. 


Br 


J. 


F. 


-K. 



J. F. St. 

J. Ga. 
J. G. F. 



nh edition oH Lloyd George, D. 

f Lawrence, St; 
\ Linus. 

r 

Lizard. 



Livy (in part). 



Liberia. 



Hugh Chisholm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition. 

Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J. 

Bollandist. Joint-author of the A eta Sanctorum. . 

Hans Friedrich Gadow, M.A., F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. 
Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History). 

Henry Francis Pei.ham, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Peliiam, H. F. 

Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston. K.C.B., G.C.M.G. 

See the biographical article : Johnston, Sir Henry Hamilton. 

Henry Morse Stephens, M.A., Litt.D. 

Professor of History and Director of University Extension, University of California. 
Author of History of the French Revolution ; Revolutionary Europe ; &c. 

Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. 

Henry Stukt, M.A. 

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism. 

Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews. 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of the 
" Commentary on Acts," in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the 
Apocryphal Books in the " Century Bible." 

Herbert- William Blunt, M.A. 

Student, Tutor, and Librarian, Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of All 
Souls' College. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 

1895— 1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins; 

&c. 
Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I. 

See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry. 

Israel Abrahams. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D. f 

Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. Assistant Secretary to J Lake Dwellings 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and Rhind Lecturer, 1879-1882 and 1892. ] 
Editor of Drummond's Ancient Scottish Weapons; &c. L 

John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., J3.Sc., F.R.S. 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of 
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 
Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles 
of Electric Wave Telegraphy ; Magnets and Electric Currents ; <Xx. 

John Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. 

Musical critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician's Pil- 
grimage; Masters of German Music; English Music in the Nineteenth Century; 
The Age of Bach and Handel. Editor of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians ; 
&c. 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 
The Geology of Building Stones ; &c. 



in the University of Cambridge. _ 
of England. Author of A Short 



. -j Littre. 

- 1 , Libraries (in part). 

j Lange, Friedrich Albert. 

f 
Logia. 

Logic: History. 

Lanfranc; 
Laagton, Stephen. 

Lhasa (in part). 

Lazarus, Emma; 
Leon, Moses; 
, Leon of Modena. 



Leyden Jar; 
Lighting: Electric. 



Lind, Jenny. 



J Lias; 

1 Llandovery Group. 



\ Liquid Gases. 



Larissa. 



Sir James Dewar, F.R.S., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Dewar, Sir J. 

James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 

James Duff Brown. f 

Borough Librarian, Islington Public Libraries. Vice-President of the Library » Libraries (in part). 
Association. Author of Guide to Librarianship; &c. L 

James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 

John Frederick Stenning, M.A. f 

Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic, •! Leviticus. 
Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College. L 

f Lancaster, House of; 

\ Leicester, Robert Dudley, earl 

[ of. 



La Cueva; 

Larra; 

Literature. 



James Gairdner, C.B., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Gairdner, James. 



Sir Joshua Girling Fitch, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Fitch, Sir J. G. 



J Lancaster, Joseph. 



X 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



J. 


K. 


I. 


J. 


Le 




J. 


L. 


M. 


J. 


L. 


W. 


J. 


Mu. 


J. 


M. 


C. 


J. 


M 


G. 




J.Q.N. John George Nicolay (1832-1901). f 

Marshal of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1872-1887. Joint-author of Abraham Lincoln: 1 Lincoln, Abraham (in part). 

&«. I 

J. G. P.* James Gordon Parker, D.Sc ; , F.C.S. _ f 

Principal of Leathersellers Technical College, London. Gold Medallist, Society ■< Leather 
of Arts. Author of Leather for Libraries; Principles of Tanning; &c. 

J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. 

Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of the 

Modem Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature ; Schiller after 

a Century; &c. 
J. Ha. Justus Hashacen, Ph.D. r Lang, Karl Heinrieh; 

Privat-dozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of-! Ledochowski; 

Das Rhcinland unter der franzbsische Herrschaft. (_ Leo, Heinrieh. 

J. H. F. John Henry Freese M.A f Leo VL (Emperor of the East). 

formerly fellow of St John s College, Cambridge. (_ 

J. HI. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. _ f 

Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. J Las Casas. 
Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European | 
Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. I 

J. J. L.* Rev. John James Lias, M.A. f 

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and -i Langen. 
Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. I 

John Kells Ingram, LL.D. Jipciip Thnmjw F fi 

See the biographical article: Ingram, J. K. | Leslie, Thomas E. C. 

Rev. James Legge, M.A. j L ao-Tsze 

See the biographical article: Legge, James. \ " 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. f 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly j Leleges; 
Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of 1 Locri (Greece). 
Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. 

Jessie Laidlay Weston. f r an „ p i ot 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. 1 lianceioi. 

Sir John Murray, K.C.B., F.R.S. /Lake 

See the biographical article: Murray, Sir John. \ 

Rev. James M. Crombie. f T . , ,. v 

Author of Braemar: its Topography and Natural History; Lichenes Britannici. |_ Licnens (in part). 

John Miller Gray (1850-1804). r 

Art Critic and Curator of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1884-1894. Author J Leech, John. 

of David Scott, R.S.A.; James and William Tassie. [_ 

J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein. r 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J LettreS de Cachet. 

Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d'histoire du droit 1 
francais; &c. t 

J. P. P. John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D. f 

Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, J Latin Literature (in part). 

Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. 1 
Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum; &c. I 

J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D. 

Canon Residentiary, P. E. Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in Lagash; 
the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Baby- ■<[ Larsa. 
Ionia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the 
Euphrates ; Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian. 

J. S. James Sully, LL.D. r 

See the biographical article: Sully, James. \ Lewes, George Henry (in part). 

J. SL James Sime, M.A. (1843-1895). iLessins (in barf) 

Author of A History of Germany; &c. \ JLessln S V» P arl >- 



J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in __ 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 



Laccolite; Lamprophyres; 

Laterite; 

Leucite: Leucite Rocks; 

Limestone. 



J. S. K. John Scott Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). _ . . f 

Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Hon. Member, Geographical Societies j Livingstone 
of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of the Statesman' s Year Book. Editor of the 1 ° 

Geographical Journal. \_ 

J. S. W. John Stephen Willison, LL.D., F.R.S. (Canada). f 

Editor of The News (Toronto). Canadian Correspondent of The Times. Author of -j Laurier. 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; &c. \_ 

J. T. Be. John Thomas Beai.by. [Ladoga (in part); 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical-! Livonia (in part); 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; Sac. Lop-nor. 

J. T. Br. J. Taylor Brown. | Leighton, Robert (in part). 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI 



J. T. C. 

J. T. S.* 
J. V.* 

J. W. D. 
J. W. He. 



J. 


W. 


L. 


G 


K 


H. 






K 


S. 






L. 


A. 


W 




L. 


B. 






L. 


D. 


* 





L. J. S. 

L. T. D. 
L. V.* 

M.Br. 
M. Ca. 

M. H. S. 



M. N. T. 




M. 0. B. 


C 


M. P.* 




N. G. G. 




0. Hr. 





P. A. K. 



Fellow . 
in the 



Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

James Thomson Shotweli., Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 

Jules Viard. 

Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction, 
of La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois; &c. 

Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N. 

Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal. 

James Wyclifpe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society. Editor of Messenger 
of Mathematics and the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 

Killingworth Hedges, M.Inst.C.E.. M.Inst. Elect. E. 

Hon. Secretary of the Lightning Research Committee. Author of Modern Lightning 
Conductors; &c. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of The Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. 
Orchestra. 



Lamellibranchia (in part). 



Languedoc. 



Author ] Le Macon. 



Log. 



Lasker. 



r 



Legendre, A. M.; 
Logarithm. 



Lightning Conductor. 



Author of The Instruments of the < Lituus. 



Laurence Austine Waddell, C.B., CLE., LL.D., M.B. 

Lieut.-Colonel I. M.S. (retired). Author of Lhasa and its Mysteries; &c. 

Laurence Binyon. 

See the biographical article: Binyon, L. 

Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. 0. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Minera- 
logical Magazine. 

Sir 



Lhasa (in part). 



\ Lawson, Cecil Gordon. 



Liberius. 

Leadhillite; 
Lepidolite; 
Leucite (in 
Liroconite. 



part) ; 



Lincoln Judgment, The. 



Boston, U.S.A., 



Margaret Bryant. 



Leonardo of Pisa. 



Line Engraving (in part). 



Lewis Tonna Dibdin, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.A. 

Dean of the Arches; Master of the Faculties; and First Church Estates Com- 
missioner. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Monasticism in England; &c. 

Luigi Villari. r 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in J Leopold II. (Grand Duke of 
east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, and 1 Tuscany). 
~ 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c. . (_ 

/ Landor: Bibliography; 
t La Sale. 

Moritz Cantor, Ph.D. f 

Honorary Professor of Mathematics in the University of Heidelberg. Author of - 
Vorlesungen iiber die Geschichte der Mathematik ; &c. 

Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the Franco- 
British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch" ; British Portrait' 
Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; 
British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c. 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod. M.A. rLaconia > 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy, i T ., ' T , ... 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta M useum. [ Leomcias, i-eotycmdes. 

Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. _ _ f Leo I.-V. (Emperors oj the 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham \ East) ; 

University, 1905-1908. [ Lesbos; Leuctra. 

Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. r 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of \ L'Allbespine. 

France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). [ 

Nicholas G. Gedye. 

Chief Engineer to the Tyne Improvement Commission. 

Otto Henker, Ph.D. 

On the Staff cf the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena, Germany. 

Prince Peter Alexeivttch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A. 



Lighthouse (in part). 

Lens. 

Ladoga (in part); 
Lithuanians and Letts: 

History ; 
Livonia (in part). 



Xll 
P. C. M. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



P. C. Y. 



P. 


G. 






P. 


Gi 






P. 


G. 


H. 




R. 


A 


S. 


M 


R. 


G. 






R 


I, 


P. 




R 


J. 


M. 





R. K. D. 



R. L.* 

R. M'L. 
R. M. B. 
R. N. B. 

R. S. C. 

R. We. 

R. W. C. 
S. A. C. 

s. c. 

St c. 

S. D. F. S. 

S.N. 



Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc, LL.D. 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in 
Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888— 1891. 
Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892-1894; at London Hospital, 
1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892-1896, 1901- 
1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 



Life; Longevity. 



Percy Gardner. Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological 
Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c. 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton. 

See the biographical article: Hamerton, Philip Gilbert. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund. 

Richard Garnett, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard. 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Cardens, London. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 
Gazette, London. 



f Laud, Archbishop; 
-j Lauderdale, Duke of; 
[Leeds, 1st Duke of. 

i Leochares. 



L. 



Line Engraving {in part). 



Lachish. 



i Leopardi. 



Formerly Editor of the St James's 



Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. 

Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed 
Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892-1907. Member of the Chinese Consular 
Service, 1 858- 1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; Eurobe 
and the Far East ; &c. 



Leaf-insect; 

Locust (in part). 

Lawn Tennis; 

Leicester, R. Sidney, earl of; 

Lockhart, George. 



Li Hung Chang. 



Richard I^ydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Veer 
of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. 



Langur; 

Lemming (in part); 

Lemur; 

Leopard (in part); 

Lion (in part); 

Litopterna. 

/Locust (in part). 

\ Life-boat: British (in part). 



Robert M'Lachlan. 

Editor of the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. 

Robert Michael Bai.lantyne. 

See the biographical article: Ballantyne, R. M. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (A. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513—1900; The First Romanovs, 
1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1796; &c. 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.). 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville 
and Cains College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. 

Richard Webster, A.M. 

Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of 
Maximianus; &c. 

The Very Rev. R. W. Church, D.D. 

See the biographical article: Church, R. W. * 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic In- 
scriptions; The Lazus of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

Sidney Colvin, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney. 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, ist Earl of. 

Rev. Stewart Dingwall Fordyce Salmon, M.A., D.D. (1838-1905). 

Professor of Systematic Theology and Exegesis of the Epistles, U.F.C. College ^J Logos (in part). 
Aberdeen, 1876-1905. Author of The Parables of our Lord; &c. Editor ot The \ 
International Library of Theology; &c. ■ * I 

f Latitude; 



Ladislaus I. and IV. of 

Hungary; 
Laski. 

f Latin Language (in part); 
■j Liguria: Archaeology and 
I Philology. 

Long Island. 

Lombards: 

The Kingdom in Italy. 



Levites. 



Leonardo da Vinci. 



Liguori. 



Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc. 

See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon. 



1 Light: Velocity. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



xm 



T. As. 



Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topo- 
graphy of the Roman Campagna ; &c. 



T. A. I. 
T. Ca. 

T. C. A. 



T. 


Da 




T. 


F. 


C. 


T. 


F. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


H. 



T. K. 

T. Mo. 

T. M. L. 

T. Se. 

T. W. R. D. 

T. Wo. 
V. B. L. 
V. H. B. 
W. A. B. C. 

W. A. P. 
W. E. Co. 

W. F. I. 



Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Thomas Case, M.A. 

President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Formerly Waynflete Professor of 
Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy at Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen College. 
Author of Physical Realism; &c. I 

Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, K.C.B., M.A., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. f 

Regius Professor of Physic in the University of Cambridge. Physician to Adden- J 
brooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. I 
Editor of Systems^of Medicine. \ 

Thomas Davidson, LL.D. j 

Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A. 

Thomas F. Henderson. 

Author of Mary Queen of Scots and the Casket Letters; &c. 

Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C. I.E., D.Sc, F.R.G.S. 

Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892- 
1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Perso- 
Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; 
&c. 

Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D. 

Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c. 

Thomas Moore, F.L.S. (1821-1887). 

Curator of the Garden of the Apothecaries Company at Chelsea, 1848-1887. Editor 
of the Gardeners' Magazine of Botany; Author of Handbook of British Ferns; 
Index Filicum ; Illustrations of Orchidaceous Plants. 

Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, LL.D., D.D. 

Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the 
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of 
History of the Reformation ; Life of Luther; &c. 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. 

Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. 
Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National 
Biography, 1 891 -1900. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. 

Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. Professor of Pali and 
Buddhist Literature, University College, London, 1882-1904. President of the 
Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c. 

Thomas Woodhouse. 

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, 
Dundee. 

Vivian Byam Lewes, F.I.C., F.C.S. 

Professor of Chemistry, Royal Naval College. Chief Superintendent Gas Examiner 
to the Corporation of the City of London. 

Vernon Herbert Blackman, M.A., D.Sc. 

Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of St John's 
College, Cambridge. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature 
and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1889. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. 

The Rt. Rev. William Edward Collins, M.A., D.D. 

Bishop of Gibraltar. Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King's College, 
London. Lecturer of Selwyn and St John's Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The 
Study of Ecclesiastical History; Beginnings of English Christianity; &c. 

Wixliam Fergusson Irvine, Hon. M.A. (Liverpool. 

Hon. Secretary and General Editor of Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 
Hon. Local Secretary for Cheshire of the Society of Antiquaries. Author of Liver- 
pool in the reign of Charles II.; Old Halls of Wirral; &c. 



Labicana, Via; Labici: 

Lampedusa; Laficiano; 

Lanuvium; Larino; 

Latina, Via; Latium; 

Laurentina, Via; Lavinium; 

Lecee; Leghorn; Leontini; 

Licodia Eubea; 

Ligures Baebiani; 
^Liguria: History; Loeri: Italy. 
f Livery Companies; 
I London: Finance. 



Logic. 



Lister, 1st Baron. 



Longfellow. 



Laodicea, Synod of. 



Latimer. 



Ladakh and Baltistan 



-i Lassalle. 



Labyrinth. 



Lollards. 



Lever, Charles. 



Lamaism. 



j Linen and Linen Manu- 
j factures. 

\ Lighting: Oil and Gas. 

\ Lichens (in part). 

j Lausanne; Leuk; 
i Liechtenstein; Linth; 
[ Loearno; Locle, Le. 

J Laibach, Congress of; 

[ Lights, Ceremonial use at 

\ Libellatici. 



Liverpool. 



XIV 

W. H. Be. 

W. H. F. 

W. M. R. 
W. P. T. 

W. R. So. 

W. R. S.-R. 
W. T. Ca. 
W. T. D. 

W. W. R.* 
W. W. S. 
W. Y. S. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.). 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 
College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets ; &c. 

Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. 



Lamech. 



rLemming {in part); 
■< Leopard {in part); 
I Lion {in part). 
fLely, Sir Peter; 
1 Lippi. 



of English i Lanier. 



Leibnitz. 



William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

William Petereield Trent, LL.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of English Literature. Columbia University. Autho: 
Culture in Virginia; A Brief History of American Literature; &c. 

William Ritchie Sorley, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. . 

Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of Trinity 
College. Author of The Ethics of Naturalism; The Interpretation of Evolution; &c. I 

William Ralston Shedden-Ralston, M.A. f 

Formerly Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Author-^ Lermontov. 
of Russian Folk Tales; &c. t 

William Thomas Calman. D.Sc, F.Z.S. * f 

Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington, -j Lobster. 
Author of " Crustacea" in A Treatise on Zoology, edited by Sir E. Ray Lankester. I 

William Tregarthen Douglass, M.Inst.CE., M.I.M.E. f 

Consulting Engineer to Governments of Western Australia, New South Wales, J t iwhthnimo f;« *,„rt\ 
Victoria, Cape of Good Hope, &c. Erected the Eddystone and Bishop Rock Light- 1 w S nlnouse U» V^ri). 
houses. Author of The New Eddystone Lighthouse; Sac. I 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

Walter William Skeat, Litt.D.. LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article : Skeat, W. W. 

William Young Sellar, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Sellar, William Young. 



< Leo XI. and XII. {popes). 

-j Layamon. 

A Latin Literature {in part). 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Labiatae. 


Lancashire. 


Legitimacy. 


Lent. 


Lily. 




Lacrosse. 


Lantern. 


Lenjuminosae. 


Leprosy. 


Limitation, Statutes 


* 


Lagos. 


Lapland. 


Leicestershire. 


Libel. 


Lincoln. 




Lahore. 


Larceny. 


Leipzig. 


Liberal Party. 


Lincolnshire. 




Lake District. 


Larch. 


Leith. 


Liliaceae. 


Lippe. 




Lambeth Conferences. 


Lead Poisoning. 


Lemnos. 


Lille. 


Lisbon. 




Lanarkshire. 


Leeds. 


Lemon. 









ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XVI 



La letter which was the twelfth letter of the Phoenician 
alphabet. It has in its history passed through many 
changes of form, ending curiously enough in its usual 
manuscript form with a shape almost identical with that 
which it had about 900 B.C. ( £, L ). As was the case with B 
and some other letters the Greeks did not everywhere keep the 
symbol in the position in which they had borrowed it \, . This, 
which was its oldest form in Attica and in the Chalcidian colonies 
of Italy, was the form adopted by the Romans, who in time 
converted it into the rectangle L, which passed from them to the 
nations of western Europe. In the Ionic alphabet, however, 
from which the ordinary Greek alphabet is derived it appeared 
as A- A still more common form in other parts of Greece was /* , 
with the legs of unequal length. The editors of Herodotus have 
not always recognized that the name of Labda, the mother of 
Cypselus, in the story (v. 92) of the founding of the great family 
of Corinthian despots, was derived from the fact that she was 
lame and so suggested the form of the Corinthian /* . Another 
form /• or h was practically confined to the west of Argolis. 
The name of the Greek letter is ordinarily given as Lambda, but 
in Herodotus (above) and in Athenaeus x. p. 453 e, where the 
names of the letters are given, the best authenticated form is 
Labda. The Hebrew name, which was probably identical with 
the Phoenician, is Lamed, which, with a final vowel added as 
usual, would easily become Lambda, b being inserted between 
m and another consonant. The pronunciation of / varies a 
great deal according to the point at which the tongue makes 
contact with the . roof of the mouth. The contact, generally 
speaking, is at the same point as for d, and this accounts for an 
interchange between these sounds which occurs in various 
languages, e.g. in Latin lacrima from the same root as the Greek 
Sanpv and the English tear. The change in Latin occurs in a 
very limited number of cases and one explanation of their 
occurrence is that they are borrowed (Sabine) words. In pro- 
nunciation the breath may be allowed to escape at one or both 
sides of the tongue. In most languages I is a fairly stable sound. 
Orientals, however, have much difficulty in distinguishing 
between / and r. In Old Persian / is found in only two foreign 
words, and in Sanskrit different dialects employ r and / differently 
in the same words. Otherwise, however, the interchanges 
between r and / were somewhat exaggerated by the older philo- 
logists. Before other consonants / becomes silent in not a few 
languages, notably in French, where it is replaced by u, and in 
English where it has occasionally been restored in recent times, 

XVI. 1 



e.g. in fault which earlier was spelt without / (as in French whence 
it was borrowed), and which Goldsmith could still rhyme with 
aught. In the 15th century the Scottish dialect of English 
dropped I largely both before consonants and finally after a and 
u, a' = all, fa' = fall, £«' = pull, '00' = wool, bulk pronounced like 
book, &c, while after it appears as w, row (pronounced rau) — 
roll, know — knoll, &c. It is to be observed that L=So does not 
come from this symbol, but was an adaptation of ^ , the western 
Greek form of x, which had no corresponding sound in Latin 
and was therefore not included in the ordinary alphabet. This 
symbol was first rounded into J, and then changed first to 1 
and ultimately to L. (P. Gl.) 

LAACHER SEE, a lake of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine 
Province, 5 m. W. of Brohl on the Rhine, and N. of the village 
of Niedermendig. It occupies what is supposed to be a crater 
of the Eifel volcanic formation, and the pumice stone and basalt 
found in great quantities around it lend credence to this theory. 
It lies 850 ft. above the sea, is 5 m. in circumference and 160 ft. 
deep, and is surrounded by an amphitheatre of high hills. The 
water is sky blue in colour, very cold and bitter to the taste. 
The lake has no natural outlet and consequently is subjected 
to a considerable rise and fall. On the western side lies the 
Benedictine abbey of St Maria Laach (Abbatia Lacensis) founded 
in 1093 by Henry II., count palatine of the Rhine. The abbey 
church, dating from the 12th century, was restored in 1838. 
The history of the monastery down to modern times appears to 
have been uneventful. In 1802 it was abolished and at the close 
of the Napoleonic wars it became a Prussian state demesne. 
In 1863 it passed into the hands of the Jesuits, who, down to 
their expulsion in 1873, published here a periodical, which still 
appears, entitled Stimmen aus Maria Laach. In 1892 the 
monastery was again occupied by the Benedictines. 

LAAGER, a South African Dutch word (Dutch leger, Ger. 
lager, connected with Eng. " lair ") for a temporary defensive 
encampment, formed by a circle of wagons. The English word 
is " leaguer," an armed camp, especially that of a besieging or 
"beleaguering" army. The Ger. lager, in the sense of "store," 
is familiar as the name of a light beer (see Brewing). 

LAAS, ERNST (1837-1885), German philosopher, was born 
on the 16th of June 1837 at Fiirstenwalde. He studied theology 
and philosophy under Trendelenburg at Berlin, and eventually 
became professor of philosophy in the new university of Strass- 
burg. In Kant's Analogien der Erfahrung (1876) he keenly 
criticized Kant's transcendentalism, and in his chief work 
Idealismus und Positivismus (3 vols., 1879-1884), he drew a 



LA BADIE— LABE 



clear contrast between Platonism, from which he derived trans- 
cendentalism, and positivism, of which he considered Protagoras 
the founder. Laas in reality was a disciple of Hume. 
Throughout his philosophy he endeavours to connect meta- 
physics with ethics and the theory of education. 

His chief educational works were Der dcutsche Aufsatz in den 
obern Gymnasialklassen (1868; 3rd ed., part i., 1898, part ii., 1894), 
and Der deutsche Unterricht aufh.bh.ern Lehranstalten (1872; 2nd ed. 
1886). He contributed largely to the Vierteljahrsschr. f. wiss. Philos. 
(1880-1882); the Litterarischer Nachlass, a posthumous collection, 
was published at Vienna (1887). See Hanisch, Der Positivismus von 
Ernst Laas (1902); Gjurits, Die Erkenntnistheorie des Ernst Laas 
(1903); Falckenberg, Hist, of Mod. Philos. (Eng. trans., 1895). 

LA BADIE, JEAN DE (1610-1674), French divine, founder of 
the school known as the Labadists, was born at Bourg, not far 
from Bordeaux, on the 13th of February 1610, being the son of 
Jean Charles de la Badie, governor of Guienne. He was sent 
to the Jesuit school at Bordeaux, and when fifteen entered the 
Jesuit college there. In 1626 he began to study philosophy 
and theology. He was led to hold somewhat extreme views 
about the efficacy of prayer and the direct influence of the Holy 
Spirit upon believers, and adopted Augustinian views about 
grace, free will and predestination, which brought him into 
collision with his order. He therefore separated from the 
Jesuits, and then became a preacher to the people, carrying on 
this work in Bordeaux, Paris and Amiens. At Amiens in 1640 
he was appointed a canon and teacher of theology. The hostility 
of Cardinal Mazarin, however, forced him to retire to the Car- 
melite hermitage at Graville. A study of Calvin's Institutes 
showed him that he had more in common with the Reformed 
than with the Roman Catholic Church, and after various 
adventures he joined the Reformed Church of France and 
became professor of theology at Montauban in 1650. His reasons 
for doing so he published in the same year in his Declaration 
de Jean de la Badie. His accession to the ranks of the Pro- 
testants was deemed a great triumph; no such man since Calvin 
himself, it was said, had left the Roman Catholic Church. 
He was called to the pastorate of the church at Orange on the 
Rhone in 1657, and at once became noted for his severity of 
discipline. He set his face zealously against dancing, card- 
playing and worldly entertainments. The unsettled state of 
the country, recently annexed to France, compelled him to leave 
Orange, and in 1659 he became a pastor in Geneva. He then 
accepted a call to the French church in London, but after 
various wanderings settled at Middelburg, where he was pastor 
to the French-speaking congregation at a Walloon church. 
His peculiar opinions were by this time (1666) well known, and 
he and his congregation found themselves in conflict with the 
ecclesiastical authorities. The result was that la Badie and his 
followers established a separate church in a neighbouring town. 
In 1669 he moved to Amsterdam. He had enthusiastic disciples, 
Pierre Yvon (1646-1707) at Montauban, Pierre Dulignon 
(d. 1679), Francois Menuret (d. 1670), Theodor Untereyk (d. 
1693), F. Spanheim (1632-1701), and, more important than 
any, Anna Maria v. Schurman (1607-1678), whose book Eucleria 
is perhaps the best exposition of the tenets of her master. At 
the head of his separatist congregation, la Badie developed his 
views for a reformation of the Reformed Churches: the church 
is a communion of holy people who have been born again from 
sin; baptism is the sign and seal of this regeneration, and is 
to be administered only to believers; the Holy Spirit guides 
the regenerate into all truth, and the church possesses throughout 
all time those gifts of prophecy which it had in the ancient days; 
the community at Jerusalem is the continual type of every 
Christian congregation, therefore there should be a community 
of goods, the disciples should live together, eat together, dance 
together; marriage is a holy ordinance between two believers, 
and the children of the regenerate are born without original 
sin, marriage with an unregenerate person is not binding. 
They did not observe the Sabbath, because — so they said — their 
life was a continual Sabbath. The life and separatism of the 
community brought them into frequent collision with their 
neighbours and with the magistrates, and in 1670 they accepted 



the invitation of the princess Elizabeth, abbess of Herford in 
Westphalia, to take up their abode within her territories, and 
settled in Herford to the number of about fifty. Not finding the 
rest they expected they migrated to Bremen in 1672, and 
afterwards to Altona, where they were dispersed on the death 
of the leaders. Small communities also existed in the Rhineland, 
and a missionary settlement was established in New York. 
Jean de la Badie died in February 1674. 

La Badie's works include La Prophetie (1668), Manuel de piete" 
(1669), Protestation de bonne foi et saine doctrine (1670), Brieve 
declaration de nos sentiments touchant VEglise (1670). See H. van 
Berkum, De Labadie en de Labadisten (Sneek, 1851); Max Gobel 
(1811-1857), Gesch. d. christl. Lebens in der rheinisch-westphdlischen 
Kirche (Coblenz, 3 vols., 1 849-1 860) ; Heinrich Heppe (1820-1879), 
Geschichte des Pietismus (Leiden, 1879) ; Albrecht Ritschl, Geschichte 
des Pietismus, vol. i. (Bonn, 1880); and especially Peter Yvon, 
A brege precis de la vie et de la conduite et des vrais sentiments de feu 
Mr de Labadie, and Anna Maria v. Schurman, Eucleria (Altona, 
1673, 1678). Cf. the article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie. 

LABARUM, the sacred military standard of the early Christian 
Roman emperors, first adopted by Constantine the Great after 
his miraculous vision in 312, although, according to Gibbon, 
he did not exhibit it to the army till 323. The name seems to 
have been known before, and the banner was simply a Christian- 
ized form of the Roman cavalry standard. Eusebius (Life 
of Const, i. 31) describes the first labarum as consisting of a 
long gilded spear, crossed at the top by a bar from which hung 
a square purple cloth, richly jewelled. At the upper extremity 
of the spear was a golden wreath encircling the sacred monogram, 
formed of the first two letters of the name of Christ. In later 
banners the monogram was sometimes embroidered on the cloth. 
A special guard of fifty soldiers was appointed to protect the 
sacred standard. The derivation of the word labarum is 
disputed; it appears to be connected with the Basque labarva, 
signifying standard. See Flag. 

LABE, LOUISE CHARLIN PERRIN (c. 1525-1566), French 
poet, called La Belle Cordiere, was born at Lyons about 1525, 
the daughter of a rich ropemaker, named Charley or Charlin. 
At the siege of Perpignan she is said to have fought on horse- 
back in the ranks of the Dauphin, afterwards Henry II. Some 
time before 1551 she married Ennemond Perrin, a ropemaker. 
She formed a library and gathered round her a society which 
included many of the learned ladies of Lyons, — Pernette du 
Guillet, Claudine and Sibylle Sceve and Clemence de Bourges, 
and the poets Maurice Sceve, Charles Fontaine, Pontus de 
Tyard; and among the occasional visitors were Clement Marot 
and his friend Melin de Saint-Gelais, with probably Bonaventure 
des Periers and Rabelais. About 1550 the poet Olivier de Magny 
passed through Lyons on his way to Italy in the suite of Jean 
d'Avanson, the French envoy to the Holy See. As the friend 
of Ronsard, " Prince of Poets," he met with an enthusiastic 
reception from Louise, who straightway fell in love with him. 
There seems little doubt that her passion for Magny inspired 
her eager, sincere verse, and the elegies probably express her 
grief at his first absence. A second short visit to Lyons was 
followed by a second longer absence. Magny's influence is 
shown more decisively in her Sonnets, which, printed in. 1555, 
quickly attained great popularity. During his second visit to 
Italy Magny had apparently consoled himself, and Louise, despair- 
ing of his return, encouraged another admirer, Claude Rubys, 
when her lover returned unexpectedly. Louise dismissed 
Rubys, but Magny's jealousy found vent in an ode addressed 
to the Sire Aymon (Ennemond), which ruined her reputation; 
while Rubys, angry at his dismissal, avenged himself later in 
his Histoire Writable de Lyons (1573). This scandal struck a 
fatal blow at Louise's position. Shortly afterwards her husband 
died, and she returned to her country house at Parcieu, where 
she died on the 25th of April 1566, leaving the greater part of 
the fortune she was left to the poor. Her works include, besides 
the Elegies and Sonnets mentioned, a prose Debat de folie et 
d'amour (translated into English by Robert Greene in 1608). 

See editions of her (Euvres by P. Blanchemain (1875), and by C. 
Boy (2 vols., 1887). A sketch ot Louise Lab6 and of the Lyonnese 



LABEL— LABIATAE 



Society is in Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French, 
Renaissance (1901). See also J. Favre, Olivier de Magny (1885). 

LABEL (a French word, now represented by lambeau, possibly 
a variant; it is of obscure origin and may be connected with a 
Teutonic word appearing in the English " lap," a flap or fold), 
a slip, ticket, or card of paper, metal or other material, attached 
to an object, such as a parcel, bottle, &c, and containing a name, 
address, description or other information, for the purpose of 
identification. Originally the word meant a band or ribbon 
of linen or other material, and was thus applied to the fillets 
(iufulae) attached to a bishop's mitre. In heraldry the 
" label " is a mark of " cadency." 

In architecture the term " label " is applied to the outer 
projecting moulding over doors, windows, arches, &c, sometimes 
called " Dripstone " or " Weather Moulding," or " Hood 
Mould." The former terms seem scarcely applicable, as this 
moulding is often inside a building where no rain could 
come, and consequently there is no drip. In Norman times 
the label frequently did not project, and when it did it was 
very little, and formed part of the series of arch mouldings. In 
the Early English styles they were not very large, sometimes 
slightly undercut, sometimes deeply, sometimes a quarter round 
with chamfer, and very frequently a " roll " or " scroll-moulding," 
so called because it resembles the part of a scroll where the edge 
laps over the body of the roll. Labels generally resemble the 
string-courses of the period, and, in fact, often return horizontally 
and form strings. They are less common in Continental archi- 
tecture than in English. 

LABEO, MARCUS ANTISTIUS (c. 50 b.c.-a.d. 18), Roman 
jurist, was the son of Pacuvius Antistius Labeo, a jurist who 
caused himself to be slain after the defeat of his party at Philippi. 
A member of the plebeian nobility, and in easy circumstances, 
the younger Labeo early entered public life, and soon rose to 
the praetorship; but his undisguised antipathy to the new 
regime, and the somewhat brusque manner in which in the 
senate he occasionally gave expression to his republican sym- 
pathies — what Tacitus (Ann. iii. 75) calls his incorrupta libertas — 
proved an obstacle to his advancement, and his rival, Ateius 
Capito, who had unreservedly given in his adhesion to the 
ruling powers, was promoted by Augustus to the consulate, 
when the appointment should have fallen to Labeo; smarting 
under the wrong done him, Labeo declined the office when it 
was offered to him in a subsequent year (Tac. Ann. iii. 75; 
Pompon, in fr. 47, Dig. i. 2). From this time he seems to have 
devoted his whole time to jurisprudence. His training in the 
science had been derived principally from Trebatius Testa. 
To his knowledge of the law he added a wide general culture, 
devoting his attention specially to dialectics, philology (gram- 
matica), and antiquities, as valuable aids in the exposition, 
expansion, and application of legal doctrine (Gell. xiii. 10). 
Down to the time of Hadrian his was probably the name of 
greatest authority; and several of his works were abridged 
and annotated by later hands. While Capito is hardly ever 
referred to, the dicta of Labeo are of constant recurrence in the 
writings of the classical jurists, such as Gaius, Ulpian and Paul; 
and no inconsiderable number of them were thought worthy 
of preservation in Justinian's Digest. Labeo gets the credit 
of being the founder of the Proculian sect or school, while 
Capito is spoken of as the founder of the rival Sabinian one 
(Pomponius in fr. 47, Dig. i. 2); but it is probable that the 
real founders of the two scholae were Proculus arid Sabinus, 
followers respectively of the methods of Labeo and Capito. 

Labeo's most important literary work was the Libri Posteriorum, 
so called because published only after his death. It contained a 
systematic exposition of the common law. His Libri ad Edictum 
embraced a commentary, not only on the edicts of the urban and 
peregrine praetors, but also on that of the curulc aediles. His 
Probabilium (-KidavGiv) lib. VIII., a collection of definitions and 
axiomatic legal propositions, seems to have been one of his most 
characteristic productions. 

See van Eck, " De vita, moribus, et studiis M. Ant. Labeonis " 
(Franeker, 1692), in Oelrichs's Thes. nov., vol. i. ; Mascovius, De 
sectis Sabinianor. et Proculianor. (1728); Pernice, M. Antistius 
Labeo. Das rbni. Privalrecht im ersten Jahrhunderte der Kaizerzeit 
(Halle, 1873-1892). 



LABERIUS, DECIMUS (c. 105-43 B.C.), Roman knight and 
writer of mimes. He seems to have been a man of caustic wit, 
who wrote for his own pleasure. In 45 Julius Caesar ordered 
him to appear in one of his own mimes in a public contest with 
the actor Publilius Syrus. Laberius pronounced a dignified 
prologue on the degradation thus thrust on his sixty years, 
and directed several sharp allusions against the dictator. Caesar 
awarded the victory to Publilius, but restored Laberius to his 
equestrian rank, which he had forfeited by appearing as a mimus 
(Macrobius, Sat. ii. 7). Laberius was the chief of those who 
introduced the mimus into Latin literature towards the close 
of the republican period. He seems to have been a man of 
learning and culture, but his pieces did not escape the coarseness 
inherent to the class of literature to which they belonged; 
and Aulus Gellius (xvi. 7, 1) accuses him of extravagance in 
the coining of new words. Horace (Sal. i. 10) speaks of him in 
terms of qualified praise. 

In addition to the prologue (in Macrobius), the titles of forty-four 
of his mimi have been preserved ; the fragments have been collected 
by O. Ribbeck in his Comicorum Latinorum reliquiae (1873). 

LABIATAE (i.e. "lipped," Lat. labium, lip), in botany, a 
natural order of seed-plants belonging to the series Tubiflorae 
of the dicotyledons, and containing about 150 genera with 
2800 species. The majority are annual or perennial herbs 




Fig. I. — Flowering Shoot of Dead-nettle (Lamium album). 1, 
Flower cut lengthwise, enlarged; 2 calyx, enlarged; 3, floral 
diagram. 

inhabiting the temperate zone, becoming shrubby in warmer 
climates. The stem is generally square in section and the simple 
cxstipulate leaves are arranged in decussating pairs (i.e. each 
pair is in a plane at right angles to that of the pairs immediately 
above and below it) ; the blade is entire, or toothed, lobed 
or more or less deeply cut. The plant is often hairy, and the hairs 
are frequently glandular, the secretion containing a scent 
characteristic of the genus or species. The flowers are borne 
in the axils of the leaves or bracts; they are rarely solitary 
as in Scutellaria (skull-cap), and generally form an apparent 
whorl (verticillaster) at the node, consisting of a pair of cymose 
inflorescences each of which is a simple three-flowered dichasium 
as in Brunella, Salvia, &c, or more generally a dichasium passing 
over into a pair of monochasial cymes as in Lamium (fig. 1), 
Ballota, Nepcta, &c. A number of whorls may be crowded at the 
apex of the stem and the subtending leaves reduced to small 
bracts, the whole forming a raceme- or spike-like inflorescence 
as in Mentha (fig. 2, 5) Brunella, &c; the bracts are sometime* 
large and coloured as in Monarda, species of Salvia, &c, in the 
latter the apex of the stem is sometimes occupied with a cluster 
of sterile coloured bracts. The plan of the flower is remarkably 
uniform (fig. 1, 3); it is bisexual, and zygomorphic in the 



LABICANA, VIA— LABICHE 



median plane, with 5 sepals united to form a persistent cup- 
like calyx, s petals united to form a two-lipped gaping corolla, 
4 stamens inserted on the corolla-tube, two of which, generally 
the anterior pair, are longer than the other two (didynamous 
arrangement)— sometimes as in Salvia, the posterior pair is 
aborted — and two superior median carpels, each very early 
divided by a constriction in a vertical plane, the pistil consisting 
of four cells each containing one erect anatropous ovule attached 
to the base of an axile placenta; the style springs from the 
centre of the pistil between the four segments (gynobasic) , and 
is simple with a bifid apex. The fruit comprises four one-seeded 
nutlets included in the persistent calyx; the seed has a thin 
testa and the embryo almost or completely fills it. Although 
the general form and plan of arrangement of the flower is very 
uniform, there are wide variations in detail. Thus the calyx 
may be tubular, bell-shaped, or almost spherical, or straight 
or bent, and the length and form of the teeth or lobes varies 
also; it may be equally toothed as in mint (Mentha) (fig. 2, 
8), and marjoram (Origanum), or two-lipped as in thyme 
(Thymus), Lamium (fig. 1) and Salvia (fig. 2, 1); the number 
of nerves affords useful characters for distinction of genera, 
there are normally five main nerves between which simple or 
forked secondary nerves are more or less developed. The shape 




Fig. 2. — 1, Flower of Sage (Salvia officinalis). 2, Corolla of same 
cut open showing the two stamens; 3, flower of spearmint (Mentha 
viridis) ; 4, corolla of same cut open showing stamens ; 5, flower- 
ing shoot of same, reduced ; 6, floral diagram of Salvia. 

of the corolla varies widely, the differences being doubtless 
intimately associated with the pollination of the flowers by insect- 
agency. The tube is straight or variously bent and often 
widens towards the mouth. Occasionally the limb is equally 
five-toothed, or forms, as in Mentha (fig. 2, 3, 4) an almost 
regular four-toothed corolla by union of the two posterior teeth. 
Usually it is two-lipped, the upper lip being formed by the two 
posterior, the lower lip by the three anterior petals (see fig. 1, 
and fig. 2, 1,6); the median lobe of the lower lip is generally 
most developed and forms a resting-place for the bee or other 
insect when probing the flower for honey, the upper lip shows 
great variety in form, often, as in Lamium (fig. 1), Stachys, &c, 
it is arched forming a protection from rain for the stamens, 
or it may be flat as in thyme. In the tribe Ocimoideae the four 
upper petals form the upper lip, and the single anterior one 
the lower lip, and in Teucrium the upper lip is absent, all five 
lobes being pushed forward to form the lower. The posterior 
stamen is sometimes present as a staminode, but generally 
suppressed; the upper pair are often reduced to staminodes 
or more or less completely suppressed as in Salvia (fig. 2, 2, 6); 
rarely are these developed and the anterior pair reduced. In 
Colcus the stamens are monadelphous. In Nepela and allied 
genera the posterior pair are the longer, but this is rare, the 
didynamous character being generally the result of the anterior 
pair being the longer. The anthers are two-celled, each cell 
splitting lengthwise; the connective may be more or less 
developed between the cells; an extreme case is seen in Salvia 



(fig. 2, 2). where the connective is filiform and jointed to the 
filament, while the anterior anther-cell is reduced to a sterile 
appendage. Honey is secreted by a hypogynous disk. In the 
more general type of flower the anthers and stigmas are pro- 
tected by the arching upper lip as in dead-nettle (fig. 1) and many 
other British genera; the lower lip affords a resting-place for 
the insect which in probing the flower for the honey, secreted 
on the lower side of the disk, collects pollen on its back. 
Numerous variations in detail are found in the different genera; 
in Salvia (fig. 2), for instance, there is a lever mechanism, the 
barren half of each anther forming a knob at the end of a short 
arm which when touched by the head of an insect causes the 
anther at the end of the longer arm to descend on the insect's 
back. In the less common type, where the anterior part of the 
flower is more developed, as in the Ocimoideae, the stamens 
and style lie on the under lip and honey is secreted on the upper 
side of the hypogynous disk; the insect in probing the flower 
gets smeared with pollen on its belly and legs. Both types 
include brightly-coloured flowers with longer tubes adapted to 
the visits of butterflies and moths, as species of Salvia, Stachys, 
Monarda, &c; some South American species of Salvia are 
pollinated by humming-birds. In Mentha (fig. 2, 3), thyme, 
marjoram (Origanum) , and allied genera, the flowers are nearly 
regular and the stamens spread beyond the corolla. 

The persistent calyx encloses the ripe nutlets, and aids in 
their distribution in various ways, by means of winged spiny 
or hairy lobes or teeth; sometimes it forms a swollen bladder. 
A scanty endosperm is sometimes present in the seed; the 
embryo is generally parallel to the fruit axis with a short inferior 
radicle and generally flat cotyledons. 

The order occurs in all warm and temperate regions; its chief 
centre is the Mediterranean region, where some genera such as 
Lavandula, Thymus, Rosmarinus and others form an important 
feature in the vegetation. The tribe Ocimoideae is exclusively 
tropical and subtropical and occurs in both hemispheres. The order 
is well represented in Britain by seventeen native genera; Mentha 
(mint) including also M. piperita (peppermint) and M. Pulegium 
(pennyroyal) ; Origanum vulgare (marjoram) ; Thymus Serpyllum 
(thyme); Calamintha (calamint), including also C. Clinopodium 
(wild basil) and C. Acinos (basil thyme) ; Salvia (sage), including 
5. Verbenaca (clary); Nepeta Cataria (catmint), N. Glechoma 
(ground-iyy) ; Brunella (self-heal) ; Scutellaria (skull-cap) ; Stachys 
(woundwort) ; S. Betonica is wood betony ; Galeopsis (hemp-nettle) ; 
Lamium (dead-nettle) ; Ballota (black horehound) ; Teucrium 
(germander); and Ajuga (bugle). 

Labiatae are readily distinguished from all other orders of the 
series excepting Verbenaceae, in which, however, the style is 
terminal ; but several genera, e.g. Ajuga, Teucrium and Rosmarinus, 
approach Verbenaceae in this respect, and in some genera of that 
order the style is more or less sunk between the ovary lobes. The 
fruit-character indicates an affinity with Boraginaceae from which, 
however, they differ in habit and by characters of ovule and embryo. 
The presence of volatile oil renders many genera of economic use, 
such are thyme, marjoram (Origanum), sage (Salvia), lavender 
(Lavandula), rosemary (Rosmarinus), patchouli (Pogostemon) . The 
tubers of Stachys Sieboldi are eaten in France. 

LABICANA, VIA, an ancient highroad of Italy, leading E.S.E. 
from Rome. It seems possible that the road at first led to 
Tusculum, that it was then prolonged to Labici, and later still 
became a road for through traffic; it may even have superseded 
the Via Latina as a route to the S.E., for, while the distance 
from Rome to their main junction at Ad Bivium (or to another 
junction at Compitum Anagninum) is practically identical, the 
summit level of the former is 725 ft. lower than that of the 
latter, a little to the west of the pass of Algidus. After their 
junction it is probable that the road bore the name Via Latina 
rather than Via Labicana. The course of the road after the 
first six miles from Rome is not identical with that of any modern 
road, but can be clearly traced by remains of pavement and 
buildings along its course. 

See T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, i. 215 sqq. 

(T. As} 

LABICHE, EUGENE MARIN (1815-1888), French dramatist, 
was born on the 5th of May 181 5, of bourgeois parentage. He 
read for the bar, but literature had more powerful attractions, 
and he was hardly twenty when he gave to the Chirubin — an 
impertinent little magazine, long vanished and forgotten — a 



LABICI— LABID 



short story, entitled, in the cavalier style of the period, Les 
plus belies sont les plus fausses. A few others followed much in 
the same strain, but failed to catch the attention of the public. 
He tried his hand at dramatic criticism in the Revue des thedtres, 
and in 1838 made a double venture on the stage. The small 
Theatre du Pantheon produced, amid some signs of popular 
favour, a drrfma of his, L'Avocat Loubet, while a vaudeville, 
Monsieur de Coislin ou I'homme infiniment poll, written in 
collaboration with Marc Michel, and given at the Palais Royal, 
introduced for the first time to the Parisians a provincial actor 
who was to become and to remain a great favourite with them, 
Grassot, the famous low comedian. In the same year Labiche, 
still doubtful about his true vocation, published a romance 
called La Cle des champs. M. Leon Halevy, his successor at 
the Academy and his panegyrist, informs us that the publisher 
became a bankrupt soon after the novel was out. "A lucky 
misadventure, for," the biographer concludes, " this timely 
warning of Destiny sent him back to the stage, where a career 
of success was awaiting him." There was yet another obstacle 
in the way. When he married, he solemnly promised his wife's 
parents that he would renounce a profession then considered 
incompatible with moral regularity and domestic happiness. 
But a year afterwards his wife spontaneously released him from 
his vow, and Labiche recalled the incident when he dedicated 
the first edition of his complete works: " To my wife." Labiche, 
in conjunction with Varin, 1 Marc Michel, 2 Clairville, 3 Dumanoir, 4 
and others contributed comic plays interspersed with couplets 
to various Paris theatres. The series culminated in the memor- 
able farce in five acts, Un Chapeau de paille d'ltalie (August 
185 1). It remains an accomplished specimen of the French 
imbroglio, in which some one is in search of something, but does 
not find it till five minutes before the curtain falls. Prior to 
that date Labiche had been only a successful vaudevilliste among 
a crowd of others; but a twelvemonth later he made a new 
departure in Le Misanthrope et VAuvergnat. All the plays 
given for the next twenty-five years, although constructed on 
the old plan, contained a more or less appreciable dose of 
that comic observation and good sense which gradually raised 
the French farce almost to the level of the comedy of character 
and manners. " Of all the subjects," he said, " which offered 
themselves to me, I have selected the bourgeois. Essentially 
mediocre in his vices and in his virtues, he stands half-way 
between the hero and the scoundrel, between the saint and the 
profligate." During the second period of his career Labiche 
had the collaboration of Delacour, 5 Choler, 6 and others. When 
it is asked what share in the authorship and success of the plays 
may be claimed for those men, we shall answer in Emile Augier's 
words: " The distinctive qualities which secured a lasting 
vogue for the plays of Labiche are to be found in all the comedies 
written by him with different collaborators, and are conspicuously 
absent from those which they wrote without him." A more 
useful and more important collaborator he found in Jean Marie 
Michel Geoffroy (1813-1883) whom he had known as a debutant 
in his younger days, and who remained his faithful interpreter 
to the last. Geoffroy impersonated the bourgeois not only to the 
public, but to the author himself; and it may be assumed that 
Labiche, when writing, could see and hear Geoffroy acting the 
character and uttering, in his pompous, fussy way, the words 
that he had just committed to paper. Celimare le bien-aime 
(1863), Le Voyage de M. Perrichon (i860), La Grammaire, Un 
Pied dans le crime, La Cagnotte (1864), may be quoted as the 
happiest productions of Labiche. 

In 1877 he brought his connexion with the stage to a close, 
and retired to his rural property in Sologne. There he could be 

1 Victor Varin, pseudonym of Charles Voirin (1798-1869). 

2 Marc Antoine Amedee Michel (1812-1868), vaudevillist. 

3 Louis Francois Nicolaise, called Clairville (1811-1879), part- 
author of the famous Fille de Mme Angot (1872). 

4 Philippe Frangois Pinel, called Dumanoir (1806-1865). 

5 Alfred Charlemagne Lartigue, called Delacour (1815-1885). 
For a list of this author's pieces see O. Lorenz, Catalogue General 
(vol. ii., 1868). 

6 Adolphe Joseph Choler (1822-1889). 



seen, dressed as a farmer, with low-brimmed hat, thick gaiters 
and an enormous stick, superintending the agricultural work 
and busily engaged in reclaiming land and marshes. His life- 
long friend, Augier, visited him in his principality, and, being 
left alone in the library, took to reading his host's dramatic 
productions, scattered here and there in the shape of theatrical 
brochures. He strongly advised Labiche to publish a collected 
and revised edition of his works. The suggestion, first declined 
as a joke and long resisted, was finally accepted and carried 
into effect. Labiche's comic plays, in ten volumes, were issued 
during 1878 and 1879. The success was even greater than had 
been expected by the author's most sanguine friends. It had 
been commonly believed that these plays owed their popularity 
in great measure to the favourite actors who had appeared in 
them; but it was now discovered that all, with the exception 
of Geoffroy, had introducecHnto them a grotesque and caricatural 
element, thus hiding from the spectator, in many cases, the true 
comic vein and delightful delineation of human character. 
The amazement turned into admiration, and the engouemeni 
became so general that very few dared grumble or appear 
scandalized when, in 1880, Labiche was elected to the French 
Academy. It was fortunate that, in former years, he had never 
dreamt of attaining this high distinction; for, as M. Pailleron 
justly observed, while trying to get rid of the little faults which 
were in him, he would have been in danger of losing some of 
his sterling qualities. But when the honour was bestowed upon 
him, he enjoyed it with his usual good sense and quiet modesty. 
He died in Paris on the 23rd of January 1888. 

Some foolish admirers have placed him on a level with Moliere, 
but it will be enough to say that he was something better than 
a public amuseur. Many of his plays have been transferred 
to the English stage. They are, on the whole, as sound as they 
are entertaining. Love is practically absent from his theatre. 
In none of his plays did he ever venture into the depths of 
feminine psychology, and womankind is only represented in 
them by pretentious old maids and silly, insipid, almost dumb, 
young ladies. He ridiculed marriage according to the invariable 
custom of French playwrights, but in a friendly and good- 
natured manner which always left a door open to repentance 
and timely amendment. He is never coarse, never suggestive. 
After he died the French farce, which he had raised to some- 
thing akin to literature, relapsed into its former grossness and 
unmeaning complexity. (A. Fi.) 

His Theatre complet (10 vols., 1878-1879) contains a preface by 
Emile Augier. 

LABICI, an ancient city of Latium, the modern Monte 
Compatri, about 17 m. S.E. from Rome, on the northern slopes 
of the Alban Hills, 1739 ft. above sea-level. It occurs among 
the thirty cities of the Latin League, and it is said to have 
joined the Aequi in 419 B.C. and to have been captured by the 
Romans in 418. After this it does not appear in history, and 
in the time of Cicero and Strabo was almost entirely deserted 
if not destroyed. Traces of its ancient walls have been noticed. 
Its place was taken by the respublicaLavicanorum Quintanensium, 
the post-station established in the lower ground on the Via 
Labicana (see Labicana, Via), a little S.W. of the modern village 
of Colonna, the site of which is attested by various inscriptions 
and by the course of the road itself. 

See T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, i. 256 
sqq. (T. As.) 

LABID (Abu 'Aqll Labid ibn Rabi'a) (c. 560-c. 661), Arabian 
poet, belonged to the Bam 'Amir, a division of the tribe of the 
Hawazin. In his younger years he was an active warrior and 
his verse is largely concerned with inter-tribal disputes. Later, 
he was sent by a sick uncle to get a remedy from Mahomet at 
Medina and on this occasion was much influenced by a part of 
the Koran. He accepted Islam soon after, but seems then to 
have ceased writing. In Omar's caliphate he is said to have 
settled in Kufa. Tradition ascribes to him a long life, but 
dates given are uncertain and contradictory. One of his poems 
is contained in the Mo'allakat (q.v.). 

Twenty of his poems were edited by Chalidi (Vienna, 1880); 
another thirty-five, with fragments and a German translation of the 



LABIENUS— LA BOURDONNAIS 



whole, were edited (partly from the remains of A. Huber) by C. 
Brockelmann (Leiden, 1892); cf. A. von Kremer, Vber die Cedichle 
des Lebyd (Vienna, 1881). Stories of Labid are contained in the 
Kitdbul-Aghdni, xiv. 93 ff. and xv. 137 ff. (G. W. T.) 

LABIENUS, the name of a Roman family, said (without 
authority) to belong to the gens Atia. The most important 
member was Titus Labienus. In 63 B.C., at Caesar's instigation, 
he prosecuted Gaius Rabirius (q.v.) for treason; in the same 
year, as tribune of the plebs, he carried a plebiscite which in- 
directly secured for Caesar the dignity of pontifex maximus 
(Dio Cassius xxxvii. 37). He served as a legatus throughout 
Caesar's Gallic campaigns and took Caesar's place whenever he 
went to Rome. His chief exploits in Gaul were the defeat of 
the Treviri under Indutiomarus in 54, his expedition against 
Lutetia (Paris) in 52, and his victory over Camulogenus and the 
Aedui in the same year. On the outbreak of the civil war, 
however, he was one of the first to desert Caesar, probably owing 
to an overweening sense of his own importance, not adequately 
recognized by Caesar. He was rapturously welcomed on the 
Pompeian side; but he brought no great strength with him, 
and his ill fortune under Pompey was as marked as his success 
had been under Caesar. From the defeat at Pharsalus, to which 
he had contributed by affecting to despise his late comrades, 
he fled to Corcyra, and thence to Africa. There he was able by 
mere force of numbers to inflict a slight check upon Caesar at 
Ruspina in 46. After the defeat at Thapsus he joined the younger 
Pompey in Spain, and was killed at Munda (March 17th, 45). 

LABLACHE, LUIGI (1794-1858), Franco-Italian singer, was 
born at Naples on the 6th of December 1 794, the son of a merchant 
of Marseilles who had married an Irish lady. In 1806 he entered 
the Conservatorio della Pieta de Turchini, where he studied 
music under Gentili and singing under Valesi, besides learning 
to play the violin and violoncello. As a boy he had a beautiful 
alto voice, and by the age of twenty he had developed a magnifi- 
cent bass with a compass of two octaves from Eb below to 
Eb above the bass stave. After making his first appearance 
at Naples he went to Milan in 181 7, and subsequently travelled 
to Turin, Venice and Vienna. His first appearances in London 
and Paris in 1830 led to annual engagements in both the English 
and French capitals. His reception at St Petersburg a few years 
later was no less enthusiastic. In England he took part in many 
provincial musical festivals, and was engaged by Queen Victoria 
to teach her singing. On the operatic stage he was equally 
successful in comic or tragic parts, and with his wonderfully 
powerful voice he could express either humour or pathos. Among 
his friends were Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti and Mercadante. 
He was one of the thirty-two torch-bearers chosen to surround 
the coffin at Beethoven's funeral in 1827. He died at Naples 
on the 23rd of January 1858 and was buried at Maison Lafitte, 
Paris. Lablache's Leporello in Don Giovanni was perhaps his 
most famous impersonation; among his principal other roles 
were Dandini in Cenerentola (Rossini), Assur in Semiramide 
(Rossini), Geronimo in La Gazza Ladra (Rossini), Henry VIII. 
in Anna Bolena (Donizetti), the Doge in Marino Faliero 
(Donizetti), the title-role in Don Pasquale (Donizetti), Geronimo 
in 77 Matrimonio Segreto (Cimarosa), Gritzenko in L'Etoile du 
Nord (Meyerbeer), Caliban in The Tempest (Halevy). 

LABOR DAY, in the United States, a legal holiday in nearly 
all of the states and Territories, where the first Monday in 
September is observed by parades and meetings of labour 
organizations. In 1882 the Knights of Labor paraded in New 
York City on this day; in 1884 another parade was held, and it 
was decided that this day should be set apart for this purpose. 
In 1887 Colorado made the first Monday in September a legal 
holiday; and in 1909 Labor Day was observed as a holiday 
throughout the United States, except in Arizona and North 
Dakota; in Louisiana it is a holiday only in New Orleans 
(Orleans parish), and in Maryland, Wyoming and New Mexico 
it is not established as a holiday by statute, but in each may 
be proclaimed as such in any year by the governor. 

LA BOURBOULE, a watering-place of central France, in 
the department of Puy-de-D6me, 4! m. W. by N. of Mont-Dore 



by road. Pop. (1906) 1401. La Bourboule is situated on the 
right bank of the Dordogne at a height of 2790 ft. Its waters, 
of which arsenic is the characteristic constituent, are used in 
cases of diseases of the skin and respiratory organs, rheumatism, 
neuralgia, &c. Though known to the Romans they were not 
in much repute till towards the end of the 19th century. The 
town has three thermal establishments and a casirib. 

LABOUR CHURCH, THE, an organization intended to give 
expression to the religion of the labour movement. This 
religion is not theological — it leaves theological questions to 
private individual conviction — but " seeks the realization of 
universal well-being by the establishment of Socialism — a 
commonwealth founded upon justice and love." It asserts that 
" improvement of social conditions and the development of 
personal character are both essential to emancipation from 
social and moral bondage, and to that end insists upon the duty 
of studying the economic and moral forces of society." The 
first Labour Church was founded at Manchester (England) 
in October 1891 by a Unitarian minister, John Trevor. This 
has disappeared, but vigorous successors have been established 
not only in the neighbourhood, but in Bradford, Birmingham, 
Nottingham, London, Wolverhampton and other centres of 
industry, about 30 in all, with a membership of 3000. Many 
branches of the Independent Labour Party and the Social 
Democratic Federation also hold Sunday gatherings for adults 
and children, using the Labour Church hymn-book and a similar 
form of service, the reading being chosen from Dr Stanton Coit's 
Message of Man. There are special forms for child-naming, 
marriages and burials. The separate churches are federated 
in a Labour Church Union, which holds an annual conference 
and business meeting in March. At the conference of 1909, 
held in Ashton-under-Lyne, the name " Labour Church " was 
changed to " Socialist Church." 

LA BOURDONNAIS, BERTRAND FRANQOIS, Count Mahe 
de (1699-1753), French naval commander, was born at Saint 
Malo on the 11th of February 1699. He went to sea when a 
boy, and in 1 718 entered the service of the French India Company 
as a lieutenant. In 1724 he was promoted captain, and displayed 
such bravery in the capture of Mahe of the Malabar coast that 
the name of the town was added to his own. For two years 
he was in the service of the Portuguese viceroy of Goa, but in 
r 735 he returned to French service as governor of the lie de 
France and the lie de Bourbon. His five years' administration 
of the islands was vigorous and successful. A visit to France 
in 1740 was interrupted by the outbreak of hostilities with Great 
Britain, and La Bourdonnais was put at the head of a fleet in 
Indian waters. He saved Mahe, relieved General Dupleix at 
Pondicherry, defeated Lord Peyton, and in 1746 participated 
in the siege of Madras. He quarrelled with Dupleix over the 
conduct of affairs in India, and his anger was increased on his 
return to the lie de France at finding a successor to himself 
installed there by his rival. He set sail on a Dutch vessel to 
present his case at court, and was captured by the British, 
but allowed to return to France on parole. Instead of securing 
a settlement of his quarrel with Dupleix, he was arrested (1748) 
on a charge of gubernatorial peculation and maladministration, 
and secretly imprisoned for over two years in the Bastille. 
He was tried in 17 51 and acquitted, but his health was 
broken by the imprisonment and by chagrin at the loss of 
his property. To the last he made unjust accusations against 
Dupleix. He died at Paris on the 10th of November 1753. 
The French government gave his widow a pension of 2400 
livres. 

La Bourdonnais wrote Traite de la mdture des vaisseaux 
(Paris 1723), and left valuable memoirs which were published 
by his grandson, a celebrated chess player, Count L. C. Mahe 
de la Bourdonnais (1795-1840) (latest edition, Paris, 1890). 
His quarrel with Dupleix has given rise to much debate; for 
a long while the fault was generally laid to the arrogance and 
jealousy of Dupleix, but W. Cartwright and Colonel Malleson 
have pointed out that La Bourdonnais was proud, suspicious 
and over-ambitious. 



LABOUR EXCHANGE— LABOUR LEGISLATION 



See P. de Gennes, Memoire pour le sieur de la Bourdonnais, avec 
les pieces justificatives (Paris, 1750); The Case of Mde la Bourdon-, 
nais, in a Letter to a Friend (London, 1748); Fantin des Odoards, 
Revolutions de I'lnde (Paris, 1796); Collin de Bar, Histoire de VInde 
ancienne et moderne (Paris, 1814); Barchou de Penhoen, Histoire 
de la conquete et de la fondation de V empire anglais dans VInde (Paris, 
1840) ; Margry, " Les Isles de France et de Bourbon sous le gouverne- 
ment de La Bourdonnais," in La Revue maritime et coloniale (1862); 
W. Cartwright, " Dupleixet l'lndefrancaise," in La Revue britannique 
(1882); G. B. Malleson, Dupleix (Oxford, 1895); Anandaranga 
Pillai, Les Franqais dans VInde, Dupleix et Labour donnais, extraits 
du journal d'Anandaran-gappoulle 1736-1748, trans, in French by 
Vinsor in Ecole speciale des langues orientales vivantes, series 3, 
vol. xv. (Paris, 1894). 

LABOUR EXCHANGE, a term very frequently applied to 
registries having for their principal object the better distribution 
of labour (see Unemployment). Historically the term is applied 
to the system of equitable labour exchanges established in 
England between 1832 and 1834 by Robert Owen and his 
followers. The idea is said to have originated with Josiah Warren, 
who communicated it to Owen. Warren tried an experiment in 
1828 at Cincinnati, opening an exchange under the title of a 
" time store." He joined in starting another at Tuscarawas, 
Ohio, and a third at Mount Vernon, Indiana, but none were 
quite on the same line as the English exchanges. The funda- 
mental idea of the English exchanges was to establish a currency 
based upon labour; Owen in The Crisis for June 1832 laid down 
that all wealth proceeded from labour and knowledge; that 
labour and knowledge were generally remunerated according 
to the time employed, and that in the new exchanges it was 
proposed to make time the standard or measure of wealth. 
This new currency was represented by " labour notes," the notes 
being measured in hours, and the hour reckoned as being worth 
sixpence, this figure being taken as the mean between the wage 
of the best and the worst paid labour. Goods were then to be 
exchanged for the new currency. The exchange was opened 
in extensive premises in the Gray's Inn Road, near King's Cross, 
London, on the 3rd of September 1832. For some months 
the establishment met with considerable success, and a consider- 
able number of tradesmen agreed to take labour notes in payment 
for their goods. At first, an enormous number of deposits was 
made, amounting in seventeen weeks to 445,501 hours. But 
difficulties soon arose from the lack of sound practical valuators, 
and from the inability of the promoters to distinguish between 
the labour of the highly skilled and that of the unskilled. Trades- 
men, too, were quick to see that the exchange might be worked 
to their advantage; they brought unsaleable stock from 
their shops, exchanged it for labour notes, and then picked 
out the best of the saleable articles. Consequently the labour 
notes began to depreciate; trouble also arose with the pro- 
prietors of the premises, and the experiment came to an untimely 
end early in 1834. 

See F. Podmore's Robert Owen, ii. c. xvii. (1906) ; B. Jones, 
Co-operative Production, c. viii. (1894); G. J. Holyoake, History of 
Co-operation, c. viii. (1906). 

LABOUR LEGISLATION. Regulation of labour, 1 in some 
form or another, whether by custom, royal authority, ecclesi- 
astical rules or by formal legislation in the interests of a com- 
munity, is no doubt as old as the most ancient forms of civiliza- 
tion. And older than all civilization is the necessity for the 
greater part of mankind to labour for maintenance, whether freely 
or in bonds, whether for themselves and their families or for the 
requirements or superfluities of others. Even while it is clear, 
however, that manual labour, or the application of the bodily 
forces — with or without mechanical aid — to personal mainten- 
ance and the production of goods, remains the common lot of 
the majority of citizens of the most developed modern com- 
munities, still there is much risk of confusion if modern technical 
terms such as " labour," " employer," " labour legislation " 
are freely applied to conditions in bygone civilizations with 
wholly different industrial organization and social relationships. 

1 The term " labour " (Lat. labor) means strictly any energetic 
work, though in general it implies hard work, but in modern 

Earlance it is specially confined to industrial work of the kind done 
y the " working-classes." 



In recent times in England there has been a notable disappearance 
from current use of correlative terms implying a social relation- 
ship which is greatly changed, for example, in the rapid passage 
from the Master and Servant Act 1867 to the Employer and 
Workman Act 1875. In the 18th century the term ' manu- 
facturer " passed from its application to a working craftsman 
to its modern connotation of at least some command of capital, 
the employer being no longer a small working master. An 
even more significant later change is seen in the steady develop- 
ment of a labour legislation, which arose in a clamant social 
need for the care of specially helpless " protected " persons in 
factories and mines, into a wider legislation for the promotion 
of general industrial health, safety and freedom for the worker 
from fraud in making or carrying out wage contracts. 

If, then, we can discern these signs of important changes 
within so short a period, great caution is needed in rapidly 
reviewing long periods of time prior to that industrial revolution 
which is traced mainly to the application of mechanical power 
to machinery in aid of manual labour, practically begun and 
completed within the second half of the 18th century. " In 
1740 save for the fly-shuttle the loom was as it had been since 
weaving had begun . . . and the law of the land was" (under 
the Act of Apprentices of 1563) "that wages in each district 
should be assessed by Justices of the Peace." 2 Turning back 
to still earlier times, legislation — whatever its source or authority 
— must clearly be devoted to aims very different from modern 
aims in regulating labour, when it arose before the labourer, 
as a man dependent on an " employer " for the means of doing 
work, had appeared, and when migratory labour was almost 
unknown through the serfdom of part of the population and the 
special status secured in towns to the artisan. 

In the great civilizations of antiquity there were great aggrega- 
tions of labour which was not solely, though frequently it was 
predominantly, slave labour; and some of the features of 
manufacture and mining on a great scale arose, producing the 
same sort of evils and industrial maladies known and regulated 
in our own times. Some of the maladies were described by Pliny 
and classed as " diseases of slaves." And he gave descriptions 
of processes, for example in the metal trades, as belonging entirely 
to his own day, which modern archaeological discoveries trace 
back through the earliest known Aryan civilizations to a pre- 
historic origin in the East, and which have never died out in 
western Europe, but can be traced in a concentrated manu- 
facture with almost unchanged methods, now in France, now 
in Germany, now in England. 

Little would be gained in such a sketch as this by an endeavour 
to piece together the scattered and scanty materials for a com- 
parative history of the varying conditions and methods of labour 
regulation over so enormous a range. While our knowledge 
continually increases of the remains of ancient craft, skill and 
massed labour, much has yet to be discovered that may throw 
light on methods of organization of the labourers. While much, 
and in some civilizations most, of the labour was compulsory 
or forced, it is clear that too much has been sometimes assumed, 
and it is by no means certain that even the pyramids of Egypt, 
much less the beautiful earliest Egyptian products in metal 
work, weaving and other skilled craft work, were typical 
products of slave labour. Even in Rome it was only at times 
that the proportion of slaves valued as property was greater 
than that of hired workers, or, apart from capture in war or 
self-surrender in discharge of a debt, that purchase of slaves 
by the trader, manufacturer or agriculturist was generally 
considered the cheapest means of securing labour, As in early 
England the various stages of village industrial life, medieval 
town manufacture, and organization in craft gilds, and the 
beginnings of the mercantile system, were parallel with a greater 
or less prevalence of serfdom and even with the presence in 
part of slavery, so in other ages and civilizations the various 
methods of organization of labour are found to some extent 
together. The Germans in their primitive settlements were 
accustomed to the notion of slavery, and in the decline of the 
2 H. D. Traill, Social England, v. 602 (1896). 



8 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[UNITED KINGDOM 



Roman Empire Roman captives from among the most useful 
craftsmen were carried away by their northern conquerors. 

The history and present details of the labour laws of various 
countries are dealt with below in successive sections: (i) history 
of legislation in the United Kingdom; (2) the results as shown 
by the law in force in 1909, with the corresponding facts for 
(3) Continental Europe and (4) the United States. Under other 
headings (Trade-Unions, Strikes and Lock-0#ts, Arbitra- 
tion and Conciliation, &c, &c.) are many details on cognate 
subjects. 

1. History in the United Kingdom 

1 . Until the Close of the 15th Century. — Of the main conditions 
of industrial labour in early Anglo-Saxon England details are 
scanty. Monastic industrial communities were added in 
Christian times to village industrial communities. While 
generally husbandry was the first object of toil, and developed 
under elaborate regulation in the manorial system, still a con- 
siderable variety of industries grew up, the aim being expressly to 
make each social group self-sufficing, and to protect and regulate 
village artisans in the interest of village resources. This pro- 
tective system, resting on a communal or co-operative view of 
labour and social life, has been compared as analogous to the 
much later and wider system under which the main purpose 
was to keep England as a whole self sufficing. 1 It has also been 
shown how greatly a fresh spirit of enterprise in industry and 
trade was stimulated first by the Danish and next by the Norman 
invasion; the former brought in a vigour shown in growth of 
villages, increase in number of freemen, and formation of trading 
towns; the latter especially opened up new communications 
with the most civilized continental people, and was followed 
by a considerable immigration of artisans, particularly of 
Flemings. In Saxon England slavery in the strictest sense 
existed, as is shown in the earliest English laws, but it seems 
that the true slave class as distinct from the serf class was com- 
paratively small, and it may well be that the labour of an 
ordinary serf was not practically more severe, and the remunera- 
tion in maintenance and kind not much less than that of agri- 
cultural labourers in recent times. In spite of the steady 
protest of the Church, slavery (as the exception, not the general 
rule) did not die out for many centuries, and was apt to be 
revived as a punishment for criminals, e.g. in the fierce provisions 
of the statute of Edward VI. against beggars, not repealed 
until 1 597. At no time, however, was it general, and as the larger 
village and city populations grew the ratio of serfs and slaves 
to the freemen in the whole population rapidly diminished, 
for the city populations " had not the habit and use of slavery," 
and while serfs might sometimes find a refuge in the cities from 
exceptionally severe taskmasters, " there is no doubt that free- 
men gradually united with them under the lord's protection, 
that strangers engaged in trade sojourned among them, and that 
a race of artisans gradually grew up in which original class 
feelings were greatly modified." From these conditions grew two 
parallel tendencies in regulation of labour. On the one hand 
there was, under royal charters, the burgh or municipal organiza- 
tion and control of artisan and craft labour, passing later into 
the more specialized organization in craft gilds; on the other 
hand, there was a necessity, sometimes acute, to prevent undue 
diminution in the numbers available for husbandry or agricul- 
tural labour. To the latter cause must be traced a provision 
appearing in a succession of statutes (see especially an act of 
Richard II., 1388), that a child under twelve years once employed 
in agriculture might never be transferred to apprenticeship in a 
craft. The steady development of England, first as a wool- 
growing, later as a cloth-producing country, would accentuate 
this difficulty. During the 13 th century, side by side with de- 
velopment of trading companies for the export of wool from 
England, may be noted many agreements on the part of monas- 
teries to sell their wool to Florentines, and during the same 
century absorption of alien artisans into the municipal system 
was practically completed. Charters of Henry I. provided for 
1 W. Cunningham, Growth of English Commerce and Industry. 



naturalization of these aliens. From the time of Edward I. 
to Edward III. a gradual transference of burgh customs, so far 
as recognized for the common good, to statute law was in pro- 
gress, together with an assertion of the rights of the crown against 
ecclesiastical orders. " The statutes of Edward I.," says Dr. 
Cunningham, " mark the first attempt to deal with Industry 
and Trade as a public matter which concerns the whole state, 
not as the particular affair of leading men in each separate 
locality." The first direct legislation for labour by statute, 
however, is not earlier than the twenty-third year of the 
reign of Edward III., and it arose in an attempt to control the 
decay and ruin, both in rural and urban districts, which followed 
the Hundred Years' War, and the pestilence known as the Black 
Death. This first " Statute of Labourers " was designed for the 
benefit of the community, not for the protection of labour or 
prevention of oppression, and the policy of enforcing customary 
wages and compelling the able-bodied labourer, whether free or 
bond, not living in merchandise or exercising any craft, to work 
for hire at recognized rates of pay, must be reviewed in the 
circumstances and ideals of the time. Regulation generally in 
the middle ages aimed at preventing any individual or section 
of the community from making what was considered an excep- 
tional profit through the necessity of others. 2 The scarcity of 
labour by the reduction of the population through pestilence 
was not admitted as a justification for the demands for increased 
pay, and while the unemployed labourer was liable to be com- 
mitted to gaol if he refused service at current rates, the lords of 
the towns or manors who promised or paid more to their servants 
were liable to be sued treble the sum in question. Similar 
restrictions were made applicable to artificers and workmen. 
By another statute, two years later, labourers or artificers who 
left their work and went into another county were liable to 
be arrested by the sheriff and brought back. These and similar 
provisions with similar aims were confirmed by statutes of 
1360, 1368 and 1388, but the act of 1360, while prohibiting 
" all alliances and covins of masons, carpenters, congregations, 
chapters, ordinances and oaths betwixt them made," allowed 
"every lord to bargain or covenant for their works in gross 
with such labourers and artificers when it pleaseth them, so 
that they perform such works well and lawfully according to the 
bargain and covenant with them thereof made." Powers were 
given by the acts of 1368 and 1388 to justices to determine 
matters under these statutes and to fix wages. Records show 
that workmen of various descriptions were pressed by writs 
addressed to sheriffs to work for their king at wages regardless 
of their will as to terms and place of work. These proceedings 
were founded on notions of royal prerogative, of which impress- 
ment of seamen survived as an example to a far later date. By 
an act of 1388 no servant or labourer, man or woman, however, 
could depart out of the hundred to serve elsewhere unless bearing 
a letter patent under the king's seal stating the cause of going 
and time of return. Such provisions would appear to have 
widely failed in their purpose, for an act of 1414 declares that 
the servants and labourers fled from county to county, and 
justices were empowered to send writs to the sheriffs for fugitive 
labourers as for felons, and to examine labourers, servants and 
their masters, as well as artificers, and to punish them on con- 
fession. An act of 1405, while putting a property qualification on 
apprenticeship and requiring parents under heavy penalties to 
put their children to such labour as their estates required, made 
a reservation giving freedom to any person " to send their 
children to school to learn literature." Up to the end of the 1 5th 
century a monotonous succession of statutes strengthening, 
modifying, amending the various attempts (since the first 
Statute of Labourers) to limit free movement of labour, or 
demands by labourers for increased wages, may be seen in the 
acts of 1411, 1427, 1444, 1495. It was clearly found extremely 
difficult, if not impracticable, to carry out the minute control 
of wages considered desirable, and exceptions in favour of certain 
occupations were in some of the statutes themselves. In 151 2 
the penalties for giving wages contrary to law were repealed so 
2 W. Cunningham, Growth of English Commerce and Industry. 



UNITED KINGDOM] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



far as related to masters, but it also appears that London work- 
men would not endure the prevalent restrictions as to wages, 
and that they secured in practice a greater freedom to arrange 
rates when working within the city. Several of these statutes, 
and especially one of 1514, fixed the hours of labour when 
limiting wages. During March to September the limits were 
5 a.m. to 7 or 8 p.m., with half an hour off for breakfast and an 
hour and a half off for midday dinner. In winter the outside 
limits were fixed by the length of daylight. 

Throughout the 15th century the rapidly increasing manu- 
facture of cloth was subject to a regulation which aimed at 
maintaining the standard of production and prevention of bad 
workmanship, and the noteworthy statute 4 Edward IV. c. 1, 
while giving power to royal officers to supervise size of cloths, 
modes of sealing, &c, also repressed payment to workers in 
" pins, girdles and unprofitable wares," and ordained payment 
in true and lawful money. This statute (the first against 
" Truck ") gives an interesting picture of the way in which 
clothiers — or, as we should call them, wholesale merchants and 
manufacturers — delivered wool to spinners, carders, &c, by 
weight, and paid for the work when brought back finished. 
It appears that the work was carried on in rural as well as town 
districts. While this industry was growing and thriving other 
trades remained backward, and agriculture was in a depressed 
condition. Craft gilds had primarily the same purpose as the 
Edwardian statutes, that is, of securing that the public should 
be well served with good wares, and that the trade and manu- 
facture itself should be on a sound basis as to quality of products 
and should flourish. Incidentally there was considerable regula- 
tion by the gilds of the conditions of labour, but not primarily 
in the interests of the labourer. Thus night work was prohibited 
because it tended to secrecy and so to bad execution of work; 
working on holidays was prohibited to secure fair play between 
craftsmen and so on. The position of apprentices was made 
clear through indentures, but the position of journeymen was 
less certain. Signs are not wanting of a struggle between journey- 
men and masters, and towards the end of the 15th century 
masters themselves, in at least the great wool trade, tended to 
develop from craftsmen into something more like the modern 
capitalist employer; from an act of 1555 touching weavers 
it is quite clear that this development had greatly advanced 
and that cloth-making was carried on largely by employers 
with large capitals. Before this, however, while a struggle 
went on between the town authorities and the craft gilds, journey- 
men began to form companies' of their own, and the result of 
the various conflicts may be seen in an act of Henry VI., providing 
that in future new ordinances of gilds shall be submitted to 
justices of the peace — a measure which was strengthened in 

2. From Tudor Days until the Close of the i8lh Century. — A 
detailed history of labour regulation in the 16th century would 
include some account of .the Tudor laws against vagrancy and 
methods of dealing with the increase of pauperism, attributable, 
at least in part, to the dissolution of the monasteries under 
Henry VIII., and to the confiscation of craft gild funds, which 
proceeded under Somerset and Edward VI. It is sufficient here 
to point to the general recognition of the public right to compel 
labourers to work and thus secure control of unemployed as 
well as employed. The statutes of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. 
against vagrancy differed rather in degree of severity than in 
principle from legislation for similar purposes in previous and 
subsequent reigns. The Statute of Labourers, passed in the 
fifth year of Elizabeth 's reign (1562), as well as the poor law of 
the same year, was to a considerable extent both a consolidating 
and an amending code of law, and was so securely based on public 
opinion and deeply rooted custom that it was maintained in 
force for two centuries. It avowedly approves of principles 
and aims in earlier acts, regulating wages, punishing refusal 
to work, and preventing free migration of labour. It makes, 
however, a great advance in its express aim of protecting the 
poor labourer against insufficient wages, and of devising a 
machinery, by frequent meeting of justices, which might yield 



"unto the hired person both in time of scarcity and in time of 
plenty a convenient proportion of wages." Minute regulations 
were made governing the contract between master and servant, 
and their mutual rights and obligations on parallel lines for 
(a) artificers, (b) labourers in husbandry. Hiring was to be by 
the year, and any unemployed person qualified in either calling 
was bound to accept service on pain of imprisonment, if 
required, unless possessed of property of a specified amount 
or engaged in art, science or letters, or being a " gentleman." 
Persons leaving a service were bound to obtain a testimonial, 
and might not be taken into fresh employment without produc- 
ing such testimonial, or, if in a new district, until after showing 
it to the authorities of. the place. A master might be fined £5, 
and a labourer imprisoned, and if contumacious, whipped, for 
breach of this rule. The carefully devised scheme for technical 
training of apprentices embodied to a considerable extent the 
methods and experiences of the craft gilds. Hours of labour 
were as follows: "All artificers and labourers being hired for 
wages by the day or week shall, betwixt the midst of the months 
of March and September, be and continue at their work at or 
before 5 o 'clock in the morning and continue at work and not 
depart until betwixt 7 and 8 o 'clock at night, except it be in 
the time of breakfast, dinner or drinking, the which time at 
the most shall not exceed two hours and a half in a day, that is 
to say, at every drinking half an hour, for his dinner one hour 
and for his sleep when he is allowed to sleep, the which is from 
the midst of May to the midst of August, half an hour; and all 
the said artificers and labourers betwixt the midst of September 
and the midst of March shall be and continue at their work 
from the spring of the day in the morning until the night of the 
same day, except it be in time afore appointed for breakfast 
and dinner, upon pain to lose and forfeit one penny for every 
hour's absence, to be deducted and defaulked out of his wages 
that shall so offend." Although the standpoint of the Factory 
Act and Truck Act in force at the beginning of the 20th century 
as regards hours of labour or regulation of fines deducted from 
wages is completely reversed, yet the difference is not great 
between the average length of hours of labour permissible under 
lihe present law for women and those hours imposed upon the 
adult labourer in Elizabeth 's statute. Apart from the stand- 
point of compulsory imposition of fines, one advantage in the 
defmiteness of amount deductable from wages would appear 
to lie on the side of the earlier statute. 

Three points remain to be touched on in connexion with the 
Elizabethan poor law. In addition to (a) consolidation of 
measures for setting vagrants to work, we find the first com- 
pulsory contributions from the well-to-do towards poor relief 
there provided for, (&) at least a theoretical recognition of a 
right as well as an obligation on the part of the labourer to be 
hired, (c) careful provision for the apprenticing of destitute 
children and orphans to a trade. 

One provision of considerable interest arose in Scotland, 
which was nearly a century later in organizing provisions for 
fixing conditions of hire and wages of workmen, labourers and 
servants, similar to those consolidated in the Elizabethan 
Statute of Labourers. In 1617 it was provided (and reaffirmed 
in i66r) that power should be given to the sheriffs to compel 
payment of wages, ' that servants may be the more willing to 
obey the ordinance." The difficulties in regulation of compulsory 
labour in Scotland must, however, have been great, for in 1672 
houses of correction were erected for disobedient servants, and 
masters of these houses were empowered to force them to work 
and to correct them according to their demerits. While servants 
in manufacture were compelled to work at reasonable rates 
they might not enter on a new hire without their previous 
master's consent. 

Such legislation continued, at least theoretically, in force 
until the awakening effected by the beginning of the industrial 
revolution — that is, until the combined effects of steady con- 
centration of capital in the hands of employers and expansion 
of trade, followed closely by an unexampled development of 
invention in machinery and application of oower to its use. 



IO 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[UNITED KINGDOM 



completely altered the face of industrial England. From time 
to time, in respect of particular trades, provisions against 
truck and for payment of wages in current coin, similar to the 
act of Edward IV. in the woollen industry, were found necessary, 
and this branch of labour legislation developed through the 
reigns of Anne and the four Georges until consolidation and 
amendment were effected, after the completion of the industrial 
revolution, in the Truck Act of 1831. From the close of the 
17th century and during the 18th century the legislature is 
no longer mainly engaged in devising means for compelling 
labourers and artisans to enter into involuntary service, but 
rather in regulating the summary powers of justices of the peace 
in the matter of dispute between masters and servants in relation 
to contracts and agreements, express or implied, presumed to 
have been entered into voluntarily on both sides. While the 
movement to refer labour questions to the jurisdiction of the 
justices thus gradually developed, the main subject matter for 
their exercise of jurisdiction in regard to labour also changed, 
even when theoretically for a time the two sets of powers — such 
as (a) moderation of craft gild ordinances and punishment of 
workers refusing hire, or (b) fixing scales of wages and enforce- 
ment of labour contracts — might be concurrently exercised. 
Even in an act of George II. (1746) for settlement of disputes 
and differences as to wages or other conditions under a contract 
of labour, power was retained for the justices, on complaint of 
the masters of misdemeanour or ill-behaviour on the part of 
the servant, to discharge the latter from service or to send him 
to a house of correction " there to be corrected," that is, to be 
held to hard labour for a term not exceeding a month or to be 
corrected by whipping. In an act with similar aims of George 
IV. (1823), with a rather-wider scope, the power to order corporal 
punishment, and in 1867 to hard labour, for breach of labour 
contracts had disappeared, and soon after the middle of the 
19th century the right to enforce contracts of labour also dis- 
appeared. Then breach of such labour contracts became 
simply a question of recovery of damages, unless both parties 
agreed that security for performance of the contract shall be 
given instead of damages. 

While the endeavour to enforce labour apart from a contract 
died out in the latter end of the 18th century, sentiment for 
some time had strongly grown in favour of developing early 
industrial training of children. It appears to have been a special 
object of charitable and philanthropic endeavour in the 17th 
century, as well as the 18th, to found houses of industry, in 
which little children, even under five years of age, might be 
trained for apprenticeship with employers. Connected as this 
development was with poor relief, one of its chief aims was to 
prevent future unemployment and vagrancy by training in 
habits and knowledge of industry, but not unavowed was 
another motive: " from children thus trained up to constant 
labour we may venture to hope the lowering of its price." l 
The evils and excesses which lay enfolded within such a move- 
ment gave the first impulse to the new ventures in labour 
legislation which are specially the work of the 19th century. 
Evident as it is " that before the Industrial Revolution very 
young children were largely employed both in their own homes 
and as apprentices under the Poor Law," and that " long before 
Peel's time there were misgivings about the apprenticeship 
system," still it needed the concentration and prominence of 
suffering and injury to child life in the factory system to lead 
to parliamentary intervention. 

3. From 1800 to the Codes of 1872 and 1878. — A serious out- 
break of fever in 1784 in cotton mills near Manchester appears 
to have first drawn widespread and influential public opinion 
to the overwork of children, under terribly dangerous and 
insanitary conditions, on which the factory system was then 
largely being carried on. A local inquiry, chiefly by a group 
of medical men presided over by Dr Percival, was instituted 
by the justices of the peace for Lancashire, and in the forefront 
of the resulting report stood a recommendation for limitation 

1 From an " Essay on Trade " (1770) , quoted in History of Factory 
Legislation, by B. L. Hutchinsand A. Harrison (1903). pp. 5, 6. 



and control of the working hours of the children. A resolution 
by the county justices followed, in which they declared their 
intention in future to refuse " indentures of parish Apprentices 
whereby they shall be bound to Owners of Cotton Mills and other 
works in which children are obliged to work in the night or more 
than ten hours in the day." In 1795 the Manchester Board of 
Health was formed, which, with fuller information, mere 
definitely advised legislation for the regulation of the hours and 
conditions of labour in factories. In 1802 the Health and Morals 
of Apprentices Act was passed, which in effect formed the first 
step towards prevention of injury to and protection of labour 
in factories. It was directly aimed only at evils of the apprentice 
system, under which large numbers of pauper children were 
worked in cotton and woollen mills without education, for 
excessive hours, under wretched conditions. It did not apply to 
places employing fewer than twenty persons or three apprentices, 
and it applied the principle of limitation of hours (to twelve a 
day) and abolition of night work, as well as educational require- 
ments, only to apprentices. Religious teaching and suitable 
sleeping accommodation and clothing were provided for in the 
act, also as regards apprentices. Lime-washing and ventilation 
provisions applied to all cotton and woollen factories employing 
more than twenty persons. " Visitors " were to be appointed 
by county justices for repression of contraventions, and were 
empowered to " direct the adoption of such sanitary regulations 
as they might on advice think proper." The mills were to be 
registered by the clerk of the peace, and justices had power to 
inflict fines of from £2 to £5 for contraventions. Although 
enforcement of the very limited provisions of the act was in 
many cases poor or non-existent, in some districts excellent 
work was done by justices, and in 1803 the West Riding of 
Yorkshire justices passed a resolution substituting the ten hours' 
limit for the twelve hours' limit of the act, as a condition of 
permission for indenturing of apprentices in mills. 

Rapid development of the application of steam power to manu- 
facture led to growth of employment of children in populous 
centres, otherwise than on the apprenticeship system, and before 
long the evils attendant on this change brought the general 
question of regulation and protection of child labour in textile 
factories to the front. The act of 1819, limited as it was, was 
a noteworthy step forward, in that it dealt with this wider 
■ scope of employment of children in cotton factories, and it is 
satisfactory to record that it was the outcome of the efforts 
and practical experiments of a great manufacturer, Robert 
Owen. Its provisions fell on every point lower than the aims 
he put forward on his own experience as practicable, and notably 
in its application only to cotton mills instead of all textile factories. 
Prohibition of child labour under nine years of age and limitation 
of the working day to twelve in the twenty-four (without 
specifying the precise hour of beginning and closing) were the 
main provisions of this act. No provision was made for enforce- 
ment of the law beyond such as was attempted in the act of 
1802. Slight amendments were attempted in the acts of 1825 
and 1 83 1, but the first really important factory act was in 1833 
applying to textile factories generally, limiting employment 
of young persons under eighteen years of age, as well as children, 
prohibiting night work between 8.30 p.m. and 5.30 a.m., and 
first providing for " inspectors " to enforce the law. This is 
the act which was based on the devoted efforts of Michael 
Sadler, with whose name in this connexion that of Lord Ashley, 
afterwards earl of Shaftesbury, was from 1832 associated. 
The importance of this act lay in its provision for skilled inspec- 
tion and thus for enforcement of the law by an independent 
body of men unconnected with the locality in which the manu- 
factures lay, whose specialization in their work enabled them 
to acquire information needed for further development of 
legislation for protection of labour. Their powers were to a 
certain extent judicial, being assimilated to those possessed 
by justices; they could administer oaths and make such " rules, 
regulations and orders " as were necessary for execution of the 
act, and could hear complaints and impose penalties under the 
act. In 1844 a textile factory act modified these extensive 



UNITED KINGDOM] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



ii 



inspectoral powers, organizing the service on lines resembling 
those of our own time, and added provision for certifying 
surgeons to examine workers under sixteen years of age as to 
physical fitness for employment and to grant certificates of age 
and ordinary strength. Hours of labour, by the act of 1833, 
were limited for children under eleven to 9 a day or 48 in the 
week, and for young persons under eighteen to 12 a day or 69 
in the week. Between 1833 and 1844 the movement in favour 
of a ten hours' day, which had long been in progress, reached 
its height in a time of great commercial and industrial distress, 
but could not be carried into effect until 1847. By the act of 
1844 the hours of adult women were first regulated, and were 
limited (as were already those of " young persons ") to 12 a day; 
children were permitted either to work the same hours on alter- 
nate days or " half-time," with compulsory school attendance 
as a condition of their employment. The aim in thus adjusting 
the hours of the three classes of workers was to provide for a 
practical standard working-day. For the first time detailed 
provisions for health and safety began to make their appearance 
in the law. Penal compensation for preventible injuries due to 
unfenccd machinery was also provided, and appears to have 
been the outcome of a discussion by witnesses before the Royal 
Commission on Labour of Young Persons in Mines and Manu- 
factures in 1841. 

From this date, 1841, begin the first attempts at protective 
legislation for labour in mining. The first Mines Act of 1842 
following the terrible revelations of the Royal Commission 
referred to excluded women and girls from underground working, 
and limited the employment of boys, excluding from underground 
working those under ten years, but it was not until 1850 that 
systematic reporting of fatal accidents and until 1855 that other 
safeguards for health, life and limb in mines were seriously 
provided by law. With the exception of regulations against 
truck there was no protection for the miner before 1842; before 
1814 it was not customary to hold inquests on miners killed 
by accidents in mines. From 1842 onwards considerable inter- 
action in the development of the two sets of acts (mines and 
factories), as regards special protection against industrial injury 
to health and limb, took place, both in parliament and in the 
department (Home Office) administering them. Another 
strong influence tending towards ultimate development of 
scientific protection of health and life in industry began in the 
work and reports of the series of sanitary commissions and Board 
of Health reports from 1843 onwards. In 1844 the mines 
inspector made his first report, but two years later women were 
still employed to some extent underground. Organized inspec- 
tion began in 1850, and in 1854 the Select Committeeon Accidents 
adopted a suggestion of the inspectors for legislative extension 
of the practice of several colliery owners in framing special 
safety rules for working in mines. The act of 1855 provided 
seven general rules, relating to ventilation, fencing of disused 
shafts, proper means for signalling, proper gauges and valve 
for steam-boiler, indicator and brake for machine lowering and 
raising; also it provided that detailed special rules submitted 
by mine-owners to the secretary of state, might, on his approval, 
have the force of law and be enforceable by penalty. The 
Mines Act of i860, besides extending the law to ironstone 
mines, following as it did on a series of disastrous accidents 
and explosions, strengthened some of the provisions for safety. 
At several inquests strong evidence was given of incompetent 
management and neglect of rules, and a demand was made for 
enforcing employment only of certificated managers of coal 
mines. This was not met until the act of 1872, but in i860 
certain sections relating to wages and education were introduced. 
Steady development of the coal industry, increasing association 
among miners, and increased scientific knowledge of means of 
ventilation and of other methods for securing safety, all paved 
the way to the Coal Mines Act of 1872, and in the same year 
health and safety in metalliferous mines received their first 
legislative treatment in a code of similar scope and character 
to that of the Coal Mines Act. This act was amended in 1886, 
and repealed and recodified in 1887; its principal provisions 



are still in force, with certain revised special rules and modifica- 
tions as regards reporting of accidents (1906) and employment 
of children (1903). It was based on the recommendations of a 
Royal Commission, which had reported in 1864, and which had 
shown the grave excess of mortality and sickness among metal- 
liferous miners, attributed to the inhalation of gritty particles, 
imperfect ventilation, great changes of temperature, excessive 
physical exertion, exposure to wet, and other causes. The pro- 
hibition of employment of women and of boys under ten years 
underground in this class of mines, as well as in coal mines, 
had been effected by the act of 1842, and inspection had been 
provided for in the act of i860; these were in amended form 
included in the code of 1872, the age of employment of boys 
underground being raised to twelve. In the Coal Mines Act 
of 1872 we see the first important effort to provide a complete 
code of regulation for the special dangers to health, life and 
limb in coal mines apart from other mines; it applied to 
" mines of coal, mines of stratified ironstone, mines of shale and 
mines of fire-clay." Unlike the companion act — applying to 
all other mines — it maintained the age limit of entering under- 
ground employment for boys at ten years, but for those between 
ten and twelve it provided for a system of working analogous 
to the half-time system in factories, including compulsory school 
attendance. The limits of employment for boys from twelve 
to sixteen were 10 hours in any one day and 54 in anyone week. 
The chief characteristics of the act lay in extension of the 
" general " safety rules, improvement of the method of formulat- 
ing " special " safety rules, provision for certificated and com- 
petent management, and increased inspection. Several important 
matters were transferred from the special to the general rules, 
such as compulsory use of safety lamps where needed, regulation 
of use of explosives, and securing of roofs and sides. Special 
rules, before being submitted to the secretary of state for 
approval, must be posted in the mine for two weeks, with a 
notice that objections might be sent by any person employed 
to the district inspector. Wilful neglect of safety provisions 
became punishable in the case of employers as well as miners 
by imprisonment with hard labour. But the most important 
new step lay in the sections relating to daily control and super- 
vision of every mine by a manager holding a certificate of com- 
petency from the secretary of state, after examination by a 
board of examiners appointed by the secretary of state, power 
being retained for him to cause later inquiry into competency 
of the holder of the certificate, and to cancel or suspend the 
certificate in case of proved unfitness. 

Returning to the development of factory and workshop law 
from the year 1844, the main line of effort — after the act of 
1847 had restricted hours of women and young persons to 10 
a day and fixed the daily limits between 6 a.m. and 6 P.M. 
(Saturday 6 a.m. to 2 p.m.) — lay in bringing trade after trade 
in some degree under the scope of this branch of law, which had 
hitherto only regulated conditions in textile factories. Bleaching 
and dyeing works were included by the acts of i860 and 1862; 
lace factories by that of 1861; calendering and finishing by 
acts of 1863 and 1864; bakehouses became partially regulated 
by an act of 1863, with special reference to local authorities for 
administration of its clauses. The report of the third Children's 
Employment Commission brought together in accessible form 
the miserable facts relating to child labour in a number of un- 
regulated industries in the year 1862, and the act of 1864 brought 
some of (these earthenware-making, lucifer match-making, 
percussion cap and cartridge making, paper-staining, and fustian 
cutting) partly under the scope of the various textile factory 
acts in force. A larger addition of trades was made three years 
later, but the act of 1864 is particularly interesting in that it 
first embodied some of the results of inquiries of expert medical 
and sanitary commissioners, by requiring ventilation to be 
applied to the removal of injurious gases, dust, and other im- 
purities generated in manufacture, and made a first attempt 
to engraft part of the special rules system from the mines acts. 
The provisions for framing such rules disappeared in the Con- 
1 solidating Act of 1878, to be revived in a better form later. 



12 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS 



The Sanitary Act of 1866, administered by local authorities, 
provided for general sanitation in any factories and workshops 
not under existing factory acts, and the Workshops Regulation 
Act of 1867, similarly to be administered by local authorities, 
amended in 1870, practically completed the application of the 
main principle of the factory acts to all places in which manual 
labour was exercised for gain in the making or finishing of 
articles or parts of articles for sale. A few specially dangerous 
or injurious trades brought under regulation in 1864 and 1867 
(e.g. earthenware and lucifer match making, glass-making) 
ranked as "factories," although not using mechanical power, 
and for a time employment of less than fifty persons relegated 
certain work-places to the category of "workshops," but broadly 
the presence or absence of such motor power in aid of process 
was made and has remained the distinction between factories 
and workshops. The Factory Act of 1874, the last of the series 
before the great Consolidating Act of 1878, raised the minimum 
age of employment for children to ten years in textile factories. 
In most of the great inquiries into conditions of child labour 
the fact has come clearly to light, in regard to textile and non- 
textile trades alike, that parents as much as any employers 
have been responsible for too early employment and excessive 
hours of employment of children, and from early times until 
to-day in factory legislation it has been recognized that they 
must to some extent be held responsible for due observation of 
the limits imposed. For example, in 1831 it was found necessary 
to protect occupiers against parental responsibility for false 
certificates of age, and in 1833 parents of a child or " any Person 
having any benefit from the wages of such child " were made 
to share responsibility for employment of children without school 
attendance or beyond legal hours. 

During the discussions on the bill which became law in 1874, 
it had become apparent that revision and consolidation of the 
multiplicity of statutes then regulating manufacturing industry 
had become pressingly necessary; modifications and exceptions 
for exceptional conditions in separate industries needed re- 
consideration and systematization on clear principles, and the 
main requirements of the law could with great advantage be 
applied more generally to all the industries. In particular, 
the daily limits as to period of employment, pauses for meals, 
and holidays, needed to be unified for non-textile factories and 
workshops, so as to bring about a standard working-day, and 
thus prevent the tendency in "the larger establishments to 
farm out work among the smaller, where it is done under less 
favourable conditions both sanitary and educational. " 1 In 
these main directions, and that of simplifying definitions, sum- 
marizing special sanitary provisions that had been gradually 
introduced for various trades, and centralizing and improving 
the organization of the inspectorate, the Commission of 1876 
on the Factory Acts made its recommendations, and the Factory 
Act of 1878 took effect. In the fixed working-day, provisions 
for pauses, holidays, general and special exceptions, distinctions 
between systems of employment for children, young persons 
and women, education of children and certificates of fitness for 
children and young persons, limited regulation of domestic 
workshops, general principles of administration and definitions, 
the law of 1878 was made practically the same as that embodied 
in the later principal act of 1001. More or less completely revised 
are: (a) the sections in the 1878 act relating to mode of control- 
ling sanitary conditions in workshops (since 1891 primarily 
enforced by the local sanitary authority); (b) provision for 
reporting accidents and for enforcing safety (other than fencing 
of mill gearing and dangerous machinery); (c) detailed regula- 
tion of injurious and dangerous process and trades; (d) powers 
of certifying surgeons; (e) amount of overtime permissible 
(greatly reduced in amount and now confined to adults) ; (/) 
age for permissible employment of a child has been raised from 
ten years to twelve years. Entirely new since the act of 1878 
are the provisions: (a) for control of outwork; (b) for supplying 
particulars of work and wages to piece-workers, enabling them 

1 Minutes of Evidence, House of Commons, 1876; quoted in 
History of Factory Legislation, by Harrison and Hutchinson, p. 179. 



to compute the total amount of wages payable to them; (e) 
extension of the act to laundries; (/) a tentative effort to limit 
the too early employment of mothers after childbirth. 

II. Law of United Kingdom, 1910 

Factories and Workshops.— -The act of 1878 remained until 
1001, although much had been meanwhile superimposed, a 
monument to the efforts of the great factory reformers of the 
first half of the 19th century, and the general groundwork of 
safety for workers in factories and workshops in the main 
divisions of sanitation, security against accidents, physical 
fitness of workers, general limitation of hours and times of employ- 
ment for young workers and women. The act of 1901, which 
came into force 1st January 1902 (and became the principal 
act), was an amending as well as a consolidating act. Comparison 
of the two acts shows, however, that, in spite of the advantages 
of further consolidation and helpful changes in arrangement of 
sections and important additions which tend towards a specialized 
hygiene for factory life, the fundamental features of the law 
as fought out in the 19th century remain undisturbed. So far 
as the law has altered in character, it has done so chiefly by 
gradual development of certain sanitary features, originally 
subordinate, and by strengthening provision for security against 
accidents and not by retreat from its earlier aims. At the same 
time a basis for possible new developments can be seen in the 
protection of " outworkers " as well as factory workers against 
fraudulent or defective particulars of piece-work rates of wages. 
Later acts directly and indirectly affecting the law are certain 
acts of 1903, 1906, 1907, to be touched on presently. 

The act of 1878, in a series of acts from 1883 to 1895, received 
striking additions, based (1) on the experience gained in other 
branches of protective legislation, e.g. development 
of the method of regulation of dangerous trades by ^ ddl ^°° s 
"special rules " and administrative inquiry into j 8 fs. 
accidents under Coal Mines Acts; (2) on the findings 
of royal commissions and parliamentary inquiries, e.g. increased 
control of "outwork " and domestic workshops, and limitation 
of "overtime "; (3) on the development of administrative 
machinery for enforcing the more modern law relating to public 
health, e.g. transference of administration of sanitary provisions 
in workshops to the local sanitary authorities; (4) on the trade- 
union demand for means for securing trustworthy records of 
wage-contracts between employer and workman, e.g. the section 
requiring particulars of work and wages for piece-workers. The 
first additions to the act of 1878 were, however, almost purely 
attempts to deal more adequately than had been attempted 
in the code of 1878 with certain striking instances of trades 
injurious to health. Thus the Factory and Workshop Act of 
1883 provided that white-lead factories should not be carried 
on without a certificate of conformity with certain conditions, 
and also made provision for special rules, on lines later superseded 
by those laid down in the act of 1891, applicable to any employ- 
ment in a factory or workshop certified as dangerous or injurious 
by the secretary of state. The act of 1883 also dealt with sanitary 
conditions in bakehouses. Certain definitions and explanations 
of previous enactments touching overtime and employment 
of a child in any factory or workshop were also included in the 
act. A class of factories in which excessive heat and humidity 
seriously affected the health of operatives was next dealt with 
in the Cotton Cloth Factories Act 1889. This provided for 
special notice to the chief inspector from all occupiers of cotton 
cloth factories (i.e. any room, shed, or workshop or part thereof 
in which weaving of cotton cloth is carried on) who intend to 
produce humidity by artificial means; regulated both tempera- 
ture of workrooms and amount of moisture in the atmosphere, 
and provided for tests and records of the same; and fixed a 
standard minimum volume of fresh air (600 cub. ft.) to be ad- 
mitted in every hour for every person employed in the factory. 
Power was retained for the secretary of state to modify by order 
the standard for the maximum limit of humidity of the atmo- 
sphere at any given temperature. A short act in 1870 extended 
this power to other measures for the protection of health. 



FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS] LABOUR LEGISLATION 



*3 



The special measures from 1878 to 1889 gave valuable pre- 
cedents for further developments of special hygiene in factory 
life, but the next advance in the Factory and Workshop Act 
1891, following the House of Lords Committee on the sweating 
system and the Berlin International Labour Conference, extended 
over much wider ground. Its principal objects were: (a) to 
render administration of the law relating to workshops more 
efficient, particularly as regards sanitation; with this end in 
view it made the primary controlling authority for sanitary 
matters in workshops the local sanitary authority (now the 
district council), acting by their officers, and giving them the 
powers of the less numerous body of factory inspectors, while at 
the same time the provisions of the Public Health Acts replaced 
in workshops the very similar sanitary provisions of the Factory 
Acts; (6) to provide for greater security against accidents and 
more efficient fencing of machinery in factories; (c) to extend 
the method of regulation of unhealthy or dangerous occupations 
by application of special rules and requirements to any incident 
of employment (other than in a domestic workshop) certified 
by the secretary of state to be dangerous or injurious to health 
or dangerous to life or limb; (d) to raise the age of employment 
of children and restrict the employment of women immediately 
after childbirth; (e) to require particulars of rate of wages to 
be given with work to piece-workers in certain branches of the 
textile industries; (/) to amend the act of 1878 in various 
subsidiary ways, with the view of improving the administration 
of its principles, e.g. by increasing the means of checking the 
amount of overtime worked, empowering inspectors to enter 
work-places used as dwellings without a justice's warrant, and 
the imposition of minimum penalties in certain cases. On this 
act followed four years of greatly accelerated administrative 
activity. No fewer than sixteen trades were scheduled by the 
secretary of state as dangerous to health. The manner of pre- 
paring and establishing suitable rules was greatly modified by 
the act of 1901 and will be dealt with in that connexion. 

The Factory and Workshop Act 1895 followed thus on a 
period of exercise of new powers of administrative regulation 
(the period being also that during which the Royal Commission 
on Labour made its wide survey of industrial conditions), and 
after two successive annual reports of the chief inspector of 
factories had embodied reports and recommendations from the 
women inspectors, who in 1893 were first added to the inspector- 
ate. Again, the chief features of an even wider legislative effort 
than that of 1891 were the increased stringency and definiteness 
of the measures for securing hygienic and safe conditions of work. 
Some of these measures, however, involved new principles, as 
in the provision for the prohibition of the use of a dangerous 
machine or structure by the order of a magistrate's court, and 
the power to include in the special rules drawn up in pursuance 
of section 8 of the act of 1891, the prohibition of the employment 
of any class of persons, or the limitation of the period of employ- 
ment of any class of persons in any process scheduled by order 
of the secretary of state. These last two powers have both been 
exercised, and with the exercise of the latter passed away, 
without opposition, the absolute freedom of the employer of 
the adult male labourer to carry on his manufacture without 
legislative limitation of the hours of labour. Second only in 
significance to these new developments was the addition, for 
the first time since 1867, of new classes of workplaces not 
covered by the general definitions in section 93 of the Con- 
solidating Act of 1878, viz. : (a) laundries (with special conditions 
as to hours, &c.) ; (b) docks, wharves, quays, warehouses and 
premises on which machinery worked by power is temporarily 
used for the purpose of the construction of a building or any 
structural work in connexion with the building (for the purpose 
only of obtaining security against accidents). Other entirely 
new provisions in the act of 1895, later strengthened by the act 
of 1 901, were the requirement of a reasonable temperature in 
workrooms, the requirement of lavatories for the use of -persons 
employed in any department where poisonous substances are 
vsed, the obligation on occupiers and medical practitioners to 
report cases of industrial poisoning; and the penalties imposed 



on an employer wilfully allowing wearing apparel to be made, 
cleaned or repaired in a dwelling-house where an inmate is 
suffering from infectious disease. Another provision empowered 
the secretary of state to specify classes of outwork and areas 
with a view to the regulation of the sanitary condition of premises 
in which outworkers are employed. Owing to the conditions 
attached to its exercise, no case was found in which this power 
could come into operation, and the act of 1901 deals with the 
matter on new lines. The requirement of annual returns from 
occupiers of persons employed, and the competency of the person 
charged with infringing the act to give evidence in his defence, 
were important new provisions, as was also the adoption of the 
powers to direct a formal investigation of any accident on the 
lines laid down in section 45 of the Coal Mines Regulation Act 
1887. Other sections, relating to sanitation and safety, were 
developments of previous regulations, e.g. the fixing of a standard 
of overcrowding, provision of sanitary accommodation separate 
for each sex where the standard of the Public Health Act Amend- 
ment Act of 1890 had not been adopted by the competent local 
sanitary authority, power to order a fan or other mechanical 
means to carry off injurious gas, vapour or other impurity 
(the previous power covering only dust). The fencing of 
machinery and definition of accidents were made more precise, 
young persons were prohibited from cleaning dangerous 
machinery, and additional safeguards against risk of injury by 
fire or panic were introduced. On the question of employment 
the foremost amendments lay in the almost complete prohibition 
of overtime for young persons, and the restriction of the power 
of an employer to employ protected persons outside his factory 
or workshop on the same day that he had employed them in 
the factory or workshop. Under the head of particulars of work 
and wages to piece-workers an important new power, highly 
valued by the workers, was given to apply the principle with 
the necessary modifications by order of the secretary of state 
to industries other than textile and to outworkers as well as 
to those employed inside factories and workshops. 

In 1899 an indirect modification of the limitation to employ- 
ment of children was effected by the Elementary Education 
Amendment Act, which, by raising from eleven to 
twelve the minimum age at which a child may, by l90U 
the by-laws of a local authority, obtain total or 
partial exemption from the obligation to attend school, made it 
unlawful for an occupier to take into employment any child 
under twelve in such a manner as to prevent full-time attendance 
at school. The age of employment became generally thereby 
the same as it has been for employment at a mine above ground 
since 1887. The act of 1901 made the prohibition of employ- 
ment of a child under twelve in a factory or workshop direct 
and absolute. Under the divisions of sanitation, safety, fitness 
for employment, special regulation of dangerous trades, special 
control of bakehouses, exceptional treatment of creameries, new 
methods of dealing with home work and outworkers, important 
additions were made to the general law by the act of 1901, as 
also in regulations for strengthened administrative control. 
New general sanitary provisions were those prescribing : (a) 
ventilation per se for every workroom, and empowering the 
secretary of state to fix a standard of sufficient ventilation; 
(b) drainage of wet floors; (c) the power of the secretary of 
state to define in certain cases what shall constitute sufficient 
and suitable sanitary accommodation. New safety provisions 
were those relating to — (a) Examination and report on steam 
boilers; (b) prohibition of employment of a child in cleaning 
below machinery in motion; (c) power of the district council 
to make by-laws for escape in case of fire. The most important 
administrative alterations were : (a) a justice engaged in the 
same trade as, or being officer of an association of persons 
engaged in the same trade as, a person charged with an offence 
may not act at the hearing and determination of the charge; 
(b) ordinary supervision of sanitary conditions under which 
outwork is carried on was transferred to the district council, 
power being reserved to the Home Office to intervene in case of 
neglect or default by any district council. 



14 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS 



Defini- 
tions. 



The Employment of Children Act 1903, while primarily 
(jroviding for industries outside the scope of the Factory Act, 
incidentally secured that children employed as half- 
*o!n "ioda t ™ ers should not also be employed in other occupa- 
\907. ' tions.. The Notice of Accidents Act 1906 amended 
the whole system of notification of accidents, simul- 
taneously in mines, quarries, factories and workshops, and 
wil] be set out in following paragraphs. The Factory and 
Workshop Act of 1907 amended the law in respect of laundries 
by generally applying the provisions of 1901 to trade laundries 
while granting them choice of new exceptional periods, and by 
extending the provisions of the act (with certain powers to the 
Home Office by Orders laid before parliament to allow variations) 
to institution laundries carried on for charitable or reformatory 
purposes. The Employment of Women Act 1907 repealed 
an exemption in the act of 1901 (and earlier acts) relating to 
employment of women in flax scutch mills, thus bringing this 
employment under the ordinary provisions as to period of 
employment. 

The following paragraphs aim at presenting an idea of the 
scope of the modified and amended law, as a whole, adding 
where clearly necessary reference to the effect of acts, which 
ceased to apply after the 31st of December 1901: — 

The workplaces to which the act applies are, first, " factories " 
and "workshops"; secondly, laundries, docks, wharves, &c, 
enumerated above as introduced and regulated partially 
only by the act of 1895 and subsequent acts. Apart from 
this secondary list, and having regard to workplaces 
which remain undefined by the law, the act may broadly be said to 
apply to premises, rooms or places in which manual labour, with or 
without the aid of mechanical power, is exercised for gain in or 
incidental to the making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, washing, 
cleaning or finishing or adapting for sale of any article or part of any 
article. If steam, water or other mechanical power is used in aid of 
the manufacturing process, the workplace is a factory; if not, it is 
a workshop. There is, however, a list of eighteen classes of works 
(brought under the factory law for reasons of safety, &c. s before 
workshops generally were regulated) which are defined as factories 
whether power is used in them or not. Factories are, again, sub- 
divided into textile and non-textile: they are textile if the machinery 
is employed in preparing, manufacturing or finishing cotton, wool, 
hair, silk, flax, hemp, jute, tow, China grass, cocoanut fibre or other 
like material either separately or mixed together, or mixed with any 
other material, or any fabric made thereof; all other factories are 
non-textile. The distinction turns on the historical origin of factory 
regulation and the regulations in textile factories remain in some 
respects slightly more stringent than in the non-textile factories 
and workshops, though the general provisions are almost the same. 
Three special classes of workshops have for certain purposes to be 
distinguished from ordinary workshops, which include tenement 
workshops: (a) Domestic workshops, i.e. any private house, room or 
place, which, though used as a dwelling, is by reason of the work 
carried on there a workshop, and in which the only persons employed 
are members of the same family, dwelling there alone — in these 
women's hours are unrestricted; (b) Women's workshops, in which 
neither children nor young persons are employed — in these a more 
elastic arrangement of hours is permissible than in ordinary work- 
shops ; (c) Workshops in which men only are employed — these come 
under the same general regulations in regard to sanitation as other 
workshops, also under the provisions of the Factory Act as regards 
security, and, if certified by the secretary of state, may be brought 
under special regulations. They are otherwise outside the scope of 
the act of 1901. 

The person to whom the regulations apply in the above-defined 
workplaces are children, i.e. persons between the ages of twelve and 
fourteen, young persons, i.e. boys or girls between the ages of fourteen 
(or if an educational certificate has been obtained, thirteen) and 
eighteen years of age, and women, i.e. females above the age of 
eighteen; these are all " protected " persons to whom the general 
provisions of the act, inclusive of the regulation of hours and times 
of employment, apply. To adult men generally those provisions 
broadly only apply which are aimed at securing sanitation and 
safety in the conduct of the manufacturing process. 

The person generally responsible for observance of the provisions 
of the law, whether these relate to health, safety, limitation of 
the hours of labour or other matters, is the occupier (a term un- 
defined in the act) of the factory, workshop or laundry. There are, 
however, limits to his responsibility: (a) generally, where the 
occupier has used due diligence to enforce the execution of the act, 
and can show that another person, whether agent, servant, workman 
or other person, is the real offender; (b) specially in a factory the 
sections relating to employment of protected persons, where the 
owner or hirer of a machine or implement driven by mechanical 
power is some person other than the occupier of the factory, the 



Sanita- 
tion. 



owner or hirer, so far as respects any offence against the act com- 
mitted in relation to a person who is employed in connexion with the 
machine or implement, and is in the employment or pay of the 
owner or hirer, shall be deemed to be the occupier of the factory; 
(c) for the one purpose of reporting accidents, the actual employer 
of the person injured in any factory or workshop is bound under 
penalty immediately to report the same to the occupier; (d) so far 
as relates to sanitary conditions, fencing of machinery, affixing of 
notices in tenement factories, the owner (as defined by the Public 
Health Act 1875), generally speaking, takes the place of the occupier. 
Employment in a factory or workshop includes work whether for 
wages or not: (a) in a manufacturing process or handicraft, (6) in 
cleaning any place used for the same, (c) in cleaning or oiling any part 
of the machinery, (d) any work whatsoever incidental to the process 
or handicraft, or connected with the article made. Persons found in 
any part of the factory or workshop, where machinery is used or 
manufacture carried on, except at meal-times, or when machinery 
is stopped, are deemed to be employed until the contrary is proved. 
The act, however, does not apply to employment for the sole purpose 
of repairing the premises or machinery, nor to the process of pre- 
serving and curing fish immediately upon its arrival in the fishing 
boats in order to prevent the fish from being destroyed or spoiled, 
nor to the process of cleaning and preparing fruit so far as is necessary 
to prevent it from spoiling during the months of June, July, August 
and September. Certain light handicrafts carried on by a family 
only in a private house or room at irregular intervals are also outside 
the scope of the act. 

The foremost provisions are those relating to the sanitary con- 
dition of the workplaces and the general security of every class of 
worker. Every factory must be kept in a cleanly con- 
dition, free from noxious effluvia, ventilated in such a 
manner as to render harmless, so far as practicable, gases, 
vapours, dust or other impurities generated in the manufacture ; must 
be provided with sufficient and suitable sanitary conveniences separate 
for the sexes; must not be overcrowded (not less than 250 cubic ft. 
during the day, 400 during overtime, for each worker). In these 
matters the law of public health takes in workshops the place of the 
Factory Act, the requirements being substantially the 'same. 
Although, however, primarily the officers of the district council 
enforce the sanitary provisions in workshops, the government factory 
inspectors may give notice of any defect in them to the district 
council in whose district they are situate ; and if proceedings are not 
taken within one month by the latter, the factory inspector may act 
in default and recover expenses from the district council. This power 
does not extend to domestic workshops which are under the law 
relating to public health so far as general sanitation is concerned. 
General powers are reserved to the secretary of state, where he 
is satisfied that the Factory Act or law relating to public health 
as regards workplaces has not been carried out by any district 
council, to authorize a factory inspector during a period named in 
his order to act instead of the district council. Other general sanitary 
provisions administered by the government inspectors are the re- 
quirement in factories and workshops of washing conveniences where 
poisonous substances are used ; adequate measures for securing and 
maintaining a reasonable temperature of such a kind as will not 
interfere with the purity of the air in each room in which any person 
is employed ; maintenance of sufficient means of ventilation in every 
room in a factory or workshop (in conformity with such standard as 
may be prescribed by order of the secretary of state) ; provision of a 
fan to carry off injurious dust, gas or other impurity, and prevent 
their inhalation in any factory or workshop; drainage of floors 
where wet processes are carried on. For laundries and bakehouses 
there are further sanitary regulations ; e.g. in laundries all stoves for 
heating irons shall be sufficiently separated from any ironing-room 
or ironing-table, and the floors shall be " drained in such a manner 
as will allow the water to flow off freely "; and in bakehouses a 
cistern supplying water to a bakehouse must be quite separate from 
that supplying water to a water-closet, and the latter may not 
communicate directly with the bakehouse. Use of underground 
bakehouses (i.e. a baking room with floor more than 3 ft. below the 
ground adjoining) is prohibited, except where already used at the 
passing of the act; further, in these cases, after 1st January 1904, 
a certificate as to suitability in light, ventilation, &c, must be ob- 
tained from the district council. In other trades certified by the 
secretary of state further sanitary regulations may be made to increase 
security for health by special rules to be presently touched on. The 
secretary of state may also make sanitary requirements a condition 
of granting such exceptions to the general law as he is empowered to 
grant. In factories, as distinct from workshops, a periodical lime 
washing (or washing with hot water and soap where paint and 
varnish have been used) of all inside walls and ceilings once at least 
in every fourteen months is generally required (in bakehouses once 
in six months). As regards sufficiency and suitability' of sanitary 
accommodation, the standards determined by order of the secretary 
of state shall be observed in the districts to which it is made applic- 
able. An order was made called the Sanitary Accommodation Order, 
on the 4th of February 1903, the definitions and standards in which 
have also been widely adopted by local sanitary authorities in 
districts where the Order itself has no legal force, the local authority 
having parallel power under the Public Health Act of 1890. 



FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS] LABOUR LEGISLATION 



15 



Security in the use of machinery is provided for by precautions 
as regards the cleaning of machinery in motion and working between 
. the fixed and traversing parts, of self-acting machines 

Securi y j r i ven by power, by fencing of machinery, and by em- 
* .. powering inspectors to obtain an order from a court of 

accidents. summar y jurisdiction to prohibit the use, temporarily or 
absolutely, of machinery, ways, works or plant, including use of a 
steam boiler, which cannot be used without danger to life and 
limb. Every hoist and fly-wheel directly connected with mechanical 
power, and every part of a water-wheel or engine worked by 
mechanical power, and every wheel race, must be fenced, whatever 
its position, and every part of mill-gearing or dangerous machinery 
must either be fenced or be in such position that it is as safe as if 
fenced. No protected persons may clean any part of mill-gearing in 
motion, and children may further not clean any part of or below 
manufacturing machinery in motion by aid of mechanical power; 
young persons further may not clean any machinery if the inspector 
notifies it to the occupier as dangerous. Security as regards the use 
of dangerous premises is provided for by empowering courts of 
summary jurisdiction, on the application of an inspector, to prohibit 
their use until the danger has been removed. The district council, or, 
in London, the county council, or in case of their default the factory 
inspector, can require certain provisions for escape in case of fire in 
factories and workshops in which more than forty persons are em- 
ployed ; special powers to make by-laws for means of escape from 
fire in any factory or workshop are, in addition to any powers for 
prevention of fire that they possess, given to every district council, 
in London to the county council. The means of escape must be kept 
free from obstruction. Provisions are made for doors to open, out- 
wards in each room in which more than ten persons are employed, ind 
to prevent the locking, bolting or fastening of doors so that they 
cannot easily be opened from inside when any person is employed or 
at meals inside the workplace. Further, provisions for security may 
be provided in special regulations. Every boiler for generating 
steam in a factory or workshop or place where the act applies must 
have a proper safety valve, a steam gauge, and a water gauge, and 
every such boiler, valve and gauge must be maintained in proper 
condition. Examination by a competent person must take place 
at least once in every fourteen months. The occupier of any factory 
or workshop may be liable for penal compensation not exceeding £100 
in case of injury or death due to neglect of any provision or special 
rule, the whole or any part of which may be applied for the benefit 
of the injured person or his family, as the secretary of state deter- 
mines. When a death has occurred by accident in a factory or 
workshop, the coroner must advise the factory inspector for the 
district of the place and time of the inquest. The secretary of state 
may order a formal investigation of the circumstances of any accident 
as in the case of mines. Careful and detailed provisions are made for 
the reporting by occupiers to inspectors, and entry in the registers 
at factories and workshops of accidents which occur in a factory or 
workshop and (a) cause loss of life to a person employed there, or (b) 
are due to machinery moved by mechanical power, molten metal, 
hot liquid, explosion, escape of gas or steam, electricity, so disabling 
any person employed in the factory or workshop as to cause him to 
be absent throughout at least one whole day from his ordinary work, 
(c) are due to any other special cause which the secretary of state may 
determine, (d) not falling under the previous heads and yet cause 
disablement for more than seven days' ordinary work to any person 
working in the factory or workshop. In the case of (a) or (b) notice 
has also to be sent to the certifying surgeon by the occupier. Cases 
of lead, phosphorus, arsenical and mercurial poisoning, or anthrax, 
contracted in any factory or workshop must similarly be reported 
and registered by the occupier, and the duty of reporting these cases 
is also laid on medical practitioners under whose observation they 
come. The list of classes of poisoning can be extended by the 
secretary of state's order. 

Certificates of physical fitness for employment must be obtained 
by the occupier from the certifying surgeon for the district for all 
Physical persons under sixteen years of age employed in a factory, 
fit s of am ' m an y c ' ass °f workshops to which the requirement 
. has been extended by order of the secretary of state, and 

an inspector may suspend any such persons for re-ex- 
amination in a factory, or for examination in a workshop, when 
" disease or bodily infirmity " unfits the person, in his opinion, for 
the work of the place. The certifying surgeon may examine the 
process as well as the person submitted, and may qualify the certifi- 
cate he grants by conditions as to the work on which the person is fit 
to be employed. An occupier of a factory or workshop or laundry 
shall not knowingly allow a woman to be employed therein within 
four weeks after childbirth. 

The employment of children, young persons and women is regu- 
lated as regards ordinary and exceptional hours of work, ordinary 
Hours of anc ' exceptional meal-times, length of spells and holidays. 
protected T ne outs 'de limits of ordinary periods of employment and 
persons. holidays are, broadly, the same for textile factories as for 
non-textile factories and workshops; the main difference 
lies in the requirement of not less than a total two hours' interval for 
meals out of the twelve, and a limit of four and a half hours for any 
spell of work, a longer weekly half holiday, and a prohibition of 
overtime, in textile factories, as compared with a total one and a half 



hours' interval for meals and a limit of five hours for spells and 
(conditional) permission of overtime in non-textile factories. The 
hours of work must be specified, and from Monday to Friday may be 
between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., or 7 A.M. to 7 p.m. ; in non-textile factories 
and workshops the hours also may be taken between 8 a.m. and 8 P.M. 
or by order of the secretary of state for special industries 9 A.M. to 
9 P.M. Between these outside limits, with the proviso that meal- 
times must be fixed and limits as to spells observed, women and 
young persons may be employed the full time, children on the 
contrary only half time, on alternate days, or in alternate sets 
attending school half time regularly. On Saturdays, in textile 
factories in which the period commences at 6 a.m. all manufactur- 
ing work must cease at 12 if not less than one hour is given for meals, 
or 11.30 if less than one hour is given for meals (half an hour extra 
allowed for cleaning), and in non-textile factories and workshops 
at 2 P.M., 3 P.M. or 4 p.m., according as the hour of beginning is 6 A.M., 
7 a.m. or 8 a.m. In " domestic workshops " the total number of hours 
for young persons and children must not exceed those allowed in 
ordinary workshops, but the outside limits for beginning and ending 
are wider; and the case is similar as regards hours of women in 
" women's workshops." Employment outside a factory or workshop 
in the business of the same is limited in a manner similar to that laid 
down in the Shop Hours Act, to be touched on presently. Overtime 
in certain classes of factories, workshops and warehouses attached 
to them is permitted, under conditions specified in the acts, for 
women, to meet seasonal or unforeseen pressure of business, or 
where goods of a perishable nature are dealt with, for young persons 
only in a very limited degree in factories liable to stoppage for 
drought or flood, or for an unfinished process. These and other 
cases of exceptional working are under minute and careful adminis- 
trative regulations. Broadly these same regulations as to exceptional 
overtime may apply in laundries but the act of 1907 granted to 
laundries not merely ancillary to the manufacture carried on in a 
factory or workshop (e.g. shirt and collar factories), additional power 
to fix different periods of employment for different days of the week, 
and to make use of one or other of two exceptional methods of 
arranging the daily periods so as to permit of periods of different 
length on different days; these exceptional periods cannot be 
worked in addition to overtime permissible under the general law. 
Laundries carried on in connexion with charitable or reformatory 
institutions were brought in 1907 within the scope of the law, but 
special schemes for regulation as to hours, meals, holidays, &c, may 
be submitted by the managers to the secretary of state, who is em- 
powered to approve them if he is satisfied that they are not less 
favourable than the corresponding provisions of the principal act; 
such schemes shall be laid as soon as possible before both Houses of 
Parliament. 

Night work is allowed in certain specified industries, under con- 
ditions, for male young persons, but for no other workers under 
eighteen, and overtime for women may never be later than Dajiff eroos 
10 P.M. or before 6 a.m. Sunday work is prohibited except, anaua . 
under conditions, for Jews; and in factories, workshops «, ea i»t„ 
and laundries six holidays (generally the Bank holidays) i B a U stries 
must be allowed in the year. In creameries in which 
women and young persons are employed the secretary of state may 
by special order vary the beginning and end of the daily period of 
employment, and allow employment for not more than three hours 
on Sundays and holidays. 

The general provisions of the act may be supplemented where 
specially dangerous or unhealthy trades are carried on, by special 
regulations. This was provided for in the law in force until 31st 
December 1901, as in the existing principal act, and the power to 
establish rules had been exercised between 1892 and 1 901 in twenty- 
two trades or processes where injury arose either from handling of 
dangerous substances, such as lead and lead compounds, phosphorus, 
arsenic or various chemicals, or where there is inhalation of irritant 
dust or noxious fumes, or where there is danger of explosion or in- 
fection of anthrax. Before the rule could be drawn up under the acts 
of 1891 to 1895, the secretary of state had to certify that in the par- 
ticular case or class of cases in question (e.g. process or machinery), 
there was, in his opinion, danger to life or limb or risk of injury to 
health ; thereupon the chief inspector might propose to the occupier 
of the factory or workshop such special rules or measures as he thought 
necessary to meet the circumstances. The occupier might object 
or propose modifications, but if he did not the rules became binding 
in twenty-one days; if he objected, and the secretary of state did not 
assent to any proposed modification, the matters in difference had 
to be referred to arbitration, the award in which finally settled the 
rules or requirement to be observed. In November 1901, in the case 
of the earthenware and china industry, the last arbitration of the 
kind was opened and was finally concluded in 1903. The parties to 
the arbitration were the chief inspector, on behalf of the secretary of 
state, and the occupier or occupiers, but the workmen interested 
might be and were represented on the arbitration. In the establishing 
of the twenty-two sets of existing special rules only thrice has 
arbitration been resorted to, and only on two of these occasions 
were workmen represented. The provisions as to the arbitration 
were laid down in the first schedule to the Act of 1891, and were 
similar to those under the Coal Mines Regulation Acts. Many of 
these codes have still the force of law and will continue until in due 



i6 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[COAL MINES 



course revised under the amended procedure of the act of 1901. 
They might not only regulate conditions of employment, but also 
restrict or prohibit employment of any class of workers; where 
such restriction or prohibition affected adult workers the rules had to 
be laid for forty days before both Houses of Parliament before 
coming into operation. The obligation to observe the rules in 
detail lies on Workers as well as on occupiers, and the section in 
the act of 1891 providing a penalty for non-observance was drafted, 
as in the case of the mines, so as to provide for a simultaneous fine 
for each (not exceeding two pounds for the worker, not exceeding ten 
pounds for the employer). 

The provisions as to special regulations of the act of 1901 touch 
primarily the method of procedure for making the regulations, but 
they also covered for the first time domestic workshops and added a 
power as to the kind of regulations that may be made; further, 
they strengthened the sanction for observance of any rules that may 
be established, by placing the occupier in the same general position 
as regards penalty for non-observance as in other matters under the 
act. On the certificate of the secretary of state that any manu- 
facture, machinery, plant, process or manual labour used in factories 
or workshops is dangerous or injurious to life, health or limb, such 
regulations as appear to the secretary of state to meet the necessity 
of the case may be made by him after he has duly published notice : 
(1) of his intention; (2) of the place where copies of the draft regu- 
lations can be obtained; and (3) of the time during which objections 
to them can be made by persons affected. The secretary of state 
may modify the regulations to meet the objections made. If not, 
unless the objection is withdrawn or appears to him frivolous, he 
shall, before making the regulations, appoint a competent person to 
hold a public inquiry with regard to the draft regulations and to 
report to him thereon. The inquiry is to be made under such rules 
as the secretary of state may lay down, and when the regulations are 
made, they must be laid as soon as possible before parliament. Either 
House may annul these regulations or any of them, without prejudice 
to the power of the secretary of state to make new regulations. 
The regulations may apply to all factories or workshops in which the 
certified manufacture, process, &c, is used, or to a specified class. 
They may, among other things, (a) prohibit or limit employment 
of any person or class of persons; (b) prohibit, limit, or control use 
of any material or process; (c) modify or extend special regulations 
contained in the Act. Regulations have been established among 
others in the following trades and processes: felt hat-making where 
any inflammable solvent is used ; file-cutting by hand ; manu- 
facture of electric accumulators; docks, processes of loading, un- 
loading, &c. ; tar distilling ; factories in which self-acting mules are 
used ; use of locomotives ; spinning and weaving of flax, hemp and 
jute; manufacture of paints and colours; heading of yarn dyed by 
means of lead compounds. 

Although the Factory and Workshop Acts have not directly 
regulated wages, they have made certain provision for securing to 
the worker that the amount agreed upon shall be received : 
Measures ^ D y extending every act in force relating to the inspec- 
a £f/' ar ~ *' on °^ we 'ght s ' measures and weighing machines for use 
tlculars ; n ^ e sa [ e f g 00c j s j- those used in a factory or workshop 
to piece- £ of (.Recking or ascertaining the wages of persons em- 
wor ers. pl G y e d; (£) by ensuring that piece-workers in the textile 
trades (and other trades specified by the secretary of state) shall 
receive, before commencing any piece of work, clear particulars of 
the wages applicable to the work to be done and of the work to which 
that rate is to be applied. Unless the particulars of work are ascer- 
tainable by an automatic indicator, they must be given to textile 
workers in writing, and in the case of weavers in the cotton, worsted 
and woollen trades the particulars of wages must be supplied 
separately to each worker, and also shown on a placard in a con- 
spicuous position. In other textile processes, it is sufficient to 
furnish the particulars separately to each worker. The secretary of 
state has used his powers to extend this protection to non-textile 
workers, with suitable modifications, in various hardware industries, 
including pen-making, locks, chains, in wholesale tailoring and 
making of wearing apparel, in fustian cutting, umbrella-making, 
brush-making and a number of other piece-work trades. He 
further has in most of these and other trades used his power to extend 
this protection to outworkers. 

With a view to efficient administration of the act (a) certain 
notices have to be conspicuously exhibited at the factory or work- 
shop, (b) registers and lists kept, and (c) notices sent 
Admlais- to the j nspe ctor by the occupier. Among the first the 
tration. most important are the prescribed abstract of the act, 
the names and addresses of the inspector and certifying surgeon, 
the period of employment, and specified meal-times (which may not 
be changed without fresh notice to the inspector), the air space and 
number of persons who may legally be employed in each room, and 
prescribed particulars of exceptional employment; among the 
second are the general registers of children and young persons em- 
ployed, of accidents, of limewashing, of overtime, and lists of out- 
workers; among the third are the notice of beginning to occupy a 
factory or workshop, _ which the occupier must send within one 
month, report of overtime employment, notice of accident, poisoning 
or anthrax, and returns of persons employed, with such other par- 
ticulars as may be prescribed. These must be sent to the chief 



inspector at intervals of not less than one and not more than three 
years, as may be directed by the secretary of state. 

The secretary of state for the Home Department controls the 
administration of the acts, appoints the inspectors referred to in 
the acts, assigns to them their duties, and regulates the manner and 
cases in which they are to exercise the powers of inspectors. The 
act, however, expressly assigns certain duties and powers to a chief 
inspector and certain to district inspectors. Many provisions of the 
acts depend as to their operation on the making of orders by the 
secretary of state. These orders may impose special obligations 
on occupiers and increase the stringency of regulations, may apply 
exceptions as to employment, and may modify or relax regulations 
to meet special classes of circumstances. In certain cases, already 
indicated, his orders guide or determine the action of district councils, 
and, generally, in case of default by a council he may empower his 
inspectors to act as regards workplaces, instead of the council, both 
under the Factory Acts and Public Health Acts. 

The powers of an inspector are to enter, inspect and examine, by 
day or by night, at any reasonable time, any factory or workshop 
(or laundry, dock, &c), or part of one, when he has reason to believe 
that any person is employed there; to take with him a constable if 
he has reasonable cause to expect obstruction ; to require production 
of registers, certificates, &c, under the acts; to examine, alone or 
in the presence of any other person, as he sees fit, every person in the 
factory or workshop, or in a school where the children employed are 
being educated; to prosecute, conduct or defend before a court of 
summary jurisdiction any proceeding under the acts; and to exercise 
such other powers as are necessary for carrying the act into effect. 
The inspector has also the duty of enforcing the Truck Acts in places, 
and in respect of persons, under the Factory Acts. Certifying 
surgeons are appointed by the chief inspector subject to the regula- 
tions of the secretary of state, and their chief duties are (a) to examine 
workers under sixteen, and persons under special rules, as to physical 
fitness for the daily work during legal periods, with power to grant 
qualified certificates as to the work for which the young worker is fit, 
and (b) to investigate and report on accidents and cases of lead, 
phosphorus or other poisoning and anthrax. 

In 1907 there were registered as under inspection 110,276 
factories, including laundries with power, 146,917 workshops 
(other than men's workshops), including laundries without 
power; of works under special rules or regulations (included 
in the figures just given) there were 10,586 and 19,687 non- 
textile works under orders for supply of particulars to piece- 
workers. Of notices of accidents received there were 124,325, 
of which 1 1 79 were fatal; of reported cases of poisoning there 
were 653, of which 40 were fatal. Prosecutions were taken by 
inspectors in 4474 cases and convictions obtained in 42 n cases. 
Of persons employed there were, according to returns of occupiers, 
1904, 4,165,791 in factories and 688,756 in workshops. 

Coal Mines. — The mode of progress to be recorded in the 
regulation of coal mines since 1872 can be contrasted in one 
aspect with the progress just recorded of factory legislation 
since 1878. Consolidation was again earlier adopted when 
large amendments were found necessary, with the result that 
by far the greater part of the law is to be found in the act of 
1887, which repealed and re-enacted, with amendments, the 
Coal Mines Acts of 1872 and 1886, and the Stratified Ironstone 
Mines (Gunpowder ) Act, 1881. The act of 1881 was simply 
concerned with rules relating to the use of explosives underground. 
The act of 1886 dealt with three questions: (a) The election 
and payment of checkweighers (i.e. the persons appointed and 
paid by miners in pursuance of section 13 of the act of 1887 for 
the purpose of taking a correct account on their behalf of the 
weight of the mineral gotten by them, and for the correct 
determination of certain deductions for which they may be liable) ; 
(b) provision for new powers of the secretary of state to direct 
a formal investigation of any explosion or accident, and its causes 
and circumstances, a provision which was later adopted in the 
law relating to factories; (c) provision enabling any relatives 
of persons whose death may have been caused by explosions 
or accidents in or about mines to attend in person, or by agent, 
coroners' inquests thereon, and to examine witnesses. The act 
of 1887, which amended, strengthened and consolidated these 
acts and the earlier Consolidating Act of 1872, may also be 
contrasted in another aspect with the general acts of factory 
legislation. In scope it formed, as its principal forerunner had 
done, a general code; and in some measure it went farther in 
the way of consolidation than the Factory Acts had done, 
inasmuch as certain questions, which in factories are dealt with 



COAL MINES] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



17 



by statutes distinct from the Factory Acts, have been included 
in the Mines Regulation Acts, e.g. the prohibition of the payment 
of wages in public-houses, and the machinery relating to weights 
and measures whereby miners control their payment; further, 
partly from the less changing nature of the industry, but probably 
mainly from the power of expression gained for miners by their 
organization, the code, so far as it went, at each stage answered 
apparently on the whole more nearly to the views and needs of 
the persons protected than the parallel law relating to factories. 
This was strikingly seen in the evidence before the Royal Com- 
mission on Labour in 1892-1804, where the repeated expression 
of satisfaction on the part of the miners with the provisions 
as distinct from the administration of the code (" with a few 
trifling exceptions ") is in marked contrast with the long and 
varied series of claims and contentions put forward for amend- 
ment of the Factory Acts. 

Since the act of 1887 there have followed five minor acts, 
based on the recommendation of the officials acting under the 
acts, while two of them give effect to claims made by the miners 
before the Royal Commission on Labour. Thus, in 1894, the 
Coal Mines (Checkweigher) Act rendered it illegal for an employer 
(" owner, agent, or manager of any mine, or any person employed 
by or acting under the instructions of any such owner, agent, 
or manager ") to make the removal of a particular checkweigher 
a condition of employment, or to exercise improper influence 
in the appointment of a checkweigher. The need for this 
provision was demonstrated by a decision of the Court of Session 
in Edinburgh, which upheld an employer in his claim to the 
right of dismissing all the workmen and re-engaging them on 
condition that they would dismiss a particular checkweigher. 
In 1896 a short act extended the powers to propose, amend 
and modify special rules, provided for representation of workmen 
on arbitration under the principal act on any matter in difference, 
modified the provision for plans of mines in working and 
abandoned mines, amended three of the general rules (inspection 
before commencing work, use of safety lamp and non-inflamm- 
able substances for stemming), and empowered the secretary 
of state by order to prohibit or regulate the use of any explosive 
likely to become dangerous. In 1900 another brief act raised 
the age of employment of boys underground from twelve to 
thirteen. In 1903 another amending act allowed as an alternative 
qualification for a manager's certificate a diploma in scientific 
and mining training after at least two years' study at a university 
mining school or other educational institution approved by the 
secretary of state, coupled with practical experience of at least 
three years in a mine. In the same year the Employment 
of Children Act affected children in mines to the extent already 
indicated in connexion with factories. In 1905 a Coal Mines 
(Weighing of Minerals) Act improved some provisions relating 
to appointment and pay of checkweighers and facilities for them 
and their duly appointed deputies in carrying out their duties. 
In 1906 the Notice of Accidents Act provided for improved 
annual returns of accidents and for immediate reporting to the 
district inspector of accidents under newly-defined conditions 
as they arise in coal and metalliferous mines. 

While the classes of mines regulated by the act of 1887 are the 
same as those regulated by the act of 1872 (i.e. mines of coal, of 
stratified ironstone, of shale and of fire-clay, including 
works above ground where the minerals are prepared for 
use by screening, washing, &c.) the interpretation of the 
term " mine " is wider and simpler, including " every shaft in the 
course of being sunk, and every level and inclined plane in the 
course of being driven, and all the shafts, levels, planes, works, 
tramways and sidings, both below ground and above ground, in and 
adjacent to and belonging to the mine." Of the persons responsible 
under penalty for the observance of the acts the term " owner " is 
defined precisely as in the act of 1872, but the term " agent " is 
modified to mean " any person appointed as the representative of the 
owner in respect of any mine or any part thereof, and, as such, 
superior to a manager appointed in pursuance of this act." Of the 
persons protected, the term " young person " disappeared from the 
act,, and " boy," i.e. " a male under the age of sixteen years," and 
" girl," i.e. " a female under the age of sixteen years," take their 
place, and the term " woman " means, as before, " a female of the 
age of sixteen years and upwards." The prohibition of employment 
underground of women and girls remains untouched, and the pro- 



Actot 
1887. 



hibition of employment underground of boys has been successively 
extended from boys of the age of ten in 1872 to boys of twelve in 
1887 and to boys of thirteen in 1900. The age of employment of 
boys and girls above ground in connexion with any mine is raised 
from ten years in 1872 to twelve years since 1887. The hours of 
employment of a boy below ground may not exceed fifty -four in any 
one week, nor "ten in any one day from the time of leaving the surface 
to the time of returning to the surface. Above ground any boy or 
girl under thirteen (and over twelve) may not be employed on more 
than six days in any one week ; if employed on more than three days 
in one week, the daily total must not exceed six hours, or in any other 
case ten hours. Protected persons above thirteen are limited to the 
same daily and weekly total of hours as boys below ground, but there 
are further provisions with regard to intervals for meals and pro- 
hibiting employment for more than five hours without an interval of 
at least half an hour for a meal. Registers must be kept of all 
protected persons, whether employed above or below ground. 
Section 38 of the Public Health Act 1875, which requires separate and 
sufficient sanitary conveniences for persons of each sex, was first 
extended by the act of 1887 to the portions of mines above ground in 
which girls and women are employed ; underground this matter is in 
metalliferous mines in Cornwall now provided for by special rules. 
Ventilation, the only other requirement in the acts that can be classed 
as sanitary, is provided for in every mine in the " general rules " 
which are aimed at securing safety of mines, and which, so far as 
ventilation is concerned, seek to dilute and render harmless noxious 
or inflammable gases. The provision which prohibits employment 
of any persons in mines not provided with at least two shafts is made 
much more stringent by the act of 1887 than in the previous code, by 
increasing the distance between the two shafts from 10 to 15 yds., 
and increasing the height of communications between them. Other 
provisions amended or strengthened are those relating to the following 
points: (a) Daily personal supervision of the mine by the certificated 
manager; (6) classes of certificates and constitution of board for 
granting certificates of competency ; (c) plan of workings of any mine 
to be kept up to a date not more than three months previously at the 
office of the mine; (d) notice to be given to the inspector of the 
district by the owner, agent or manager, of accidents in or about any 
mine which cause loss of life or serious personal injury, or are caused 
by explosion of coal or coal dust or any explosive or electricity or 
any other special cause that the secretary of state specifies by order, 
and which causes any personal injury to any person employed in or 
about the mine ; it is provided that the place where an explosion or 
accident occurs causing loss of life or serious personal injury -shall be 
left for inspection for at least three days, unless this would tend to 
increase or continue a danger or impede working of the mine: this 
was new in the act of 1887; (e) notice to be given of opening and 
abandonment of any mine: this was extended to the opening or 
abandonment of any seam ; (/) plan of an abandoned mine or seam 
to be sent within three months; (g) formal investigation of any ex- 
plosion or accident by direction of the secretary of state: this 
provision, first introduced by the act of 1886, was modified in 1887 
to admit the appointment by the secretary of state of " any com- 
petent person " to hold the investigation, whereas under the earlier 
section only an inspector could be appointed. 

The " general rules " for safety in mines have been strengthened in 
many ways since the act of 1872. Particular mention may be made 
of rule 4 of the act of 1887, relating to the inspection of 
conditions as to gas ventilation beyond appointed stations Oeaeral 
at the entrance to the mine or different parts of the mine; ru es ' 
this rule generally removed the earlier distinction between mines in 
which inflammable gas has been found within the preceding twelve 
months, and mines in which it has not been so found; of rules 8, 9, 10 
and 11, relating to the construction, use, &c, of safety lamps, which 
are more detailed and stringent than rule 7 of the act of 1872, which 
they replaced; of rule 12, relating to the use of explosives below 
ground; of rule 24, which requires the appointment of a competent 
male person not less than twenty-two years of age for working the 
machinery for lowering and raising persons at the mine ; of rule 34, 
which first required provision of ambulances or stretchers with 
splints and bandages at the mine ready for immediate use ; of rule 
38, which strengthened the provision for periodical inspection of 
the mine by practical miners on behalf of the workmen at their own 
cost. With reference to the last-cited rule, during 1898 a Prussian 
mining commission visited Great Britain, France and Belgium, to 
study and compare the various methods of inspection by working 
miners established in these three countries. They found that, so far 
as the method had been applied, it was most satisfactory in Great 
Britain, where the whole cost is borne by the workers' own organiza- 
tions, and they attributed part of the decrease in number of accidents 
per thousand employed since 1872 to the inauguration of this 
system. 

The provisions as to the proposal, amendment and modification 
of " special rules," last extended by the act of 1896, may be con- 
trasted with those of the Factory Act. In the latter 
it is not until an industry or process has been scheduled Special 
as dangerous or injurious by the secretary of state's ro es " 
order that occasion arises for the formation of special rules, and 
then the initiative rests with the Factory Department whereas in 
' mines it is incumbent in every case on the owner, agent or manager 



i8 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[QUARRIES 



to propose within three months of the commencement of any work- 
ing, for the approval of the secretary of state, special rules best 
calculated to prevent dangerous accidents, and to provide for the 
safety, convenience and proper discipline of the persons employed 
in or about the mine. These rules may, if they relate to lights and 
lamps used in the mine, description of explosives, watering and 
damping of the mine, or prevention of accidents from inflammable 
gas or coal dust, supersede any general rule in the principal act. 
Apart from the initiation of the rules, the methods of establishing 
them, whether by agreement or by resort to arbitration of the 
parties (i.e. the mine owners and the secretary of state), are practic- 
ally the same as under the Factory Act, but there is special provision 
in the Mines Acts for enabling the persons working in the mine to 
transmit objections to the proposed rules, in addition to their subse- 
quent right to be represented on the arbitration, if any. 

Of the sections touching on wages questions, the prohibition of 
the payment of wages in public-houses remains unaltered, being 
re-enacted in 1887; the sections relating to payment by weight for 
amount of mineral gotten by persons employed, and for check- 
weighing the amount by a " checkweigher " stationed by the majority 
of workers at each place appointed for the weighing of the material, 
were revised, particularly as to the determination of deductions by 
the act of 1887, with a view to meeting some problems raised by 
decisions on cases under the act of 1872. The attempt seems not to 
have been wholly successful, the highest legal authorities having 
expressed conflicting opinions on the precise meaning of the terms 
" mineral contracted to be gotten." The whole history of the de- 
velopment of this means of securing the fulfilment of wage contract 
to the workers may be compared with the history of the sections 
affording protection to piece-workers by particulars of work and 
wages in the textile trades since the Factory Act of 1891. 

As regards legal proceedings, the chief amendments of the act of 
1872 are: the extension of the provision that the "owner, agent, 
Adrvlnis- or manager " charged in respect of any contravention 
tratioa. by another person might be sworn and examined as an 
ordinary witness, to any person charged with any offence 
under the act. The result of the proceedings against workmen by 
the owner, agent or manager in respect of an offence under the act 
is to be reported within twenty-one days to the inspector of the 
district. The powers of inspectors were extended to cover an inquiry 
as to the care and treatment of horses and other animals in the mine, 
and as to the control, management or direction of the mine by the 
manager. 

An important act was passed in 1908 (Coal Mines Regulation 
Act 1908) limiting the hours of work for workmen below ground. 
It enacted that, subject to various provisions, a workman was 
not to be below ground in a mine for the purpose of his work, 
and of going to and from his work, for more than eight hours 
in any consecutive twenty-four hours. Exception was made 
in the case of those below ground for the purpose of rendering 
assistance in the event of an accident, or for meeting any danger, 
or for dealing with any emergency or work incompleted, through 
unforeseen circumstances, which requires to be dealt with to 
avoid serious interference in the work of the mine. The 
authorities of every mine must fix the times for the lowering 
and raising of the men to begin and be completed, and such 
times must be conspicuously posted at the pit head. These 
times must be approved by an inspector. The term " workman " 
in the act means any person employed in a mine below ground 
who is not an official of the mine (other than a fireman, examiner 
or deputy), or a mechanic or a horse keeper or a person engaged 
solely in surveying or measuring. In the case of a fireman, 
examiner, deputy, onsetter, pump minder, fanman or furnace 
man, the maximum period for which he may be below ground 
is nine hours and a half. A register must be kept by the 
authorities of the mine of the times of descent and ascent, 
while the workmen may, at their own cost, station persons 
(whether holding the office of checkweigher or not) at the pit 
head to observe the times. The authorities of the mine may 
extend the hours of working by one hour a day on not more than 
sixty days in one calendar year (s. 3). The act may be suspended 
by order in council in the event of war or of imminent national 
danger or great emergency, or in the event of any grave economic 
disturbance due to the demand for coal exceeding the supply 
available at any time. The act came into force on the 1st of 
July 1909 except for the counties of Northumberland and Durham 
where its operation was postponed until the 1st of January 1910. 
In 1905 the number of coal-mines reported on was 3126, and the 
number of persons employed below ground was 691,112 of whom 
43,443 were under 16 years of age. Above ground 167,261 were 
employed, of whom 6154 were women and girls. The number of 



separate fatal accidents was 1006, causing the loss of 1205 lives. Of 
prosecutions by far the greater number were against workmen, 
numbering in coal and metalliferous mines 953 ; owners and 
managers were prosecuted in 72 cases, and convictions obtained in 
43 cases. 

Quarries. — From 1878 until 1894 open quarries (as distinct 
from underground quarries regulated by the Metalliferous 
Mines . Regulation Act) were regulated only by the Factory 
Acts so far as they then applied. It was laid down in section 
93 of the act of 1878 (41 Vict. c. 16), that " any premises or place 
shall not be excluded from the definition of a factory or workshop 
by reason only that such premises, &c, are or is in the open 
air," thereby overruling the decision in Kent v. Astley that 
quarries in which the work, as a whole, was carried on in the open 
air were not factories; in a schedule to the same act quarries 
were defined as " any place not being a mine in which persons 
work in getting slate, stone, coprolites or other minerals." 
The Factory Act of 189 1 made it possible to bring these places 
in part under " special rules " adapted to meet the special risks 
and dangers of the operations carried on in them, and by order 
of the secretary of state they were certified, December 1892, 
as dangerous, and thereby subject to special rules. Until then, 
as reported by one of the inspectors of factories, quarries had 
been placed under the Factory Acts without insertion of appro- 
priate rules for their safe working, and many of them were 
" developed in a most dangerous manner without any regard 
for safety, but merely for economy," and managers of many had 
" scarcely seen a quarry until they became managers." In his 
report for 1892 it was recommended by the chief inspector of 
factories that quarries should be subject to the jurisdiction of 
the government inspectors of mines. At the same time currency 
was given, by the published reports of the evidence before the 
Royal Commission on Labour, to the wish of large numbers 
of quarrymen that open as well as underground quarries should 
come under more specialized government inspection. In 1893 
a committee of experts, including inspectors of mines and of 
factories, was appointed by the Home Office to investigate the 
conditions of labour in open quarries, and in 1894 the Quarries 
Act brought every quarry, as defined in the Factory Act 1878, 
any part of which is more than 20 ft. deep, under certain of the 
provisions of the Metalliferous Mines Acts, and under the 
inspection of the inspectors appointed under those acts; further, 
it transferred the duty of enforcing the Factory and Workshop 
Acts, so far as they apply in quarries over 20 ft. deep, from the 
Factory to the Metalliferous Mines inspectors. 

The provisions of the Metalliferous Mines Acts 1872 and 1875," 
applied to quarries, are those relating to payment of wages in 
public-houses, notice of accidents to the inspector, appointment 
and powers of inspectors, arbitration, coroners' inquests, special 
rules, penalties, certain of the definitions, and the powers of 
the secretary of state finally to decide disputed questions whether 
places come within the application of the acts. For other 
matters, and in particular fencing of machinery and employment 
of women and young persons, the Factory Acts apply, with a 
proviso that nothing shall prevent the employment of young 
persons (boys) in three shifts for not more than eight hours 
each. In 1899 it was reported by the inspectors of mines that 
special rules for safety had been established in over 2000 quarries. 
In the reports for 1905 it was reported that the accounts of blast- 
ing accidents indicated that there was " still much laxity in 
observance of the Special rules, and that many irregular and 
dangerous practices are in vogue." The absence or deficiency 
of external fencing to a quarry dangerous to the public has been 
since 1887 (50 & 51 Vict. c. 19) deemed a nuisance liable to be 
dealt with summarily in the manner provided by the Public 
Health Act 1875. 

In 1905, 94,819 persons were employed, of whom 59,978 worked* 
inside the actual pits or excavations, and 34,841 outside. Compared 
with 1900, there was a total increase of 924 in the number of persons 
employed. Fatal accidents resulted in 1900 in 127 deaths ; compared 
with 1899 there was an increase of 10 in the number of deaths, and, as 
Professor Le Neve Foster pointed out, this exceeded the average 
death-rate of underground workers at mines under the Coal Mines 
Acts during the previous ten years, in spite of the quarrier " having 



SHOP HOURS] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



J 9 



nothing to fear from explosions of gas, underground fires or inunda- 
tions." He attributed the difference to a lax observance of pre- 
cautions which might in time be remedied by stringent administra- 
tion of the law. In 1905 there were 97 fatal accidents resulting in 
99 deaths. In 1900 there were 92 prosecutions against owners or 
agents, with 67 convictions, and 13 prosecutions of workers, with 12 
convictions, and in 1905 there were 45 prosecutions of owners or 
agents with 43 convictions and 9 prosecutions of workmen with 5 
convictions. 

In 1883 a short act extended to all " workmen " who are manual 
labourers other than miners, with the exception of domestic or 
Payment men ' a ' servants, the prohibition of payment of wages in 
of waxes P u W' c -h° uses i beer-shops and other places for the sale 
la public- ot spirituous or fermented liquor, laid down in the Coal 
houses. Mines Regulations and Metalliferous Mines Regulation 
Acts. The places covered by the prohibition include any 
office, garden or place belonging to or occupied with the places 
named, but the act does not apply to such wages as are paid by the 
resident, owner or occupier of the public-house, beer-shop and other 
places included in the prohibition to any workman bona fide em- 
ployed by him. The penalty for an offence against this act is one 
not exceeding £10 (compare the limit of £20 for the corresponding 
offence under the Coal Mines Act), andall offences maybe prosecuted 
and penalties recovered in England and Scotland under the Summary 
Jurisdiction Acts. The act does not apply to Ireland, and no special 
inspectorate is charged with the duty of enforcing its provisions. 

Shop Hours. — In four brief acts, 1892 to 1899, still in force, 
the first very limited steps were taken towards the positive 
regulation of the employment of shop assistants. In the act 
of 1904 certain additional optional powers were given to any 
local authority making a " closing order " fixing the hour (not 
earlier than 7 p.m. or on one day in the week 1 p.m.) at which 
shops shall cease to serve customers throughout the area of 
the authority or any specified part thereof as regards all shops 
or as regards any specified class of shops. Before such an order 
can be made (1) a prima facie case for it must appear to the local 
authority; (2) the local authority must inquire and agree; 
(3) the order must be drafted and sent for confirmation or other- 
wise to the central authority, that is, the secretary of state for 
the Home Department; (4) the order must be laid before 
both Houses of Parliament. The Home Office has given every 
encouragement to the making of such orders, but their number 
in England is very small, and the act is practically inoperative 
in London and many large towns where the need is greatest. 
As the secretary of state pointed out in the House of Commons 
on the 1st of May 1907, the local authorities have not taken 
enough initiative, but at the same time there is a great difficulty 
for them in obtaining the required two-thirds majority, among 
occupiers of the shops to be affected, in favour of the order, 
and at the same time shop assistants have no power to set the 
law in motion. In England 364 local authorities have taken 
no steps, but in Scotland rather better results have been 
obtained. The House resolved, on the date named, that more 
drastic legislation is required. As regard? shops, therefore, in 
place of such general codes as apply to factories, laundries, 
mines — only three kinds of protective requirement are binding 
on employers of shop assistants: (1) Limitation of the weekly 
total of hours of work of persons under eighteen years of age 
to seventy-four inclusive of meal-times; (2) prohibition of the 
employment of such persons in a shop on the same day that they 
have, to the knowledge of the employer, been employed in any 
factory or workshop for a longer period than would, in both 
classes of employment together, amount to the number of hours 
permitted to such persons in a factory or workshop; (3) provision 
for the supply of seats by the employer, in all rooms of a shop 
or other premises where goods are retailed to the public, for the 
use of female assistants employed in retailing the goods — the 
seats to be in the proportion of not fewer than one to every 
three female assistants. The first two requirements are contained 
in the act of 1892, which also prescribed that a notice, referring 
to the provisions of the act, and stating the number of hours 
in the week during which a young person may be lawfully 
employed in the shop, shall be kept exhibited by the employer; 
the third requirement was first provided by the act of 1899. 
The intervening acts of 1893 and 1895 are merely supplementary 
to the act of 1892; the former providing for the salaries and 
expenses of the inspectors which the council of any county or 



borough (and in the City of London the Common Council) were 
empowered by the act of 1892 to appoint; the latter pro- 
viding a penalty of 40s. for failure of an employer to keep 
exhibited the notice of the provisions of the acts, which in the 
absence of a penalty it had been impossible to enforce. The 
penalty for employment contrary to the acts is a fine not exceeding 
£1 for each person so employed, and for failure to comply with 
the requirements as to seats, a fine not exceeding £3 for a first 
offence, and for any subsequent offence a fine of not less than 
£1 and not exceeding £5. 

A wide interpretation is given by the act of 1892 to the class 
of workplace to which the limitation of hours applies. " Shop " 
means retail and wholesale shops, markets, stalls and ju ean j n „ 
warehouses in which assistants are employed for hire, /<« s /, o " 
and includes licensed public-houses and refreshment 
houses of any kind. The person responsible for the observance of 
the acts is the " employer " of the " young persons " (i.e. persons 
under the age of eighteen years), whose hours are limited, and of 
the " female assistants " for whom seats must be provided. Neither 
the term "employer " nor " shop assistant " (used in the title of the 
act of 1899) is defined; but other terms have the meaning assigned 
to them in the Factory and Workshop Act 1878. The " employer " 
has, in case of any contravention alleged, the same power as the 
" occupier " in the Factory Acts to exempt himself from fine on proof 
of due diligence and of the fact that some other person is the actual 
offender. The provisions of the act of 1892 do not apply to members 
of the same family living in a house of which the shop forms part, or 
to members of the employer's family, or to any one wholly employed 
as a domestic servant. 

In London, where the County Council has appointed men and 
women inspectors to apply the acts of 1892 to 1899, there were, in 
1900, 73,929 premises, and in 1905, 84,269, under inspection. In the 
latter year there were 22,035 employing persons under 18 years of 
age. In 1900 the number of young persons under the acts were: 
indoors, 10,239 boys and 4428 girls; outdoors, 35,019 boys, 206 
girls. In 1905 the ratio between boys and girls had decidedly altered : 
indoors, 6602 boys, 4668 girls; outdoors, 22,654 boys, 308 girls. The 
number of irregularities reported in 1900 were 9204 and the pro- 
secutions were 117; in 1905 the irregularities were 6966 and the 
prosecutions numbered 34. As regards the act of 1899, in only 
1088 of the 14,844 shops affected in London was there found in 1900 
to be failure to provide seats for the women employed in retailing 
goods. The chief officer of the Public Control Department reported 
that with very few exceptions the law was complied with at the end 
of the first year of its application. 

As regards cleanliness, ventilation, drainage, water-supply and 
sanitary condition generally, shops have been since 1878 (by 41 
Vict. c. 16, s. 101) subject to the provisions of the Public Health 
Act 1875, which apply to all buildings, except factories under the 
Factory Acts, in which any persons, whatever their number be, are 
employed. Thus, broadly, the same sanitary provisions apply in 
shops as in workshops, but in the former these are enforced solely 
by the officers of the local authority, without reservation of any 
power, as in workshops for the Home Office inspectorate, to act in 
default of the local authority. 

Shop assistants, so far as they are engaged in manual, not merely 
clerical labour, come under the provisions of the Truck Acts 1831 to 
1887, and in all circumstances they fall within the sections directed 
against unfair and unreasonable fines in the Truck Act of 1896; but, 
unlike employes in factories, workshops, laundries and mines, they 
are left to apply these provisions so far as they can themselves, since 
neither Home Office inspectors nor officers of the local authority have 
any specially assigned powers to administer the Truck Acts in shops. 

Truck. — Setting aside the special Hosiery Manufacture 
(Wages) Act 1874, aimed at a particular abuse appearing chiefly 
in the hosiery industry — the practice of making excessive 
charges on wages for machinery and frame rents — only two 
acts, those of 1887 and 1896, have been added to the general 
law against truck since the act of 1831, which repealed all prior 
Truck Acts and which remains the principal act. Further 
amendments of the law have been widely and strenuously de- 
manded, and are hoped for as the result of the long inquiry 
by a departmental committee appointed early in 1906. The 
Truck Act Amendment Act 1887, amended and extended the 
act without adding any distinctly new principle; the Truck 
Act of 1896 was directed towards providing remedies for matters 
shown by decisions under the earlier Truck Acts to be outside 
the scope of the principles and provisions of those acts. Under 
the earlier acts the main objects were: (1) to make the wages 
of workmen, i.e. the reward of labour, payable only in current 
coin of the realm, and to prohibit whole or part payment of 
wages in food or drink or clothes or any other articles; (2) to 



20 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[TRUCK ACTS 



forbid agreements, express or implied, between employer and 
workmen as to the manner or place in which, or articles on which, 
a workman shall expend his wages, or for the deduction from 
wages of the price of articles (other than materials to be used 
in the labour of the workmen) supplied by the employer. The 
act of 1887 added a further prohibition by making 
Act 1887. i*- illegal for an employer to charge interest on any 
advance of wages, " whenever by agreement, custom, 
or otherwise a workman is entitled to receive in anticipation of 
the regular period of the payment of his wages an advance as 
part or on account thereof." Further, it strengthened the section 
of the principal act which provided that no employer shall have 
any action against his workman for goods supplied at any shop 
belonging to the employer, or in which the employer is interested, 
by (a) securing any workman suing an employer for wages against 
any counter-claim in respect of goods supplied to the workman 
by any person under any order or direction of the employer, 
and (b) by expressly prohibiting an employer from dismissing 
any worker on account of any particular time, place or manner 
of expending his wages. Certain exemptions to the prohibition 
of payment otherwise than in coin were provided for in the act 
of 1 83 1, if an agreement were made in writing and signed by 
the worker, viz. rent, victuals dressed and consumed under the 
employer's roof, medicine, fuel, provender for beasts of burden 
used in the trade, materials and tools for use by miners, advances 
for friendly societies or savings banks; in the case of fuel, pro- 
vender and tools there was also a proviso that the charge should 
not exceed the real and true value. The act of 1887 amended 
these provisions by requiring a correct annual audit in the case 
of deductions for medicine or tools, by permitting part payment 
of servants in husbandry in food, drink (not intoxicants) or 
other allowances, and by prohibiting any deductions for sharpen- 
ing or repairing workmen's tools except by agreement not forming 
part of the condition of hiring. Two important administrative 
amendments were made by the act of 1887: (1) a section 
similar to that in the Factory and Mines Acts was added, empower- 
ing the employer to exempt himself from penalty for contra- 
vention of the acts on proof that any other person was the actual 
offender and of his own due diligence in enforcing the execution 
of the acts; (2) the duty of enforcing the acts in factories, 
workshops, and mines was imposed upon the inspectors of the 
Factory and Mines Departments, respectively, of the Home 
Office, and to their task they were empowered to bring all the 
authorities and powers which they possessed in virtue of the 
acts under which they are appointed; these inspectors thus 
prosecute defaulting employers and recover penalties under the 
Summary Jurisdiction Acts, but they do not undertake civil 
proceedings for improper deductions or payments, proceedings 
for which would lie with workmen under the Employers and 
Persons Workmen Act 1875. The persons to whom the 
benefited benefits of the act applied were added to by the act 
b yJ~nick f 1887, which repealed the complicated list of trades 
contained in the principal act and substituted the 
simpler definition of the Employers and Workmen Act, 1875. 
Thus the acts 183 1 to 1887, and also the act of 1896, apply to 
all workers (men, women and children) engaged in manual 
labour, except domestic servants; they apply not only in mines, 
factories and workshops, but, to quote the published Home 
Office Memorandum on the acts, " in all places where work- 
people are engaged in manual labour under a contract with an 
employer, whether or no the employer be an owner or agent or 
a parent, or be himself a workman; and therefore a workman 
who employs^ and pays others under him must also observe the 
Truck Acts." The law thus in certain circumstances covers 
outworkers for a contractor or sub-contractor. A decision of 
the High Court at Dublin in igoo (Squirev. Sweeney) strengthened 
the inspectors in investigation of offences committed amongst 
outworkers by supporting the contention that inquiry and 
exercise of all the powers of an inspector could legally take 
place in parts of an employer's premises other than those in 
which the work is given out. It defined for Ireland, in a narrower 
sense than had hitherto been understood and acted upon by 



the Factory Department, the classes of outworkers protected, 
by deciding that only such as were under a contract personally 
to execute the work were covered. In 1905 the law in England 
was similarly declared in the decided case of Squire v. The 
Midland Lace Co. The judges (Lord Alverstone, C.J.; and 
Kennedy and Ridley, J.J.) stated that they came to the con- 
clusion with "reluctance," and said: " We venture to express 
the hope that some amendment of the law may be made so as 
to extend the protection of the Truck Act to a class of work- 
people indistinguishable from those already within its provisions." 
The workers in question were lace-clippers taking out work to 
do in their homes, and in the words of the High Court decision 
" though they do sometimes employ assistants are evidently, 
as a class, wage-earning manual labourers and not contractors 
in the ordinary and popular sense." The principle relied on in 
the decision was that in the case of Ingram v. Barnes. 

At the time of the passing of the act of 1887 it seems to have been 
generally believed that the obligation under the principal act to pay 
the " entire amount of wages earned " in coin rendered „ . . 
illegal any deductions from wages in respect of fines. «<tffLf?" 
Important decisions in 1888 and 1889 showed this belief 
to have been ill-founded. The essential point lies in the definition 
of the word " wages " as the " recompense, reward or remuneration 
of labour," which implies not necessarily any gross sum in question 
between employer and workmen where there is a contract to perform 
a certain piece of work, but that part of it, the real net wage, which the 
workman was to get as his recompense for the labour performed. As 
soon as it became clear that excessive deductions from wages as well 
as payments by workers for materials used in the work were not 
illegal, and that deductions or payments by way of compensation to 
employers or by way of discipline might legally (with the single 
exception of fines for lateness for women and children, regulated by 
the Employers and Workmen Act 1875) even exceed the degree of 
loss, hindrance or damage to the employer, it also came clearly into 
view that further legislation was desirable to extend the principles 
at the root of the Truck Acts. It was desirable, that is to say, to 
hinder more fully the unfair dealing that may be encouraged by half- 
defined customs in work-places, on the part of the employer in making 
a contract, while at the same time leaving the principle of freedom 
of contract as far as possible untouched. The Truck Act _ ft _ . 
of 1896 regulates the conditions under which deductions A C ti896 
can be made by or payments made to the employer, out 
of the " sum contracted to be paid to the worker," i.e. out of any 
gross sum whatever agreed upon between employer and workman. 
It makes such deductions or payments illegal unless they are in 
pursuance of a contract; and it provides that deductions (or pay- 
ments) for (a) fines, Q>) bad work and damaged goods, (c) materials, 
machines, and any other thing provided by the employer in relation 
to the work shall be reasonable, and that particulars of the same in 
writing shall be given to the workman. In none of the cases men- 
tioned is the employer to make any profit; neither by fines, for 
they may only be imposed in respect of acts or omissions which cause, 
or are likely to cause, loss or damage; nor by sale of materials, for 
the price may not exceed the cost to the employer; nor by deduc- 
tions or payments for damage, for these may not exceed the actual or 
estimated loss to the employer. Fines and charges for damage must 
be " fair and reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the 
case," and no contract could make legal a fine which a court held 
to be unfair to the workman in the sense of the act. The contract 
between the employer and workman must either be in writing signed 
by the workman, or its terms must be clearly stated in a notice 
constantly affixed in a place easily accessible to the workman to 
whom, if a party to the contract, a copy shall be given at the time of 
making the contract, and who shall be entitled, on request, to obtain 
from the employer a copy of the notice free of charge. On each 
occasion when a deduction or payment is made, full particulars in 
writing must be supplied to the workman. The employer is bound to 
keep a register of deductions or payments, and to enter therein 
particulars of any fine made under the contract, specifying the 
amount and nature of the act or omission in respect of which the fine 
was imposed. This register must be at all times open to inspectors 
of mines or factories, who are entitled to make a copy of the contract 
or any part of it. This act as a whole applies to all workmen in- 
cluded under the earlier Truck Acts; the sections relating to fines 
apply also to shop assistants. The latter, however, apparently are 
left to enforce the provisions of the law themselves, as no inspectorate 
is empowered to intervene on their behalf. In these and other cases 
a prosecution under the Truck Acts may be instituted by any person. 
Any workman or shop assistant may recover any sum deducted by 
or paid to his employer contrary to the act of 1896, provided that 
proceedings are commenced within six months, and that where he 
has acquiesced in the deduction or payment he shall only recover 
the excess over the amount which the court may find to have been 
fair and reasonable in all the circumstances of the case. It is ex- 
pressly declared in the act that nothing in it shall affect the provisions 



CONTINENTAL EUROPE] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



21 



of the Coal Mines Acts with reference to payment by weight, or 
legalize any deductions, from payments made, in pursuance of those 
provisions. The powers and duties of inspectors are extended to 
cover the case of a laundry, and of any place where work is given out 
by the occupier of a factory or workshop or by a contractor or sub- 
contractor. Power is reserved for the secretary of state to exempt 
by order specified trades or branches of them in specified areas from 
the provisions of the act of 1 896, if he is satisfied that they are un- 
necessary for the protection of the workmen. This power has been 
exercised only in respect of one highly organized industry, the 
Lancashire cotton industry. The effect of the exemption is not to 
prevent fines and deductions from being made, but the desire for 
it demonstrated that there are cases where leaders among workers 
have felt competent to make their own terms on their own lines 
without the specific conditions laid down in this act. The reports 
of the inspectors of factories have demonstrated that in other in- 
dustries much work has had to be done under this act, and knowledge 
of a highly technical character to be gradually acquired, before 
opinions could be formed as to the reasonableness and fairness, or 
the contiary, of many forms of deduction. Owing partly to diffi- 
culties of legal interpretation involving the necessity of taking test 
cases into court, partly to the margin for differences of opinion as to 
what constitutes " reasonableness " in a deduction, the average 
number of convictions obtained on prosecutions is not so high as 
under the Factory Acts, though the average penalty imposed is 
higher. In 1904, 61 cases were taken into court resulting in 34 
convictions with an average penalty of £1, 10s. In 1905, 38 cases 
resulting in 34 convictions were taken with an average penalty of 
£1, 3s. In 1906, 37 cases resulting in 25 convictions were taken with 
an average penalty of £1, 10s. 

Reference should here be made to the Shop Clubs Act of 1902 as 
closely allied with some of the provisions of the Truck Acts by its 
provision that employers shall not make it a condition of employment 
that any workman shall become a member of a shop club unless it is 
registered under the Friendly Societies Act of 1896. As in the case of 
payment of wages in Public Houses Act, no special inspectorate has 
the duty of enforcing this act. 

III. Continental Europe 

In comparing legislation affecting factories, mines, shops and 
truck in the chief industrial countries of the continent with that 
of Great Britain, it is essential to a just view that inquiry should 
be extended beyond the codes themselves to the general social 
order and system of law and administration in each country. 
Further, special comparison of the definitions and the sanctions 
of each industrial code must be recognized as necessary, for 
these vary in all. In so brief a summary as is appended here 
no more is possible than an outline indication of the main general 
requirements and prohibitions of the laws as regards: (1) hours 
and times of employment, (2) ordinary sanitation and special 
requirements for unhealthy and dangerous industries, (3) security 
against accidents, and (4) prevention of fraud and oppression in 
fulfilment of wage contracts. As regards the first of these sub- 
divisions, in general in Europe the ordinary legal limit is rather 
wider than in Great Britain, being in several countries not less 
than n hours a day, and while in some, as in France, the normal 
limit is 10 hours daily, yet the administrative discretion in- 
granting exceptions is rather more elastic. The weekly half- 
holiday is a peculiarly British institution. On the other hand, 
in several European countries, notably France, Austria, Switzer- 
land and Russia, the legal maximum day applies to adult as 
well as youthful labour, and not only to specially protected 
classes of persons. As regards specialized sanitation for un- 
healthy factory industries, German regulations appear to be 
most nearly comparable with British. Mines' labour regulation 
in several countries, having an entirely different origin linked 
with ownership of mines, is only in few and most recent develop- 
ments comparable with British Mines Regulation Acts. In 
regulation of shops, Germany, treating this matter as an integral 
part of her imperial industrial code, has advanced farther than 
has Great Britain. In truck legislation most European countries 
(with the exception of France) appear to have been influenced 
by the far earlier laws of Great Britain, although in some respects 
Belgium, with her rapid and recent industrial development, 
has made interesting original experiments. The rule of Sunday 
rest (see Sunday) has been extended in several countries, 
most recently in Belgium and Spain. In France this partially 
attempted rule has been so modified as to be practically a seventh 
day rest, not necessarily Sunday. 



France. — Hours of labour were, in France, first limited in factories 
(usines et manufactures) for adults by the law of the 9th of September 
1848 to 12 in the 24. Much uncertainty existed as to the class of 
workplaces covered. Finally, in 1885, an authoritative decision 
defined them as including: (1) Industrial establishments with motor 
power or continual furnaces, (2) workshops employing over 20 
workers. In 1851, under condition of notification to the local 
authorities, exceptions, still in force, were made to the general limita- 
tion, in favour of certain industries or processes, among others for 
letterpress and lithographic printing, engineering works, work at 
furnaces and in heating workshops, manufacture of projectiles of war, 
and any work for the government in the interests of national defence 
or security. The limit of 12 hours was reduced, as regards works in 
which women or young workers are employed, in 1900 to 11, and was 
to be successively reduced to io| hours and to 10 hours at intervals 
of two years from April 1900. This labour law for adults was pre- 
ceded in 1841 by one for children, which prevented their employment 
in factories before 8 years of age and prohibited night labour for any 
child under 13. This was strengthened in 1874, particularly as 
regards employment of girls under 21, but it was not until 1892 that 
the labour of women was specially regulated by a law, still in force, 
with certain amendments in 1900. Under this law factory and work- 
shop labour is prohibited for children under 13 years, though they 
may begin at 12 if qualified by the prescribed educational certificate 
and medical certificate of fitness. The limit of daily hours of em- 
ployment is the same as for adult labour, and, similarly, from the 
1st of April 1902 was ioj, and two years later became 10 hours in the 
24. Notice of the hours must be affixed, and meal-times or pauses 
with absolute cessation of work of at least one hour must be specified. 
By the act of 1892 one day in the week, not necessarily Sunday, had 
to be given for entire absence from work, in addition to eight recog- 
nized annual holidays, but this was modified by a law of 1906 which 
generally requires Sunday rest, but allows substitution of another day 
in certain industries and certain circumstances. Night labour — 
work between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. — is prohibited for workers under 18, 
and only exceptionally permitted, under conditions, for girls and 
women over 18 in specified trades. In mines and underground 
quarries employment of women and girls is prohibited except at 
surface works, and at the latter is subject to the same limits as in 
factories. Boys of 13 may be employed in certain work underground, 
but under 16 may not be employed more than 8 hours in the 24 from 
bank to bank. A law of 1905 provided for miners a 9 hours' day 
and in 1907 an 8 hours' day from the foot of the entrance gallery 
back to the same point. 

As in Great Britain, distinct services of inspection enforce the 
law in factories and mines respectively. In factories and workshops 
an inspector may order re-examination as to physical fitness for the 
work imposed of any worker under 16; certain occupations and 
processes are prohibited — e.g. girls under 16 at machines worked by 
treadles, and the weights that may be lifted, pushed or carried by 
girls or boys under 18 are carefully specified. The law applies 
generally to philanthropic and religious institutions where industrial 
work is carried on, as in ordinary trading establishments; and this 
holds good even if the work is by way of technical instruction. 
Domestic workshops are not controlled unless the industry is classed 
as dangerous or unhealthy ; introduction of motor power brings them 
under inspection. General sanitation in industrial establishments is 
provided for in a law of 1893, amended in 1903, and is supplemented 
by administrative regulations for special risks due to poisons, dust, 
explosive substances, gases, fumes, &c. Ventilation, both general 
and special, lighting, provision of lavatories, cloakrooms, good 
drinking water, drainage and cleanliness are required in all work- 
places, shops, warehouses, restaurant kitchens, and where workers 
are lodged by their employers hygienic conditions are prescribed for 
dormitories. In many industries women, children and young 
workers are either absolutely excluded from specified unhealthy pro- 
cesses, or are admitted only under conditions. As regards shops and 
offices, the labour laws are: one which protects apprentices against 
overwork (law of 22nd February 1851), one (law of 29th December 
1900) which requires that seats shall be provided for women and girls 
employed in retail sale of articles, and a decree of the 28th of July 
1904 defining in detail conditions of hygiene in dormitories for work- 
men and shop assistants. The law relating to seats is enforced by the 
inspectors of factories. In France there is no special penal legisla- 
tion against abuses of the truck system, or excessive fines and 
deductions from wages, although bills with that end in view have 
frequently been before parliament. Indirect protection to workers 
is no doubt in many cases afforded in organized industries by the 
action of the Conseils de Prud'hommes. 

Belgium. — In 1848 in Belgium the Commission on Labour pro- 
posed legislation to limit, as in France, the hours of labour for adults, 
but this proposal was never passed. Belgian regulation of labour 
in industry remains essentially, in harmony with its earliest begin- 
nings in 1863 and onwards, a series of specialized provisions to meet 
particular risks of individual trades, and did not, until 1889, give any 
adherence to a common principle of limitation of hours and times of 
labour for " protected " persons. This was in the law of the 13th of 
December 1889, which applies to mines, quarries, factories, work- 
shops classed as unhealthy, wharves and docks, transports. As in 
France, industrial establishments having a charitable or philanthropic 



22 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[CONTINENTAL EUROPE 



or educational character are included. The persons protected are 
girls and women under 21 years, and boys under 16; and women 
over 21 only find a place in the law through the prohibition of their 
employment within four weeks after childbirth. As the hours of 
labour of adult women remain ordinarily unlimited by law, so are 
the hours of boys from 16 to 21. The law of Sunday rest dated the 
17th of July 1905, however, applies to labour generally in all in- 
dustrial and commercial undertakings except transport and fisheries, 
with certain regulated exceptions for (a) cases of breakdown or 
urgency due to force majeure, (b) certain repairs and cleaning, (c) 
perishable materials, (d) retail food supply. Young workers are 
excluded from the exceptions. The absolute prohibitions 6f em- 
ployment are: for children under 12 years in any industry, manu- 
facturing or mining or transport, and for women and girls under 21 
years below the surface in working of mines. Boys under 16 years 
and women and girls under 21 years may in general not be em- 
ployed before 5 a.m. or after 9 p.m., and one day in the seven is to be 
set apart for rest from employment; to these rules exception may 
be made either by royal decree for classes or groups of processes, or 
by local authorities in exceptional cases. The exceptions may be 
applied, generally, only to workers over 14 years, but in mines, by 
royal decree, boys over 12 years may be employed from 4 A.M. The 
law of 1889 fixes only a maximum of 12 hours of effective work, to be 
interrupted by pauses for rest of not less than ij hours, empowering 
the king by decree to formulate more precise limits suited to the 
special circumstances of individual industries. Royal decrees have 
accordingly laid down the conditions for many groups, including 
textile trades, manufacture of paper, pottery, glass, clothing, mines, 
quarries, engineering and printing works. In some the daily limit 
is 10 hours, but in more iOj or 11 hours. In a few exceptionally un- 
healthy trades, such as the manufacture of lucifer matches, vulcaniza- 
tion of india-rubber by means of carben bi-sulphide, the age of ex- 
clusion from employment has been raised, and in the last-named 
process hours have been reduced to 5, broken into two spells of 2\ 
hours each. As a rule the conditions of health and safeguarding of 
employments in exceptionally injurious trades have been sought by 
a series of decrees under the law of 1863 relating to public health in 
such industries. Special regulations for safety of workers have been 
introduced in manufactures of white-lead, oxides of lead, chromate 
of lead, lucifer match works, rag and shoddy works; and for dangers 
common to many industries, provisions against dust, poisons, 
accidents and other risks to health or limb have been codified in a 
decree of 1896. A royal decree of the 31st of March 1903 prohibits 
employment of persons under 16 years in fur-pulling and in carotting 
of rabbit skins, and another of the 13th of May 1905 regulates use of 
lead in house-painting. In 1898 a law was passed to enable the 
authorities to deal with risks in quarries under the same procedure. 
Safety in mines (which are not private property, but state conces- 
sions to be worked under strict state control) has been provided for 
since 1810. In matters of hygiene, until 1899 the powers of the 
public health authorities to intervene were insufficient, and a law 
was passed authorizing the government to make regulations for every 
kind of risk in any undertaking, whether classed under the law of 
public health or not. By a special law of 1888 children and young 
persons under 18 years are excluded from employment as pedlars, 
hawkers or in circuses, except by their parents, and then only if they 
have attained 14 years. Abuses of the truck system have, since 1887, 
been regulated with care. The chief objects of the law of 1887 were 
to secure payment in full to all workers, other than those in agri- 
culture or domestic service, of wages in legal tender, to prohibit 
payment of wages in public-houses, and to secure prompt payment of 
wages. Certain deductions were permitted under careful control for 
specific customary objects: lodging, use of land, uniforms, food, 
firing. A royal order of the 10th of October 1903 required use of 
automatic indicators for estimating wages in certain cases in textile 
processes. The law of the 15th of June 1896 regulates the affixing in 
workplaces, where at least five workers are employed, of a notice 
of the working rules, the nature and rate of fines, if any, and the mode 
of their application. Two central services the mines inspectorate 
and the factory and workshop inspectorate, divide the duties above 
indicated. There is also a system of local administration of the 
regulations relating to industries classed as unhealthy, but the 
tendency has been to give the supreme control in these matters to the 
factory service, with its expert staff. 

Holland. — The first law for regulation of labour in manufacture 
was passed in 1874, and this related only to employment of children. 
The basis of all existing regulations was established in the law of the 
5th of May 1889, which applies to all industrial undertakings, ex- 
cluding agriculture and forestry, fishing, stock-rearing. Employ- 
ment of children under 12 years is prohibited, and hours are limited 
for young persons under 16 and for women of any age. These pro- 
tected persons may be excluded by royal decree from unhealthy 
industries, and such industries are specified in a decree of 1897 
which supersedes other earlier regulations. Hours of employment 
must not exceed 1 1 in the 24, and at least one hour for rest must be 
given between 11 A.M. and 3 p.m., which hour must not be spent in a 
workroom. Work before 5 A.M. or after 7 p.m., Sunday work, and 
work on recognized holidays is generally prohibited, but there are 
exceptions. Overtime from 7 to 10 p.m., under conditions, is allowed 
for women and young workers, and Sunday work for women, for 



example, in butter and cheese making, and night work for boys over 
14 in certain industries. Employment of women within four weeks 
of childbirth is prohibited. Notices of working hours must be 
affixed in workplaces. Underground work in mines is prohibited for 
women and young persons under 16, but in Holland mining is a very 
small industry. In 1895 the first legislative provision was made for 
protection of workers against risk of accident or special injury to 
health. Sufficient cubic space, lighting, ventilation, sanitary ac- 
commodation, reasonable temperature, removal of noxious gases or 
dust, fencing of machinery, precautions against risk from fire and 
other matters are provided for. The manufacture of lucifer matches 
by means of white phosphorus was forbidden and the export, importa- 
tion and sale was regulated by a law of the 28th of May 1901. By 
a regulation of the 16th of March 1904 provisions for safety and 
health of women and young workers were strengthened in processes 
where lead compounds or other poisons are used, and their employ- 
ment at certain dangerous machines and in cleaning machinery or 
near driving belts was prohibited. No penal provision against 
truck exists in Holland, but possibly abuses of the system are pre- 
vented by the existence of industrial councils representing both 
employers and workers, with powers to mediate or arbitrate in case 
of disputes. 

Switzerland. — In Switzerland separate cantonal legislation pre- 
pared the way for the general Federal labour law of 1877 on which 
subsequent legislation rests. Such legislation is also cantonal as 
well as Federal, but in the latter there is only amplification or 
interpretation of the principles contained in the law of 1877, whereas 
cantonal legislation covers industries not included under the Federal 
law, e.g. single workers employed in a trade (metier) and employment 
in shops, offices and hotels. The Federal law is applied to factories, 
workshops employing young persons under 18 or more than 10 
workers, and workshops in which unhealthy or dangerous processes 
are carried on. Mines are not included, but are regulated in some 
respects as regards health and safety by cantonal laws. Further, 
the Law of Employers' Liability 1881-1887, which requires in all 
industries precautions against accidents and reports of all serious 
accidents to the cantonal governments, applies to mines. This led, 
in 1896, to the creation of a special mining department, and mines, of 
which there are few, have to be inspected once a year by a mining 
engineer. The majority of the provisions of the Federal labour law 
apply to adult workers of both sexes, and the general limit of the 
1 1 -hours' day. exclusive of at least one hour for meals, applies to men 
as well as women. The latter have, however, a legal claim, when 
they have a household to manage, to leave work at the dinner-hour 
half an hour earlier than the men. Men and unmarried women may 
be employed in such subsidiary work as cleaning before or after the 
general legal limits. On Saturdays and eves of the eight public 
holidays the 11-hours' day is reduced to 10. Sunday work and night 
work are forbidden, but exceptions are permitted conditionally. 
Night work is defined as 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. in summer, 8 p.m. to 6 A.M. in 
winter. Children are excluded from employment in workplaces 
under the law until 14 years of age, and until 16 must attend con- 
tinuation schools. Zurich canton has fixed the working day for 
women at 10 hours generally, and 9 hours on Saturdays and eves of 
holidays. Bale-Ville canton has the same limits and provides that 
the very limited Sunday employment permitted shall be compen- 
sated by double time off on another day. In the German-speaking 
cantons girls under 18 are not permitted to work overtime; in all 
cantons except Glarus the conditional overtime of 2 hours must be 
paid for at an enhanced wage. 

Sanitary regulations and fencing of machinery are" provided for 
with considerable minuteness in a Federal decree of 1897. The plans 
of every new factory must be submitted to the cantonal govern- 
ment. In the case of lucifer match factories, not only the building 
but methods of manufacture must be submitted. Since 1901 the 
manufacture, sale and import of matches containing white phosphorus 
have been forbidden. Women must be absent from employment 
during eight weeks before and after childbirth. In certain dangerous 
occupations, e.g. where lead or lead compounds are in use, women 
may not legally be employed during pregnancy. A resolution of the 
federal council in 1901 classed thirty -four different substances in use 
in industry as dangerous and laid down that in case of clearly defined 
illness of workers directly caused by use of any of these substances the 
liability provided by article 3 of the law of the 25th of June 1881, 
and article I of the law of the 26th of April 1887, should apply to the 
manufacture. Legislative provision against abuses of the truck 
system appears to be of earlier origin in Switzerland (17th century) 
than any other European country outside England (15th century). 
The Federal Labour Law 1877 generally prohibits payment of 
wages otherwise than in current coin, and provides that no deduc- 
tion shall be made without an express contract. Some of the 
cantonal laws go much farther than the British act of 1896 in' for- 
bidding certain deductions; e.g. Zurich prohibits any charge for 
cleaning, warming or lighting workrooms or for hire of machinery. 
By the Federal law fines may not exceed half a day's wage. Ad- 
ministration of the Labour laws is divided between inspectors 
appointed by the Federal Government and local authorities, under 
supervision of the cantonal governments. The Federal Govern- 
ment forms a court of appeal against decisions of the cantonal 
governments. 



CONTINENTAL EUROPE] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



23 



Germany. — Regulation of the conditions of labour in industry 
throughout the German empire is provided for in the Imperial 
Industrial Code and the orders of the Federal Council based thereon. 
By far the most important recent amendment socially is the law 
regulating child-labour, dated the 30th of March 1903, which relates 
to establishments having industrial character in the sense of the 
Industrial Code. This Code is based on earlier industrial codes of the 
separate states, but more especially on the Code of 1869 of the 
North German Confederation. It applies in whole or in part to all 
trades and industrial occupations, except transport, fisheries and 
agriculture. Mines are only included so far as truck, Sunday and 
holiday rest, prohibition of employment underground of female 
labour, limitation of the hours of women and young workers are 
concerned ; otherwise the regulations for protection of life and limb 
of miners vary, as do the mining laws of the different states. To 
estimate the force of the Industrial Code in working, it is necessary to 
bear in mind the complicated political history of the empire, the 
separate administration by the federated states, and the generally 
considerable powers vested in administration of initiating regula- 
tions. The Industrial Code expressly retains power for the states to 
initiate certain additions or exceptions to the Code which in any 
given state may form part of the law regulating factories there. 
The Code (unlike the Austrian Industrial Code) lays down no general 
limit for a normal working day for adult male workers, but since 1891 
full powers were given to the Imperial government to limit hours for 
any classes of workers in industries where excessive length of the 
working day endangers the health of the worker (R.G.O. § l2oe). 
Previously application had been made of powers to reduce the working 
day in such unhealthy industries as silvering of mirrors by mercury 
and the manufacture of white-lead. Separate states had, under 
mining laws, also limited hours of miners. Sunday rest was, in 1 891, 
secured for every class of workers, commercial, industrial and 
mining. Annual holidays were also secured on church festivals. 
These provisions, however, are subject to exceptions under con- 
ditions. An important distinction has to be shown when we turn to 
the regulations for hours and times of labour for protected persons 
(women, young persons and children). Setting aside for the moment 
hours of shop assistants (which are under special sections since 1900), 
it is to " factory workers " and not to industrial workers in general 
that these limits apply, although they may be, and in some instances 
have been, further extended — for instance, in ready-made clothing 
trades — by imperial decree to workshops, and by the Child Labour 
Law of 1903 regulation of the scope and duration of employment of 
children is much strengthened in workshops, commerce, transport 
and domestic industries. The term " factory " (Fabrik) is not de- 
fined in the Code, but it is clear from various decisions of the supreme 
court that it only in part coincides with the English term, and that 
some workplaces, where processes are carried on by aid of mechanical 
power, rank rather as English workshops. The distinction is rather 
between wholesale manufacturing industry, with subdivision of 
labour, and small industry, where the employer works himself. 
Certain classes of undertaking, viz. forges, timber-yards, dock- 
yards, brickfields and open quarries, are specifically ranked as 
factories. Employment of protected persons at the surface of mines 
and underground quarries, and in salt works and ore-dressing works, 
and of boys underground comes under the factory regulations. 
These exclude children from employment under 13 years, and even 
later if an educational certificate has not been obtained; until 14 
years hours of employment may not exceed 6 in the 24. In processes 
and occupations under the scope of the Child Labour Law children 
may not be employed by their parents or guardians before 10 years 
of age or by other employers before 12 years of age; nor between 
the hours of 8 p.m. and 8 a.m., nor otherwise than in full compliance 
with requirements of educational authorities for school attendance 
and with due regard to prescribed pauses. In school term time the 
daily limit of employment for children is three hours, in holiday time 
three hours. As regards factories Germany, unlike Great Britain, 
France and Switzerland, requires a shorter day for young persons 
than for women — 10 hours for the former, 11 hours for the latter. 
Women over 16 years may be employed 11 hours. Night work is 
forbidden, i.e. work between 8.30 p.m. and 5.30 a.m. Overtime may 
be granted to meet unforeseen pressure or for work on perishable 
articles, under conditions, by local authorities and the higher ad- 
ministrative authorities. Prescribed meal-times are — an unbroken 
half-hour for children in their 6 hours; for young persons a mid-day 
pause of one hour, and half an hour respectively in the morning and 
afternoon spells; for women, an hour at mid-day, but women with 
the care of a household have the claim, on demand, to an extra half- 
hour, as in Switzerland. No woman may be employed within four 
weeks after childbirth, and unless a medical certificate can then be 
produced, the absence must extend to six weeks. Notice of working 
periods and meal-times must be affixed, and copies sent to the local 
authorities. Employment of protected persons in factory industries 
where there are special risks to health or morality may be forbidden 
or made dependent on special conditions. By the Child Labour Law 
employment of children is forbidden in brickworks, stone breaking, 
chimney sweeping, street cleaning and other processes and occupa- 
tions. By an order of the Federal Council in 1902 female workers 
were excluded from main processes in forges and rolling mills. All 
industrial employers alike are bound to organize labour in such a 



manner as to secure workers against injury to health and to ensure 
good conduct and propriety. Sufficient light, suitable cloakrooms 
and sanitary accommodation, and ventilation to carry off dust, 
vapours and other impurities are especially required. Dining- 
rooms may be ordered by local authorities. Fencing and provision 
for safety in case of fire are required in detail. The work of the 
trade accident insurance associations in preventing accidents is 
especially recognized in provisions for special rules in dangerous or 
unhealthy industries. Officials of the state factory departments are 
bound to give opportunity to trustees of the trade associations to 
express an opinion on special rules. In a large number of industries 
the Federal Council has laid down special rules comparable with those 
for unhealthy occupations in Great Britain. Among the regulations 
most recently revised and strengthened are those for manufacture of 
lead colours and lead compounds, and for horse-hair and brush- 
making factories. The relations between the state inspectors of 
factories and the ordinary police authorities are regulated in each 
state by its constitution. Prohibitions of truck in its original sense- 
that is, payment of wages otherwise than in current coin — apply to 
any persons under a contract of service with an employer for a 
specified time for industrial purposes; members of a family working 
for a parent or husband are not included ; outworkers are covered. 
Control of fines and deductions from wages applies only in factory 
industries and shops employing at least 20 workers. Shop hours 
are regulated by requiring shops to be closed generally between 
9 p.m. and 5 a.m., by requiring a fixed mid-day rest of 1 J hours and 
at least 10 hours' rest in the 24 for assistants. These limits can be 
modified by administrative authority. Notice of hours and working 
rules must be affixed. During the hours of compulsory closing sale 
of goods on the streets or from house to house is forbidden. Under 
the Commercial Code, as under the Civil Code, every employer is 
bound to adopt every possible measure for maintaining the safety, 
health and good conduct of his employes. By an order of the 
Imperial Chancellor under the Commercial Code seats must be pro- 
vided for commercial assistants and apprentices. 

Austria. — The Industrial Code of Austria, which in its present 
outline (modified by later enactments) dates from 1883, must be 
carefully distinguished from the Industrial Code of the kingdom 
of Hungary. The latter is, owing to the predominantly agricultural 
character of the population, of later origin, and hardly had practical 
force before the law of 1893 provided for inspection and preven- 
tion of accidents in factories. No separate mining code exists in 
Hungary, and conditions of labour are regulated by the Austrian 
law of 1854. The truck system is repressed on lines similar to those 
in Austria and Germany. As regards limitation of hours of adult 
labour, Hungary may be contrasted with both those empires in that 
no restriction of hours applies either to men's or women's hours, 
whereas in Austrian factories both are limited to an n-hours' day 
with exceptional overtime for which payment must always be made 
to the worker. The Austrian Code has its origin, however, like the 
British Factory Acts, in protection of child labour. Its present scope 
is determined by the Imperial " Patent " of 1859, and all industrial 
labour is included except mining, transport, fisheries, forestry, 
agriculture and domestic industries. Factories are defined as 
including industries in which a " manufacturing process is carried on 
in an enclosed place by the aid of not less than twenty workers 
working with machines, with subdivision of labour, and under 
an employer who does not himself manually assist in the work." 
In smaller handicraft industries the compulsory gild system of 
organization still applies. In every industrial establishment, large 
or small, the sanitary and safety provisions, general requirement 
of Sunday rest, and annual holidays (with conditional exceptions), 
prohibition of truck and limitation of the ages of child labour apply. 
Night work for women, 8 p.m. to 5 a.m., is prohibited only in factory 
industries ; for young workers it is prohibited in any industry. 
Pauses in work are required in all industries; one hour at least must 
be given at mid-day, and if the morning and afternoon spells exceed 
5 hours each, another half-hour's rest at least must be given. Children 
may not be employed in industrial work before 12 years, and then 
only 8 hours a day at work that is not injurious and if educational 
requirements are observed. The age of employment is raised to 14 
for " factories," and the work must be such as will not hinder physical 
development. Women may not be employed in regular industrial 
occupation within one month after childbirth. In certain scheduled 
unhealthy industries, where certificates of authorization from local 
authorities must be obtained by intending occupiers, conditions of 
health and safety for workers can be laid down in the certificate. 
The Minister of the Interior is empowered to draw up regulations 
prohibiting or making conditions for the employment of young 
workers or women in dangerous or unhealthy industries. The pro- 
visions against truck cover not only all industrial workers engaged in 
manual labour under a contract with an employer, but also shop- 
assistants ; the special regulations against fines and deductions apply 
to factory workers and shops where at least 20 workers are employed. 
In mines under the law of 1884, which supplements the general 
mining law, employment of women and girls underground is pro- 
hibited; boys from 12 to 16 and girls from 12 to 18 may only be 
employed at light work above ground; 14 is the earliest age of 
admission for boys underground. The shifts from bank to bank must 
not exceed 12 hours, of which npt more than 10 may be effective 



24 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



[UNITED STATES 



work. Sunday rest must begin not later than 6 A.M., and must be of 
24 hours' duration. These last two provisions do not hold in case of 
pressing danger for safety, health or property. Sick and accident 
funds and mining associations are legislated for in minutest detail. 
The general law provides for safety in working, but special rules 
drawn up by the district authorities lay down in detail the conditions 
of health and safety. As regards manufacturing industry, the 
Industrial Code lays no obligation on employers to report accidents, 
and until the Accident Insurance Law of 1889 came into force 
no statistics were available. In Austria, unlike Germany, the iactory 
inspectorate is organized throughout under a central chief inspector. 
Scandinavian Countries. — In Sweden the Factory Law was 
amended in January 1901 ; in Denmark in July 1901. Until that 
year, however, Norway was in some respects in advance of the other 
two countries by its law of 1892, which applied to industrial works, 
including metal works of all kinds and mining. Women were thereby 
prohibited from employment : (a) underground ; (b) in cleaning or 
oiling machinery in motion; (c) during six weeks after childbirth, 
unless provided with a medical certificate stating that they might 
return at the end of four weeks without injury to health; (d) in 
dangerous, unhealthy or exhausting trades during pregnancy. 
Further, work on Sundays and public holidays is prohibited to all 
workers, adult and youthful, with conditional exceptions under the 
authority of the inspectors. Children over 12 are admitted to 
industrial work on obtaining certificates of birth, of physical fitness 
and of elementary education. The hours of children are limited to 
6, with pauses, and of young persons (of 14 to 18 years) to 10, with 
pauses. Night work between 8 p.m. and 6 A.M. is prohibited. All 
workers are entitled to a copy of a code of factory rules containing the 
terms of the contract of work drawn up by representatives of employes 
with the employers and sanctioned by the inspector. Health and 
safety in working are provided for in detail in the same law of 1892. 
Special rules may be made for dangerous trades, and in 1899 such 
rules were established for match factories, similar to some of the 
British rules, but notably providing for a dental examination four 
times yearly by a doctor. In Denmark, regulation began with un- 
healthy industries, and it was not until the law of 1901 came into 
force, on the 1st of January 1902, that children under 12 years have 
been excluded from factory labour. Control of child labour can be 
strengthened by municipal regulation, and this has been done in 
Copenhagen by an order of the 23rd of May 1903. In Sweden the 
12 years' limit had for some time held in the larger factories; the 
scope has been extended so that it corresponds with the Norwegian 
law. The hours of children are, in Denmark, 65 for those under 14 
years; in Sweden 6 for those under 13 years. Young persons may 
not in either country work more than 10 hours daily, and night work, 
which is forbidden for persons under 18 years, is now defined as in 
Norway. Women may not be employed in industry within four 
weeks of childbirth, except on authority of a medical certificate. All 
factories in Sweden where young workers are employed are subject to 
medical inspection once a year. Fencing of machinery and hygienic 
conditions (ventilation, cubic space, temperature, light) are regulated 
in detail. In Denmark the use of white phosphorus in manufacture 
of lucifer matches has been prohibited since 1874, and special regula- 
tions have been drawn up by administrative orders which strengthen 
control of various unhealthy or dangerous industries, e.g. dry-cleaning 
works, printing works and type foundries, iron foundries and engineer- 
ing works. A special act of the 6th of April 1906 regulates labour 
and sanitary conditions in bakehouses and confectionery works. 

Italy and Spain. — The wide difference between the industrial 
development of these southern Latin countries and the two countries 
with which this summary begins, and the far greater importance of 
the agricultural interests, produced a situation, as regards labour 
legislation until as recently as 1903, which makes it convenient to 
touch on the comparatively limited scope of their regulations at the 
close of the series. It was stated by competent and impartial ob- 
servers from each of the two countries, at the International Congress 
on Labour Laws held at Brussels in 1897, that the lack of adequate 
measures for protection of child labour and inefficient administration 
of such regulations as exist was then responsible for abuse of their 
forces that could be found in no other European countries. " Their 
labour in factories, workshops, and mines constitutes a veritable 
martyrdom " (Spain). " I believe that there is no country where 
a sacrifice of child life is made that is comparable with that in certain 
Italian factories and industries " (Italy). In both countries im- 
portant progress has since been made in organizing inspection and 
preventing accidents. In Spain the first step in the direction of 
limitation of women's hours of labour was taken by a law of 1900, 
which took effect in 1902, in regulations for reduction of hours of 
labour for adults to 1 1 , normally, in the 24. Hours of children under 
14 must not exceed 6 in any industrial work nor 8 in any commercial 
undertaking. Labour before the age of 10 years and night work 
between 6p.m. and 5 A.M. was prohibited, and powers were taken to 
extend the prohibition of night work to young persons under 16 years. 
The labour of children in Italy was until 1902 regulated in the main 
by a law of 1886, but a royal decree of 1899 strengthened it by 
classing night work for children under 12 years as " injurious," such 
work being thereby generally prohibited for them, though exceptions 
are admitted; at the same time it was laid down that children from 
12 to 15 years might not be employed for more than 6 hours at night. 



The law of 1886 prohibits employment of children under 9 years in 
'industry and under 10 years in underground mining. Night work 
for women was in Italy first prohibited by the law of the 19th of June 
1902, and at the same time also for boys under 15, but this regulation 
was not to take full effect for 5 years as regards persons already so 
employed; by the same law persons under 15 and women of any age 
were accorded the claim to one day's complete rest of 24 hours in the 
week; the age of employment of children in factories, workshops, 
laboratories, quarries, mines, was raised to 12 years generally and 14 
years for underground work; the labour of female workers of any 
age was prohibited in underground work, and power was reserved to 
further restrict and regulate their employment as well as that of male 
workers under 15. Spain and Italy, the former by the law of the 
13th of March 1900, the latter by the law of the 19th of June 1902, 
prohibit the employment of women within a fixed period of child- 
birth; in Spain the limit is three weeks, in Italy one month, which 
may be reduced to three weeks on a medical certificate of fitness. 
Sunday rest 'is secured in industrial works, .with regulated excep- 
tions in Spain by the law of the 3rd of March 1904. It is in the 
direction of fencing and other safeguards against accidents and as 
regards sanitary provisions, both in industrial workplaces and in 
mines, that Italy has made most advance since her law of 1890 for 
prevention of accidents. Special measures for prevention of malaria 
are required in cultivation of rice by a ministerial circular of the 23rd 
of April 1903; work may not begin until an hour after sunrise and 
must cease an hour before sunset; children under 13 may not be 
employed in this industry. (A. M. An.) 

IV. United States 

Under the general head of Labour Legislation all American 
statute laws regulating labour, its conditions, and the relation 
of employer and employe must be classed. It includes 
what is properly known as factory legislation. Labour 
legislation belongs to the latter haif of the 19th century, so far 
as the United States is concerned. Like England in the far past, 
the Americans in colonial days undertook to regulate wages 
and prices, and later the employment of apprentices. Legislation 
relating to wages and prices was long ago abandoned, but the 
laws affecting the employment of apprentices still exist in some 
form, although conditions of employment have changed so 
materially that apprenticeships are not entered as of old; but 
the laws regulating the employment of apprentices were the 
basis on which English legislation found a foothold when 
parliament wished to regulate the labour of factory operatives. 
The code of labour laws of the present time is almost entirely 
the result of the industrial revolution during the latter part of 
the 1 8th century, under which the domestic or hand-labour 
system was displaced through the introduction of power 
machinery. As this revolution took place in the United States 
at a somewhat later date than in England, the labour legislation 
necessitated by it belongs to a later date. The factory, so far 
as textiles are concerned, was firmly established in America 
during the period from 1820 to 1840, and it was natural that, the 
English legislation found friends and advocates in the United 
States, although the more objectionable conditions accompanying 
the English factory were not to be found there. 

The first attempt to secure legislation regulating factory 
employment related to the hours of labour, which were very long 
— from twelve to thirteen hours a day. As machinery £ ar / y 
was introduced it was felt that the tension resulting attempts 
from speeded machines and the close attention re- *° "S^ate 
quired in the factory ought to be accompanied by a 
shorter work-day. This view took firm hold of the operatives, 
and was the chief cause of the agitation which has resulted in a 
great body of laws applying in very many directions. As early 
as 1806 the caulkers and shipbuilders of New York City agitated 
for a reduction of hours to ten per day, but no legislation followed. 
There were several other attempts to secure some regulation 
relative to hours, but there was no general agitation prior to 183 1. 
As Massachusetts was the state which first recognized the necessity 
of regulating employment (following in a measure, and so far as 
conditions demanded, the English labour or factory legislation), 
the history of such legislation in that state is indicative of that 
in the United. States, and as it would be impossible in this article 
to give a detailed history of the origin of laws in the different 
states, the dates of their enactment, and their provisions, it is 
best to follow primarily the course of the Eastern states, and 
especially that of Massachusetts, where the first general agitation 



UNITED STATES] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



25 



took place and the first laws were enacted. That state in 1836 
regulated by law the question of the education of young persons 
employed in manufacturing establishments. The regulation of 
hours of labour .was warmly discussed in 1832, and several 
legislative committees and commissions reported upon it, but no 
specific action on the general question of hours of labour secured 
the indorsement of the Massachusetts legislature until 1874, 
although the day's labour of children under twelve years of age 
was limited to ten hours in 1842. Ten hours constituted a day's 
labour, on a voluntary basis, in many trades in Massachusetts 
and other parts of the country as early as 1853, while in the 
shipbuilding trades this was the work-day in 1844. In April 
1840 President Van Buren issued an order " that all public 
establishments will hereafter be regulated, as to working hours, 
by the ten-hours system." The real aggressive movement began 
in 1845, through numerous petitions to the Massachusetts 
legislature urging a reduction of the day's labour to eleven hours, 
but nothing came of these petitions at that time. Again, in 1850, 
a similar effort was made, and also in 1851 and 1852, but the bills 
failed. Then there was a period of quiet until 1865, when an 
unpaid commission made a report relative to the hours of labour, 
and recommended the establishment of a bureau of statistics 
for the purpose of collecting data bearing upon the labour 
question. This was the first step in this direction in any country. 
The first bureau of the kind was established in Massachusetts in 
i86q, but meanwhile, in accordance with reports of commissions 
and the address of Governor Bullock in 1866, and the general 
sentiment which then prevailed, the legislature passed an act 
regulating in a measure the conditions of the employment of 
children in manufacturing establishments; and this is one of 
the first laws of the kind in the United States, although the first 
legislation in the United States relating to the hours of labour 
which the writer has been able to find, and for which he can fix 
a date, was enacted by the state of Pennsylvania in 1849, the law 
providing that ten hours should be a day's work in cotton, 
woollen, paper, bagging, silk and flax factories. 

The Massachusetts law of 1866 provided, firstly, that no child 
under ten should be employed in any manufacturing establish- 
ment, and that no child between ten and fourteen 
Employ- should be so employed unless he had attended some 
children, public or private school at least six months during the 
year preceding such employment, and, further, that 
such employment should not continue unless the child attended 
school at least six months in each and every year; secondly, a 
penalty not exceeding $50 for every owner or agent or other person 
knowingly employing a child in violation of the act; thirdly, 
that no child under the age of fourteen should be employed in any 
manufacturing establishment more than eight hours in any one 
day; fourthly, that any parent or guardian allowing or consent- 
ing to employment in violation of the act should forfeit a sum 
not to exceed $50 for each offence; fifthly, that the Governor 
instruct the state constable and his deputies to enforce the 
provisions of all laws for regulating the employment of children 
in manufacturing establishments. The same legislature also 
created a commission of three persons, whose duty it was to 
investigate the subject of hours of labour in relation to the 
social, educational and sanitary condition of the working classes. 
In 1867 a fundamental law relating to schooling and hours of 
labour of children employed in manufacturing and mechanical 
establishments was passed by the Massachusetts legislature. 
It differed from the act of the year previous in some respects, 
going deeper into the general question. It provided that, no 
child under ten should be employed in any manufacturing or 
mechanical establishment of the commonwealth, and that no 
child between ten and fifteen should be so employed unless he 
had attended school, public or private, at least three months 
during the year next preceding Tiis employment. There were 
provisions relating to residence, &c, and a further provision that 
no time less than 120 half-days of actual schooling should be 
deemed an equivalent of three months, and that no child under 
fifteen should be employed in any manufacturing or mechanical 
establishment more than sixty hours any one week. The law 



also provided penalties for violation. It repealed the act of 
1866. 

In 1869 began the establishment of that chain of offices in 
the United States, the principle of which has been adopted by 
other countries, known as bureaus of statistics of labour, 
their especial purpose being the collection and dissemination of 
information relating to all features of industrial employment. 
As a result of the success of the first bureau, bureaus are in 
existence in thirty-three states, in addition to the United States 
Bureau of Labour. 

A special piece of legislation which belongs to the common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, so far as experience shows, was that 
in 1872, providing for cheap morning and evening trains for the 
accommodation of working men living in the vicinity of Boston. 
Great Britain had long had such trains, which were called 
parliamentary trains. Under the Massachusetts law some of the 
railways running out of Boston furnished the accommodation 
required, and the system has since been in operation. 

In different parts of the country the agitation to secure legisla- 
tion regulating the hours of labour became aggressive again 
in 1870 and the years immediately following, there 
being a constant repetition of attempts to secure the f 1 "?? 1 ? 
enactment of a ten-hours law, but in Massachusetts tloa igjf t 
all the petitions failed till 1874, when the legislature of 
that commonwealth established the hours of labour at sixty per 
week not only for children under eighteen, but for women, the 
law providing that no minor under eighteen and no woman over 
that age should be employed by any person, firm or corporation 
in any manufacturing establishment more than ten hours in any 
one day. In 1876 Massachusetts reconstructed its laws relating 
to the employment of children, although it did not abrogate the 
principles involved in earlier legislation, while in 1877 the 
commonwealth passed Factory Acts covering the general pro- 
visions of the British laws. It provided for the general inspec- 
tion of factories and public buildings, the provisions of the law 
relating to dangerous machinery, such as belting, shafting, gear- 
ing, drums, &c, which the legislature insisted must be securely 
guarded, and that no machinery other than steam engines should 
be cleaned while running. The question of ventilation and 
cleanliness was also attended to. Dangers connected with 
hoistways, elevators and well-holes were minimized by their 
protection by sufficient trap-doors, while fire-escapes were made 
obligatory on all establishments of three or more storeys in 
height. All main doors, both inside and outside, of manufactur- 
ing establishments, as well as those of churches, school-rooms, 
town halls, theatres and every building used for public assemblies, 
should open outwardly whenever the factory inspectors of the 
commonwealth deemed it necessary. These provisions remain 
in the laws of Massachusetts, and other states have found it wise 
to follow them. 

The labour legislation in force in 1910 in the various states of the 
Union might be classified in two general branches: (A) protective 
labour legislation, or laws for the aid of workers who, on account of 
their economic dependence, are not in a position fully to protect 
themselves; (B) legislation having for its purpose the fixing of the 
legal status of the worker as an employ*;, such as laws relating to the 
making and breaking of the labour contract, the right to form 
organizations and to assemble peaceably, the settlement of labour 
disputes, the licensing of occupations, &c. 

(A) The first class includes factory and workshop acts, laws relating 
to hours of labour, work on Sundays and holidays, the payment of 
wages, the liability of employers for injuries to their 
employes, &c. Factory acts have been passed by 



Factory 
and work- 



nearly all the states of the Union. These may be 
considered in two groups — first, laws which relate to con- s °P a s * 
ditions of employment and affect only children, young persons and 
women; and second, laws which relate to the sanitary condition of 
factories and workshops and to the safety of employes generally. 
The states adopting such laws have usually made provision for 
factory inspectors, whose duties are to enforce these laws and who 
have power to enter and inspect factories and workshops. The most 
common provisions of the factory acts in the various states are those 
which fix an age limit below which employment is unlawful. All but 
five states have enacted such provisions, and these five states have 
practically no manufacturing industries. In some states the laws 
fixing an age limit are restricted in their application to factories, 
while in others they extend also to workshops, bakeries, mercantile 



26 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



establishments and other work places where children are employed 
1 he prescribed age limit varies from ten to fourteen years. Provisions 
concerning the education of children in factories and workshops may 
be considered m two groups, those relating to apprenticeship and 
hose requiring a certain educational qualification as a pre-requisite 
to employment. Apprenticeship laws are numerous, but they do not 
now nave great force, because of the practical abrogation of the 
apprenticeship system through the operation of modern methods 
of production Most states have provisions prohibiting illiterates 
under a specified age, usually sixteen, from being employed in 

C ™ S nM a r° rksh0 , PS -- I he P r r isions of the factory acts relating 
m,n? „f labour and night work generally affect only the employ 
rnent of women and young persons. Most of the states have enacted 
such provisions, those limiting the hours of children occurring more 
oAvork- Tn ^V h ° Se hmitin S the hours of women. The ho.fr Hm t 
vv, h, UC , h Case - S ranges from S1X P er da V to sixty-six per week 
Where the working time of children is restricted, the minimum age 
prescribed for such children ranges from twelve to twenty-one year? 
In some cases the restriction of the hours of labour of women and 
children is general, while in others it applies only to employment "n 
one or more classes of industries. Other provisions ofkwTor the 
protection of women and children, but not usually confined in their 
operation to factories and workshops, are such as require seats for 
females and separate toilet facilities for the sexes, and prohibit em- 
ployment in certain occupations as in mines, places .where intoxicants 
are manufactured or sold, in cleaning or operatinrdaneerous 
machinery, &c. Provisions of factory acts relat^g to the sanhary 
condition of factories and workshops and the safety of employes 
have been enacted in nearly all the manufacturing state To f the 
Lnion. They prohibit overcrowding, and require proper ventila- 
tion, sufficient light and heat, the lime- washing or painting of walls 
and ceilings, the provision of exhaust fans and blowers in places where 
dust or dangerous fumes are generated, guards on machinery 

wavs^nd r* P and t g?arin fi g ShifterS ' g" ar ds on elevators and hoist- 
ways, hand-rails on stairs, fire-escapes, &c 

The statutes relating to hours of labour may be considered nnd P ; 
five groups namely: (,) general laws which Merely "fix what shall 
Hours of ?, e /? ga rde . d as . a day's labour in the absence of a contract ; 
labour. (2 { , laws defining what shall constitute a day's work on 

public roads; (3) laws limiting the hours of labour oer 
day on public works; (4) laws limiting the hours of labour in certain 
occupations; and (5) laws which specify the hours per day or per 
week during which women and children may be employed The 
statutes included m the first two groups place no restrictions upon 
and eZf e 7 f h °" re * h,cl ! ma y °e agreed upon between employers 
and employes, while those in the other three groups usually limit the 
freedom o contract and provide penalties for their violation A 
considerable number of states have enacted laws which fixaday^s 
abour m the absence of any contract, some at eight and others at 
enhours, so that when an employer and an employe make a contract 
and they do not specify what shall constituted day's labour ekht 
or ten hours respectively would be ruled as the day's labour in an 
action which might come before the courts. In a number of the states 

cash D av m n P nts W o r V he CI . tiZEnS t0 Hqui ? ate certain taxes e *her by 
cash payments or by rendering personal service. In the latter case 
the length of the working day is defined by law, eight hours befng 
usually specified. The Federal government and nearly one-half of hf 
w a rWn aVe T S P rovldln g. th at eight hours shall constitute a day's 
work or employes on public works. Under the Federal Act it is 
unlawful for any officer of the government or of any contractor or 
subcontractor for public works to permit labourers and mechanics to 

hours clTh^rY^ ^T *" ^ The State ^ concern ng 
hour,, of labour have similar provisions. Exceptions are provided 

for cases of extraordinary emergencies, such as danger to human life 
or property. In many states the hours of labour have been limited 
by law ,n occupations in which, on account of their dangerous or 
insanitary character the health of the employes would be jeopardized 
by long hours of labour, or in which the fatigue occasionedby long 
hours would endanger the lives of the employes or of the p^bH? 
The occupations for which such special legislation has been enacted 
are those of employes on steam and street railways, in mines and 
other underground workings, smelting and refining works, bakeries 
and cotton and woollen mills. Laws limiting the hours of labour of 
shopTctT considered under factory and work- 

Nearly all states and Territories of the Union have laws prohibiting 
the employment of labour on Sunday. These laws usually make it 
Sunday f misdemeanour for persons either to labour themselvesor 
labour. to com Pel or permit their apprentices, servants or other 
employes to labour on the first day of the week Ex- 
ceptions are made in the case of householdduties o7 works of 
necessity or charity, and in the case of members of religious societies 
who observe some other than the first day of the week SOCletles 

statutes concerning the payment of wages of employfe mav be 
cons.dered ,n two groups: (1) those which relate to the employment 
Payment contrac t> such as laws fixing the maximum period of wage 
of wages. Pfyments prohibiting the payment of wages in scrip or 
,,., other evidences of indebtedness in lieu of lawful money 
machine r v g F* ded f tions on account of fines, breakage Tf 
machinery, discounts for prepayments, medical attendance, relief 



[UNITED STATES 

iTgts r £% P ) U lTd S s L S ti r o e n qU:rin ?- the giYing ° f notice o f eduction of 
wages <xc. , \2) legislation granting certain privileges or a ff^ r A;„„ 

special protection to working people with respect 1 o their ™=, g 
such as laws exempting wales from attarhm^ t • Wages ' 
claims in assignments, fnd i%nti™w^^ P ^?« n ™& 
and other constructions on which they have been emToyed gS 
Employers' liability laws have been passed to enahll =„ 1 - 

to recover damages from his employer under cer^?n^v em P lo 7 e 
he has been injured through Sn^urriS '^f ons wh en 
works of the employer. The common-law maxim that the Employers' 
principal is responsible for the acts of his agent does not ffa6 "''^ 
apply where two or more persons are working together under 
ca^SneST fiS tll^r^tlt ^^TZ 
Ste^retoS ^ ^ ^ £?<=* ft 

A l^l • The ln J ustlce of this rule is seen by a single illustration 
A weaver in a cotton factory, where there are hundred! of operatives' 

s injured by the neglect or carelessness of the enginee nSS 
the motive power. Under the common law the weaver 21 
recover damages from the employer, because he was the c ° employe' 
of the engineer. So, one of thousands of employes o a raE 
who e m m hf Stammg in J urie ^ through the careleS of a switchman 
whom he never saw, could recover no damages from the railwav 
company, both being co-employes of the sfme employer The 
injustice of this application of the common-law ruleTas been recog- 
nized, but the only way to avoid the difficulty was through "3c 
legislation providing that under such conditions as those related 

s? t h r=n= sa^rSia™- ^*»™&z& 

ESZSt S i0 A t^fot stats' t [tlf^ "T™* in 
enacted statutes fixing the liaCilitT of e^^^LSS 
conditions and relieving the employe from theapplicarion of the 
common-law ru e. Where the employe himself is coSr bCtory to 
the injuries resulting from an accident he cannot recover nor can he 
recover in some cases where he knows of the danger from the drfectl 
of tools or implements employed by him. The legislation upon the 
subject involves many features of legislation which need not be 
described here, such as those concerning the power of employes to 

which a iea d nt to C the a lb h ,> e ^T* ^r ndi ^^^^ 
wnich lead to the liability of the employer and the duties of the 

employe, and the relations in which damages for injuries sustained 

in employment may be recovered from the employer SUStamed 

(rJ) 1 he statutes thus far considered may be regarded as protective 

labour legislation^ There is, besides, a large body of statutory laws 

enacted in the various states for the purposl of fixing the legal Status 

of employers and employes and defining their righfs and |r!vileges 

A great variety of statutes have been enacted in the various 
states relating to the labour contract. Among these are laws He 
fining the abour contract, requiring notice of termination 
ot contract, making it a misdemeanour to break a contract Labour 
01 service and thereby endanger human life or expose «">"•«*. 

In d Ua ^£T erty t0 . Se - i0US iniury ' or to make a contract of service 
oVfL,?S P tra . n K s .P. ort ation or pecuniary advancements with intent to 
defraud prohibiting contracts of employment whereby em^loUs 
waive the right to damages in case of injury, &c. A Federals?atote 
makes it a misdemeanour for any one to prepay the transportation or 
in any way assist or encourage the importation , o ' aHens Sunder 

The Federal government and nearly all the states and territories 
have statutory provisions requiring the examination and Tensing 
of persons practising certain trades other than those in the " CenSmg 
class of recognized professions. The Federal statute re- Licensed 
lates only to engineers on steam vessels, masters, mates "ccupa- 
pilots, &c. The occupations for which examinations and tions - 
licences are required by the various state laws are those of barbers 
horseshoers, elevator operators, plumbers, stationary firemen steam 
engineers telegraph operators on railroads and certefn classes ™f 
mine workers and steam and street railway employls 



The right of combination and peaceable assembly on the part 
of employes is recognized at common law throughout the United 
btates. Organizations of working-men formed for 
their mutual benefit, protection and improvement Labour 
such as for endeavouring to secure higher wages' °^ aniza - 
shorter hours of labour or better working conditions' 
are nowhere regarded as unlawful. A number of states and the 
federal government have enacted statutes providing for the 
incorporation of trade unions, but owing to the freedom from 
regulatwn or inspection enjoyed by unincorporated trade unions 



UNITED STATES] 



LABOUR LEGISLATION 



27 



very few have availed themselves of this privilege. A number of 
states have enacted laws tending to give special protection to 
and encourage trade unions. Thus, nearly one-half of the states 
have passed acts declaring it unlawful for employers to discharge 
workmen for joining labour organizations, or to make it a con- 
dition of employment that they shall not belong to such bodies. 
Laws of this kind have generally been held to be unconstitu- 
tional. Nearly all the states have laws protecting trade 
unions in the use of the union label, insignia of membership, 
credentials, &c, and making it a misdemeanour to counter- 
feit or fraudulently use them. A number of the states exempt 
labour organizations from the operations of the anti-trust and 
insurance acts. 

Until recent years all legal action concerning labour dis- 
turbances was based upon the principles of the common law. 
Some of the states have now fairly complete statutory 
disputes, enactments concerning labour disturbances, while 
others have little or no legislation of this class. The 
right of employes to strike for any cause or for no cause is sus- 
tained by the common law everywhere in the United States. 
Likewise an employer has a right to discharge any or all of his 
employes when they have no contract with him, and he may 
refuse to employ any person or class of persons for any reason 
or for no reason. Agreements among strikers to take peaceable 
means to induce others to remain away from the works of an 
employer until he yields to the demands of the strikers are 
not held to be conspiracies under the common law, and the 
carrying out of such a purpose by peaceable persuasion and 
without violence, intimidation or threats, is not unlawful. 
However, any interference with the constitutional rights of 
another to employ whom he chooses or to labour when, where 
or on what terms he pleases, is illegal. The boycott has been 
held to be an illegal conspiracy in restraint of trade. The 
statutory enactments of the various states concerning labour 
disturbances are in part re-enactments of the rules of common law 
and in part more or less departures from or additions to the 
established principles. The list of such statutory enactments is 
a large one, and includes laws relating to blacklisting, boy- 
cotting, conspiracy against working-men, interference with 
employment, intimidation, picketing and strikes of railway 
employes; laws requiring statements of causes of discharge of 
employes and notice of strikes in advertisements for labour; 
laws prohibiting deception in the employment of labour and the 
hiring of armed guards by employers; and laws declaring that 
certain labour agreements do not constitute conspiracy. Some of 
these laws have been held to be unconstitutional, and some have 
not yet been tested in the courts. 

The laws just treated relate almost entirely to acts either of 
employers or of employes, but there is another form of law, namely, 
Arbltra- t ' lat P rov idmg for action to be taken by others in the effort 
tlon and to P revent working people from losing employment, either 
concilia- by their own acts or by those of their employers, or to 
tlon. settle any differences which arise out of controversies 

relating to wages, hours of labour, terms and conditions 
of employment, rules, &c. These laws provide for the mediation and 
the arbitration of labour disputes (see Arbitration and Concilia- 
tion). Twenty-three states and the Federal government have laws 
or constitutional provisions of this nature. In some cases they pro- 
vide for the appointment of state boards, and in others of local boards 
only. A number of states provide for local or special boards in 
addition to the regular state boards. In some states it is required 
that a member of a labour organization must be a member of the 
board, and, in general, both employers and employes must be 
represented. Nearly all state boards are required to attempt to 
mediate between the parties to a dispute when information is re- 
ceived of an actual or threatened labour trouble. Arbitration may 
be undertaken in some states on application from either party, in 
others on the application of both parties. An agreement to maintain 
the status quo pending arbitration is usually required. The modes of 
enforcement of obedience to the awards of the boards are various. 
Some states depend on publicity alone, some give the decisions the 
effect of judgments of courts of law which may be enforced by 
execution, while in other states disobedience to such decisions is 
punishable as for contempt of court. The Federal statute applies 
only to common carriers engaged in interstate commerce, and provides 
for an attempt to be made at mediation by two designated govern- 
ment officials in controversies between common carriers and their 



employes, and, in case of the failure of such an attempt, for the 
formation of a board of arbitration consisting of the same officials 
together with certain other parties to be selected. Such arbitration 
boards are to be formed only at the request or upon the consent of 
both parties to the controversy. 

The enforcement of laws by executive or judicial action is an 
important matter relating to labour legislation, for without 
action such laws would remain dead letters. Under 
the constitutions of the states, the governor is the judicial 
commander-in-chief of the military forces, and he has enforce- 
the power to order the militia or any part of it into ment ot 
active service in case of insurrection, invasion, tumult, i a „^ 
riots or breaches of the peace or imminent danger 
thereof. Frequent action has been taken in the case of strikes 
with the view of preventing or suppressing violence threatened or 
happening to persons or property, the effect being, however, that 
the militia protects those working or desiring to work, or the 
employers. The president of the United States may use the 
land and naval forces whenever by reason of insurrection, 
domestic violence, unlawful obstructions, conspiracy, combina- 
tions or assemblages of persons it becomes impracticable to 
enforce the laws of the land by the ordinary course of judicial 
proceedings, or when the execution of the laws is so hindered 
by reason of such events that any portion or class of the people 
are deprived thereby of their rights and privileges under the 
constitution and laws of the country. Under this general power 
the United States forces have been used for the protection of 
both employers and employes indirectly, the purpose being to 
protect mails and, as in the states, to see that the laws are carried 
out. 

The power of the courts to interfere in labour disputes is 
through the injunction and punishment thereunder for contempt 
of court. It is a principle of law that when there are interferences, 
actual or threatened, with property or with rights of a pecuniary 
nature, and the common or statute law offers no adequate and 
immediate remedy for the prevention of injury, a court of equity 
may interpose and issue its order or injunction as to what must 
or must not be done, a violation of which writ gives the court 
which issued it the power to punish for contempt. The doctrine 
is that something is necessary to be done to stop at once the 
destruction of property and the obstruction of business, and the 
injunction is immediate in its action. This writ has been resorted 
to frequently for the indirect protection of employes and of 
employers. (C. D. W.) 

Autsorities. — English: (a) Factory Legislation: Abraham 
and Davies, Law relating to Factories and Workshops (London, 1897 
and 1902); Redgrave, Factory Acts (London, 1897); Royal 
Commission on Labour, Minutes of Evidence and Digests, Group 
" C " (3 vols., 1892-1893), Assistant Commissioner's Report on 
Employment of Women (1893), Fifth and Final Report of the Com- 
mission (1894); International Labour Conference at Berlin, 
Correspondence, Commercial Series (C, 6042) (1890); House of 
Lords Committee on the Sweating System, Report (1891); Home 
Office Reports: Annual Reports of H.M. Chief Inspector of Factories 
(1879 to 1901), Committee on White Lead and Various Lead 
Industries (1894), Working of the Cotton Cloth Factories Acts 
(1897), Dangerous Trades (Anthrax) Committee, Do., Miscellane- 
ous Trades (1896-97-98-99), Conditions of Work in Fish-Curing 
Trade (1898), Lead Compounds in Pottery (1899), Phosphorus in 
Manufacture of Lucifer Matches (1899), &c, &c. ; Whately Cooke- 
Taylor, Modern Factory System (London, 1891); Oliver, Dangerous 
Trades (London, 1902) ; Cunningham, Growth of English Commerce 
and Industry (1907); Hutchins and Harrison, History of Factory 
Legislation (1903); Traill, Social England, &c, &c. (b) Mines 
and Quarries: Statutes: Coal Mines Regulation Acts 1886, 1894, 
1896, 1899; Metalliferous Mines Regulation Acts 1872, 1875; 
Quarries Act 1894; Royal Commission on Labour, Minutes of 
Evidence and Digests, Group "A" (1892-1893, 3 vols.); Royal 
Commission on Mining Royalties, Appendices (1894); Flome Office 
Reports : Annual General Report upon the Mining Industry 
(1894-1897), Mines and Quarries, General Reports and Statistics 
(1898 to 1899), Annual Reports of H.M. Chief Inspector of Factories 
( 1 893-1 895) (Quarries); Macswinney and Bristowe, Coal Mines 
Regulation Act 188/ (London, 1888). (c) Shops: Statutes: Shop 
Hours Acts 1892, 1893, 1896, Seats for Shop Assistants Act 1899; 
Report of Select Committee of House of Commons on the Shop Hours 
Regulation Bill 1886 (Eyre and Spottiswoode). (d) Truck: Home 
Office Reports: Annual Reports of H.M. Chief Inspector of Factories, 
especially 1895-1900, Memorandum on the Law relating to Truck 



28 



LABOUR PARTY— LABRADOR 



and Checkweighing Clauses of the Coal Mines Acts 1896, Memor- 
andum relating to the Truck Acts, by Sir Kenelm Digby, with text of 
Acts (1897). 

Continental Europe: Annuaire de la legislation du travail 
(Bruxelles, 1898-1905); Hygiene et securite des travailleurs dans les 
ateliers industrials (Paris, 1895) ; Bulletin de I' inspection, du travail 
(Paris, 1895-1902); Bulletin de I' office international du travail (Paris, 
1902-1906); Congres international de legislation du travail (1898)' 
Die Gewerbeordnung fur das deutsche Reich. (1) Landmann (1897) : 
(2) Neukamp (1901); Gesetz betr. Kinderarbeit in gewerblichen 
Betneben, 30. Mdrz 1903 ; Konrad Agahd, Manz'sche Gesetzausgabe 
erster Band und siebenter Band (Wien, 1897-1898); Legge sugli 
mfortunii del lavoro (Milan, 1900). 

United States: See the Twenty-Second Annual Report of the 
Commissioner of Labor (1907) giving all labour laws in force in the 
United States in 1907, with annotations of decisions of courts- bi- 
monthly Bulletins of the U.S. Bureau of Labor, containing laws 
passed since those published in the foregoing, and decisions of courts 
relating to employers and employes; also special articles in these 
Bulletins on ' Employer and Employe under the Common Law " 
(No. 1), Protection of Workmen in their Employment " (No. 26) 
" Government Industrial Arbitration " (No. 60), " Laws relating 
to the Employment of Women and Children, and to Factory In- 
spection and the Health and Safety of Employes " (No. 74), 
Wages and Hours of Labor in Manufacturing Industries, 1890 to 
1907 "(No. 77)," Review of Labor Legislation of 1908 and 1909 "(No. 
85); also " Report of the Industrial Commission on Labor Legisla- 
tion (vol. v U.S. Commission's Report) ; C. D. Wright, Industrial 
hvotutionin the United States (1887) ; Stimson, Handbook to the Labor 
Laws of the United States, and Labor in its Relation to Law- Adams 
and Sumner, Labor Problems; Labatt, Commentaries on the Law of 
Master and Servant. 

LABOUR PARTY, in Great Britain, the name given to the 
party in parliament composed of working-class representatives. 
As the result of the Reform Act of 1884, extending the franchise 
to a larger new working-class electorate, the votes of " labour " 
became more and more a matter of importance for politicians; 
and the Liberal party, seeking for the support of organized 
labour in the trade unions, found room for a few working-class 
representatives, who, however, acted and voted as Liberals. 
It was not till 1893 that the Independent Labour party, splitting 
off under Mr J. Keir Hardie (b. 1856) from the socialist organiza- 
tion known as the Social Democratic Federation (founded 1881), 
was formed at Bradford, with the object of getting independent 
candidates returned to parliament on a socialist programme. 
In 1900 Mr Keir Hardie, who as secretary of the Lanarkshire 
Miners' Union had stood unsuccessfully as a labour candidate 
for Mid-Lanark in 1888, and sat as M.P. for West Ham in 
1892-1895, was elected to parliament for Merthyr-Tydvil by its 
efforts, and in 1906 it obtained the return of 30 members, Mr 
Keir Hardie being chairman of the group. Meanwhile in 1899 
the Trade Union Congress instructed its parliamentary com- 
mittee to call a conference on the question of labour representa- 
tion; and in February 1900 this was attended by trade union 
delegates and also by representatives of the Independent Labour 
party, the Social Democratic Federation and the Fabian Society. 
A resolution was carried " to establish a distinct labour group 
in parliament, who shall have their own whips, and agree upon 
their own policy, which must embrace a readiness to co-operate 
with any party which for the time being may be engaged in 
promoting legislation in the direct interest of labour," and the 
committee (the Labour Representation Committee) was elected 
for the purpose. Under their auspices 29 out of 51 candidates 
were returned at the election of 1906. These groups were distinct 
from the Labour members (" Lib.-Labs ") who obeyed the Liberal 
whips and acted with the Liberals. In 1908 the attempts to 
unite the parliamentary representatives of the Independent 
Labour party with the Trades Union members were successful. 
In June of that year the Miners' Federation, returning 15 
members, joined the Independent Labour party, now known 
for parliamentary purposes as the "Labour Party"; other 
Trades Unions, such as the Amalgamated Society of Railway 
Servants, took the same step. This arrangement came into 
force at the general election of 1910, when the bulk of the 
miners' representatives signed the constitution of the Labour 
party, which after the election numbered 40 members of parlia- 
ment. 



LABRADOR, 1 a great peninsula in British North America, 
bounded E. by the North Atlantic, N. by Hudson Strait, W. 
by Hudson and James Bays, and S. by an arbitrary line extending 
eastwards from the south-east corner of Hudson Bay, near 51° 
N, to the mouth of the Moisie river, on the Gulf of St Lawrence, 
in 50° N, and thence eastwards by the Gulf of St Lawrence. It 
extends from 50° to 63 N., and from 55° to 8o° W., and embraces 
an approximate area of 511,000 sq. m. Recent explorations 
and surveys have added greatly to the knowledge of this vast 
region, and have shown that much of the peninsula is not a 
land of " awful desolation," but a well-wooded country, contain- 
ing latent resources of value in its forests, fisheries and 'minerals. 

_ Physical Geography.— Labrador forms the eastern limb of the V 
m the Archaean protaxis of North America (see Canada), and in- 
cludes most of the highest parts of that area. Along some portions 
1 1 S°l StS Hudson and also of Ungava Bay there is a fringe of 
lowland, but most of the interior is a plateau rising toward the south 
and east. The highest portion extends east and west between 52 ° 
and 54 N., where an immense granite area lies between the head- 
waters of the larger rivers of the four principal drainage basins- the 
lowest area is between Hudson Bay and Ungava Bay in the north- 
west, where the general level is not more than 500 ft. above the sea 
The only mountains are the range along the Atlantic coast, extending 
from the Strait of Belle Isle to Cape Chidley; in their southern half 
they rarely exceed 1500 ft., but increase in the northern half to a 
general elevation of upwards of 2000 ft., with numerous sharp peaks 
between 3000 and 5000 ft., some say 7000 or 8000 ft. The coasts are 
deeply indented by irregular bays and fringed with rocky islands 
especially along the high Atlantic coast, where long narrow fiords 
penetrate inland. Hamilton Inlet, 250 m. north of the Strait of Belle 
Isle, is the longest of these bays, with a length of 1-50 m. and a 
breadth varying from 2 to 30 m. The surface of the outer portions 
ot the plateau is deeply seamed by valleys, cut into the crystalline 
rocks by the natural erosion of rivers, depending for their length and 
depth upon the volume of water flowing through them. The valley 
of the Hamilton river is the greatest, forms a continuation of the 
valley of the Inlet and extends 300 m. farther inland, while its 
bottom lies from 500 to 1500 ft. below the surface of the plateau into 
which it is cut. The depressions between the low ridges of the 
interior are occupied by innumerable lakes, many of great size 
including Mistassini, Mishikamau, Clearwater, Kaniapiskau and 
Seal, all from 50 to 100 m. long. The streams discharging these lakes 
before entering their valleys, flow on a level with the country and 
occupy all depressions, so that they frequently spread out into lake- 
expansions and are often divided into numerous channels by large 
islands. The descent into the valleys is usually abrupt, being made 
by heavy rapids and falls; the Hamilton, from the level interior in 
a course of 12 m. falls 760 ft. into the head of its valley, this descent 
including a sheer drop of 315 ft. at the Grand Falls, which, taken 
with the large volume of the river, makes it the greatest fall' in North 
America. The rivers of the northern and western watersheds drain 
about two-thirds of the peninsula; the most important of the former 
are the Koksoak, the largest river of Labrador (over 500 m. long) the 
George, Whale and Payne rivers, all flowing into Ungava Bay The 
large rivers flowing westwards into Hudson Bay are the Povung- 
nituk, Kogaluk, Great Whale, Big, East Main and Rupert, varying 
in length from 300 to 500 m. The rivers flowing south are exceed- 
ingly rapid, the Moisie, Romaine, Natashkwan and St Augustine 
being the most important ; all are about 300 m. long. The Atlantic 
coast range throws most of the drainage northwards into the Ungava 
basin, and only small streams fall into the ocean, except the 
Hamilton, North-west and Kenamou, which empty into the head of 
Hamilton Inlet. 

Geology— The peninsula is formed largely of crystalline schists and 
gneisses associated with granites and other igneous rocks, all of 
archaean age; there are also large areas of non-fossiliferous, strati- 
fied limestones, cherts, shales and iron ores, the unaltered equivalents 
of part of the schists and gneisses. Narrow strips of Animikie 
(Upper Huroman or perhaps Cambrian) rocks occur along the low- 
lying southern and western shores, but there are nowhere else 
indications of the peninsula having been below sea-level since "an 
exceedingly remote time. During the glacial period the country waa 
covered by a thick mantle of ice, which flowed out radially from a 
central collecting-ground. Owing to the extremely long exposure to 
denudation, to the subsequent removal of the greater part of the 
decomposed rock by glaciers, and to the unequal weathering of the 
component rocks, it is now a plateau, which ascends somewhat 
abruptly within a few miles of the coast-line to heights of between 



From the Portuguese llavrador (a yeoman farmer). The name 
was originally given to Greenland (1st half of 16th century) and was 
transferred to the peninsula in the belief that it formed part of the 
same country as Greenland. The name was bestowed " because he 
who first gave notice of seeing it [Greenland] was a farmer {llavrador) 
from the Azores." See the historical sketch of Labrador by W. S. 
Wallace in Grenf ell's Labrador, &c, 1909. 



LABRADORITE 



29 



500 and 2000 ft. The interior is undulating, and traversed by ridges 
of low, rounded hills, seldom rising more than 500 ft. above the 
surrounding general level. 

Minerals. — The mineral wealth is undeveloped. Thick beds of 
excellent iron ore cover large aieas in the interior and along the 
shores ot Hudson and Ungava Bays. Large areas of mineralized 
Huronian rocks have also been discovered, similar to areas in other 
parts of Canada, where they contain valuable deposits of gold, copper, 
nickel and lead ; good prospects of these metals have been found. 

Climate. — The climate ranges from cold temperate on the southern 
coasts to arctic on Hudson Strait, and is generally so rigorous that it 
is doubtful if the country is fit for agriculture north of 51°, except 
on the low grounds near the coast. On James Bay good crops of 
potatoes and other roots are grown at Fort George, 54° N., while 
about the head of Hamilton Inlet, on the east coast, and in nearly the 
same latitude, similar crops are easily cultivated. On the outer coa.sts 
the climate is more rigorous, being affected by the floating ice borne 
southwards on the Arctic current. In the interior at Mistassini, 
50 30' N , a crop of potatoes is raised annually, but they rarely 
mature. No attempts at agriculture have been made elsewhere 
inland. Owing to the absence of grass plains, there is little likeli- 
hood that it will ever be a grazing district. There are only two 
seasons in the interior: winter begins early in October, with the 
freezing of the small lakes, and lasts until the middle of June, when 
the ice on rivers and lakes melts and summer suddenly bursts forth. 
From unconnected observations the lowest temperatures of the 
interior range from -50 F. to -6o° F., and are slightly higher along 
the coast. The mean summer temperature of the interior is about 
55 F., with frosts during every month in the northern portion. 
On the Atlantic coast and in Hudson Bay the larger bays freeze. solid 
between the 1st and 15th of December, and these coasts remain ice- 
bound until late in June. Hudson Strait is usually sufficiently open 
for navigation about the 10th of July. 

Vegetation. — The southern half is included in the sub-Arctic forest 
belt, and nine species of trees constitute the whole arborescent flora 
of this region; these species are the white birch, poplar, aspen, cedar. 
Banksian pine, white and black spruce, balsam fir and larch. The 
forest is continuous over the southern portion to 53 N., the only 
exceptions being the summits of rocky hills and the outer islands of 
the Atlantic and Hudson Bay, while the low margins and river 
valleys contain much valuable timber. To the northward the size 
and number of barren areas rapidly increase, so that in 55 N. more 
than half the country is treeless, and two degrees farther north the 
limit of trees is reached, leaving, to the northward, only barrens 
covered with low Arctic flowering plants, sedges and Hchens. 

Fisheries. — The fisheries along the shores of the Gulf of St Lawrence 
and of the Atlantic form practically the only industry of the white 
population scattered along the coasts, as well as of, a large proportion 
of the inhabitants of Newfoundland. The census (1891) of New- 
foundland gave 10,478 men, 208 1 women and 828 children employed 
in the Labrador fishery in 861 vessels, of which the tonnage amounted 
to 33,689; the total catch being 488,788 quintals of cod, 1275 tierces 
of salmon and 3828 barrels of herring, which, compared with the 
customs returns for 1880, showed an increase of cod and decreases of 
salmon and herring. The salmon fishery along the Atlantic coast is 
now very small, the decrease being probably due to excessive use of 
cod-traps. The cod fishery is now carried on along the entire 
Atlantic coast and into the eastern part of Ungava Bay, where 
excellent catches have been made since 1893. The annual value of 
the fisheries on the Canadian portion of the coast is about $350,000. 
The fisheries of Hudson Bay and of the interior are wholly unde- 
veloped, though both the bay and the large lakes of the interior are 
well stocked with several species of excellent fish, including Arctic 
trout, brook trout, lake trout, white fish, sturgeon and cod. 

Population. — The population is approximately 14,500, or 
about one person to every 3 5 sq. m. ; it is made up of 3 500 Indians, 
2000 Eskimo and 9000 whites. The last are confined to the 
coasts and to the Hudson Bay Company's trading posts of the 
interior. On the Atlantic coast they are largely immigrants 
from Newfoundland, together with descendants of English 
fishermen and Hudson Bay Company's servants. To the north 
of Hamilton Inlet they- are of more or less mixed blood from 
marriage with Eskimo women. The Newfoundland census of 
1901 gave 3634 as the number of permanent white residents 
along the Atlantic coast, and the Canadian census (1891) gave 
a white population of 5728, mostly French Canadians, scattered 
along the north shore of the Gulf of St Lawrence, while the 
whites living at the inland posts did not exceed fifty persons. 
It is difficult to give more than a rough approximation of the 
number of the native population, owing to their habits of roving 
from one trading post to another, and the consequent liability 
of counting the same family several times if the returns are 
computed from the books of the various posts, the only available 
data for an enumeration. The following estimate is arrived 



at in this manner: Indians — west coast, 1200; Ungava Bay, 
200; east coast, 200; south coast, 1900. Eskimo — Atlantic 
coast, 1000; south shore of Hudson Strait, 800; east coast 
of Hudson Bay, 500. The Indians roam over the southern 
interior in small bands, their northern limit being determined 
by that of the trees on which they depend for fuel. They live 
wholly by the chase, and their numbers are dependent upon 
the deer and other animals; as a consequence there is a constant 
struggle between the Indian and the lower animals for exist- 
ence, with great slaughter of the latter, followed by periodic 
famines among the natives, which greatly reduce their numbers 
and maintain an equilibrium. The native population has thus 
remained about stationary for the last two centuries. The 
Indians belong to the Algonquin family, and speak dialects of 
the Cree language. By contact with missionaries and fur-traders 
they are more or less civilized, and the great majority of them 
are Christians. Those living north of the St Lawrence are 
Roman Catholic, while the Indians of the western watershed 
have been converted by the missionaries of the Church Mission 
Society; the eastern and northern bands have not yet been 
reached by the missionaries, and are still pagans. The Eskimo 
of the Atlantic coast have long been under the guidance of the 
Moravian missionaries, and are well advanced in civilization; 
those of Hudson Bay have been taught by the Church Mission 
Society, and promise well; while the Eskimo of Hudson Strait 
alone remain without teachers, and are pagans. The Eskimo 
live along the coasts, only going inland for short periods to hunt 
the barren-ground caribou for their winter clothing; the rest 
of the year they remain on the shore or the ice, hunting seals 
and porpoises, which afford them food, clothing and fuel. 
The christianized Indians and Eskimo read and write in their 
own language; those under the teaching of the Church Mission 
Society use a syllabic character, the others make use of the 
ordinary alphabet. 

Political Review. — The peninsula is divided politically between 
the governments of Canada, Newfoundland and the province 
of Quebec. The government of Newfoundland, under Letters 
Patent of the 28th of March 1876, exercises jurisdiction along 
the Atlantic coast; the boundary between its territory and 
that of Canada is a line running due north and south from Anse 
Sablon, on the north shore of the Strait of Belle Isle, to 52 N., 
the remainder of the boundary being as yet undetermined. The 
northern boundary of the province of Quebec follows the East 
Main river to its source in Patamisk lake, thence by a line due 
east to the Ashuanipi branch of the Hamilton river; it then 
follows that river and Hamilton Inlet to the coast area under 
the jurisdiction of Newfoundland. The remainder of the 
peninsula, north of the province of Quebec, by order in council 
dated the 18th of December 1897, was constituted Ungava 
District, an unorganized territory under the jurisdiction of the 
government of the Dominion of Canada. 

Authorities. — W. T. Grenfell and others, Labrador: the Country 
and the People (New York, 1909) ; R. F. Holmes, " A Journey in the 
Interior of Labrador," Proc. R.G.S. x. 189-205 (1887); A. S. 
Packard, The Labrador Coast (New York, 1891); Austen Cary, 
" Exploration on Grand River, Labrador," Bui. Am. Geo. Soc. vol. 
xxiv., 1892; R. Bell, " The Labrador Peninsula," Scottish Geo. Mag. 
July 1895. Also the following reports by the Geological Survey of 
Canada: — R. Bell, " Report on an Exploration of the East Coast of 
Hudson Bay," 1877-1878; " Observations on the Coast of Labrador 
and on Hudson Strait and Bay," 1882-1884; A. P. Low, " Report 
on the Mistassini Expedition," 1885; " Report on James Bay and 
the Country East of Hudson Bay," 1887-1888; " Report on 
Explorations in the Labrador Peninsula, 1892-1895," 1896; " Re- 
port on a Traverse of the Northern Part of the Labrador Peninsula," 
1898; " Report on the South Shore of Hudson Strait," 1899. For 
History: W. G. Gosling, Labrador (1910). (A. P. Lo.; A. P. C.) 

LABRADORITE, or Labrador Spar, a lime-soda felspar 
of the plagioclase (q.v.) group, often cut and polished as an 
ornamental stone. It takes its name from the coast of Labrador, 
where it was discovered, as boulders, by the Moravian Mission 
about 1770, and specimens were soon afterwards sent to the 
secretary in London, the Rev. B. Latrobe. The felspar itself 
is generally of a dull grey colour, with a rather greasy lustre, 
but many specimens exhibit in certain directions a magnificent 



3o 



LABRADOR TEA— LA BRUYERE 



play of colours — blue, green, orange, purple or red; the colour 
in some specimens changing when the stone is viewed in different 
directions. This optical effect, known sometimes as " labrador- 
escence," seems due in some cases to the presence of minute 
laminae of certain minerals, like gothite or haematite, arranged 
parallel to the surface which reflects the colour; but in other 
cases it may be caused not so much by inclusions as by a delicate 
lamellar structure in the felspar. An aventurine effect is pro- 
duced by the presence of microscopic enclosures. The original 
labradorite was found in the neighbourhood of Nain, notably 
in a lagoon about 50 m. inland, and in St Paul's Island. Here 
it occurs with hypersthene, of a rich bronzy sheen, forming a 
coarse-grained norite. When wet, the stones are remarkably 
brilliant, and have been called by the natives " fire rocks." 
Russia has also yielded chatoyant labradorite, especially near 
Kiev and in Finland; a fine blue labradorite has been brought 
from Queensland; and the mineral is also known in several 
localities in the United States, as at Keeseville, in Essex county, 
New York. The ornamental stone from south Norway, now 
largely used as a decorative material in architecture, owes its 
beauty to a felspar with a blue opalescence, often called labra- 
dorite, but really a kind of orthoclase which Professor W. C. 
Brogger has termed cryptoperthite, whilst the rock in which 
it occurs is an augite-syenite called by him laurvigite, from 
its chief locality, Laurvik in Norway. Common labradorite, 
without play of colour, is an important constituent of such 
rocks as gabbro, diorite, andesite, dolerite and basalt. (See 
Plagioclase.) Ejected crystals of labradorite are found on 
Monti Rossi, a double parasitic cone on Etna. 

The term labradorite is unfortunately used also as a rock- 
name, having been applied by Fouque and Levy to a group 
of basic rocks rich in augite and poor in olivine. (F. W. R.*) 

LABRADOR TEA, the popular name for a species of Ledum, 
a small evergreen shrub growing in bogs and swamps in Greenland 
and the more northern parts of North America. The leaves are 
tough, densely covered with brown wool on the under face, 
fragrant when crushed and have been used as a substitute for 
tea. The plant is a member of the heath family (Ericaceae). 

LABRUM (Lat. for " lip "), the large vessel of the warm bath 
in the Roman thermae. These were cut out of great blocks of 
marble and granite, and have generally an overhanging lip. 
There is one in the Vatican of porphyry over. 12 ft. in diameter. 
The term labrum is used in zoology, of a lip or lip-like part; in 
entomology it is applied specifically to the upper lip of an insect, 
the lower lip being termed labium. 

LA BRUYERE, JEAN DE (1645-1696), French essayist and 
moralist, was born in Paris on the 16th of August 1645, and not, 
as was once the common statement, at Dourdan (Seine-et-Oise) 
in 1639. His family was of the middle class, and his reference 
to a certain Geoffroy de la Bruyere, a crusader, is only a satirical 
illustration of a method of self-ennoblement common in France 
as in some other countries. Indeed he himself always signed the 
name Delabruyere in one word, thus avowing his roture. His 
progenitors, however, were of respectable position, and he could 
trace them back at least as far as his great-grandfather, who had 
been a strong Leaguer. La Bruyere's own father was controller- 
general of finance to the Hotel de Ville. The son was educated 
by the Oratorians and at the university of Orleans; he was 
called to the bar, and in 1673 bought a post in the revenue 
department at Caen, which gave the status of noblesse and a 
certain income. In 1687 he sold this office. His predecessor in it 
was a relation of Bossuet, and it is thought that the transaction 
was the cause of La Bruyere's introduction to the great orator. 
Bossuet, who from the date of his own preceptorship of the 
dauphin, was a kind of agent-general for tutorships in the royal 
family, introduced him in 1684 to the household of the great 
Conde, to whose grandson Henri Jules de Bourbon as well as 
to that prince's girl-bride Mile de Nantes, one of Louis XIV. 's 
natural children, La Bruyere became tutor. The rest of his life 
was passed in the household of the prince or else at court, and 
he seems to have profited by the inclination which all the Conde 
family had for the society of men of letters. Very little is known 



of the events of this part — or, indeed, of any part— of his life. 
The impression derived from the few notices of him is of a silent, 
observant, but somewhat awkward man, resembling in manners 
Joseph Addison, whose master in literature La Bruyere un- 
doubtedly was. Yet despite the numerous enemies which his 
book raised up for him, most of these notices are favourable — 
notably that of Saint-Simon, an acute judge and one bitterly 
prejudiced against roturiers generally. There is, however, a 
curious passage in a letter from Boileau to Racine in which he 
regrets that " nature has not made La Bruyere as agreeable as 
he would like to be." His Caracteres appeared in 1688, and at 
once, as Nicolas de Malezieu had predicted, brought him " bien 
des lecteurs et bien des ennemis." At the head of these were 
Thomas Corneille, Fontenelle and Benserade, who were pretty 
clearly aimed at in the book, as well as innumerable other 
persons, men and women of letters as well as of society, on whom 
the cap of La Bruyere's fancy-portraits was fitted by -manuscript 
"keys " compiled by the scribblers of the day. The friendship 
of Bossuet and still more the protection of the Condes sufficiently 
defended the author, and he continued to insert fresh portraits 
of his contemporaries in each new edition of his book, especially 
in the 4th (1689). Those, however, whom he had attacked were 
powerful in the Academy, and numerous defeats awaited La 
Bruyere before he could make his way into that guarded hold. 
He was defeated thrice in 1691, and on one memorable occasion 
he had but seven votes, five of which were those of Bossuet, 
Boileau, Racine, Pellisson and Bussy-Rabutin. It was not 
till 1693 that he was elected, and even then an epigram, which, 
considering his admitted insignificance in conversation, was not 
of the worst, haesit lateri: — 

" Quand la Bruyere se pr^sente 

Pourquoi faut il crier haro ? 
Pour faire un nornbre de quarante 

Ne falloit il pas un zero ? " 

His unpopularity was, however, chiefly confined to the subjects 
of his sarcastic portraiture, and to the hack writers of the time, 
of whom he was wont to speak with a disdain only surpassed 
by that of Pope. His description of the Mercure galant as 
" immediatement au dcssous de Hen " is the best-remembered 
specimen of these unwise attacks; and would of itself account 
for the enmity of the editors, Fontenelle and the younger 
Corneille. La Bruyere's discourse of admission at the Academy, 
one of the best of its kind, was, like his admission itself, severely 
criticized, especially by the partisans of the " Moderns " in the 
" Ancient and Modern " quarrel. With the Caracteres, the 
translation of Theophrastus, and a few letters, most of them 
addressed to the prince de Conde, it completes the list of his 
literary work, with the exception of a curious and much-disputed 
posthumous treatise. La Bruyere died very suddenly, and not 
long after his admission to the Academy. He is said to haye been 
struck with dumbness in an assembly of his friends, and, being 
carried home to the Hotel de Conde, to have expired of apoplexy 
a day or two afterwards, on the 10th of May 1696. It is not 
surprising that, considering the recent panic about poisoning, 
the bitter personal enmities which he had excited and the peculiar 
circumstances of his death, suspicions of foul play should have 
been entertained, but there was apparently no foundation for 
them. Two years after his death appeared certain Dialogues sur 
le Quietisme, alleged to have been found among his papers in- 
complete, and to have been completed by the editor. As these 
dialogues are far inferior in literary merit to La Bruyere's other 
works, their genuineness has been denied. But the straight- 
forward and circumstantial account of their appearance given 
by this editor, the Abbe du Pin, a man of acknowledged probity, 
the intimacy of La Bruyere with Bossuet, whose views in his 
contest with Fenelon these dialogues are designed to further, 
and the entire absence, at so short a time after the alleged author's 
death, of the least protest on the part of his friends and repre- 
sentatives, seem to be decisive in their favour. 

Although it is permissible to doubt whether the value of the 
Caracteres has not been somewhat exaggerated by traditional 
French criticism, they deserve beyond all question a high place. 



LABUAN 



The plan of the book is thoroughly original, if that term may be 
accorded to a novel and skilful combination of existing elements. 
The treatise of Theophrastus may have furnished the first idea, 
but it gave little more. With the ethical generalizations and 
social Dutch painting of his original La Bruyere combined the 
peculiarities of the Montaigne essay, of the Pensees and Maximes 
of which Pascal and La Rochefoucauld are the masters respect- 
ively, and lastly of that peculiar 17th-century product, the 
" portrait " or elaborate literary picture of the personal and 
mental characteristics of an individual. The result was quite 
unlike anything that had been before seen, and it has not been 
exactly reproduced since, though the essay of Addison and Steele 
resembles it very closely, especially in the introduction of fancy 
portraits. In the titles of his work, and in its extreme desultori- 
ness, La Bruyere reminds the reader of Montaigne, but he aimed 
too much at sententiousness to attempt even the apparent con- 
tinuity of the great essayist. The short paragraphs of which his 
chapters consist are made up of maxims proper, of criticisms 
literary and ethical, and above all of the celebrated sketches of 
individuals baptized with names taken from the plays and 
romances of the time. These last are the great feature of the 
work, and that which gave it its immediate if not its enduring 
popularity. They are wonderfully piquant, extraordinarily 
life-like in a certain sense, and must have given great pleasure 
or more frequently exquisite pain to the originals, who were in 
many cases unmistakable and in most recognizable. 

But there is something wanting in them. The criticism of 
Charpentier, who received La Bruyere at the Academy, and 
who was of the opposite faction, is in fact fully justified as far 
as it goes. La Bruyere literally " est [trop] descendu dans le 
particulier." He has neither, like Moliere, embodied abstract 
peculiarities in a single life-like type, nor has he, like Shakespeare, 
made the individual pass sub speciem aeternitatis, and serve as 
a type while retaining his individuality.' He is a photographer 
rather than an artist in his portraiture. So, too, his maxims, 
admirably as they are expressed, and exact as their truth often 
is, are on a lower level than those of La Rochefoucauld. Beside 
the sculpturesque precision, the Roman brevity, the profound- 
ness of ethical intuition " piercing to the accepted hells beneath," 
of the great Frondeur, La Bruyere has the air of a literary 
pctit-maltre dressing up superficial observation in the finery 
of esprit. It is indeed only by comparison that he loses, but then 
it is by comparison that he is usually praised. His abundant 
wit and his personal " malice " have done much to give him his 
rank in French literature, but much must also be allowed to 
his purely literary merits. With Racine and Massillon he is 
probably the very best writer of what is somewhat arbitrarily 
styled classical French. He is hardly ever incorrect—the highest 
merit in the eyes of a French academic critic. He is always 
well-bred, never obscure, rarely though sometimes " precious " 
in the turns and niceties of language in which he delights to 
indulge, in his avowed design of attracting readers by form, 
now that, in point of matter, " tout est dit." It ought to be 
added to his credit that he was sensible of the folly of impoverish- 
ing French by ejecting old words. His chapter on " Les ouvrages 
de l'esprit " contains much good criticism, though it shows that, 
like most of his contemporaries except Fenelon, he was lamentably 
ignorant of the literature of his own tongue. 

The editions of La Bruyere, both partial and complete, have been 
extremely numerous. Les Caracteres de Theophraste traduits du 
Grec, avec Us caracteres et les mceurs de ce siecle, appeared for the 
first time in 1688, being published by Michallet, to whose little 
daughter, according to tradition, La Bruyere gave the profits of the 
book as a dowry. Two other editions, little altered, were published 
in the same year. In thefollowing year, and in each year until 1694, 
with the exception of 1693, a fresh edition appeared, and, in all these 
five, additions, omissions and alterations were largely made. A 
ninth edition, not much altered, was put forth in the year of the 
author's death. The Academy speech appeared in the eighth edition. 
■ 1 9- uletlst dialogues wer e published in 1699; most of the letters, 
including those addressed to Conde, not till 1867. In recent times 
numerous editions of the complete works have appeared, notably 
those of Walckenaer (1845), Servois (1867, in the series of Grands 
ecrwams de la France), Asselineau (a scholarly reprint of the last 
•riginal edition, 1872) and finally Chassang (1876) ; the last is one 



3* 



of the most generally useful, as the editor has collected almost every- 
thing of value in his predecessors. The literature of " keys " to 
La Bruyere is extensive and apocryphal. Almost everything that 
can be -done in this direction and in that of general illustration was 
done by Edouard Fourmer in his learned and amusing Comedie de 
La Bruyere (1866); M. Paul Morillot contributed a monograph on 
La Bruyere to the series of Grands ecrivains francais in 1904 

(G. Sa.) 

LABUAN (a corruption of the Malay word labuh-an, signifying 
an " anchorage "), an island of the Malay Archipelago, off the 
north-west coast of Borneo in 5 16' N., 115° 15' E. Its area 
is 30-23 sq. m.; it is distant about 6 m. from the mainland 
of Borneo at the nearest point, and lies opposite to the northern 
end of the great Brunei Bay. The island is covered with low 
hills rising from flats near the shore to an irregular plateau 
near the centre. About 1500 acres are under rice cultivation, 
and there are scattered patches of coco-nut and sago palms and 
a few vegetable gardens, the latter owned for the most part 
by Chinese. For the rest Labuan is covered over most of its 
extent by vigorous secondary growth, amidst which the charred 
trunks of trees rise at frequent intervals, the greater part of the 
forest of the island having been destroyed by great accidental 
conflagrations. Labuan was ceded to Great Britain in 1846, 
chiefly^ through the instrumentality of Sir James Brooke, the 
first raja of Sarawak, and was occupied two years later. 

At the time of its cession the island was uninhabited, but in 
1881 the population numbered 5731, though it had declined to 
5361 in 1891. The census returns for 1901 give the population 
at 841 1. The native population consists of Malay fishermen, 
Chinese, Tamils and small shifting communities of Kadayans, 
Tutongs and other natives of the neighbouring Bornean coast. 
There are about fifty European residents. At the time of its 
occupation by Great Britain a brilliant future was predicted 
for Labuan, which it was thought would become a second 
Singapore. These hopes have not been realized. The coal 
deposits, which are of somewhat indifferent quality, have been 
worked with varying degrees of failure by a succession of com- 
panies, one of which, the Labuan & Borneo Ltd., liquidated in 
1902 after the collapse of a shaft upon which large sums had 
been expended. It was succeeded by the Labuan Coalfields 
Ltd. The harbour is a fine one, and the above-named company 
possesses three wharves capable of berthing the largest Eastern- 
going ocean steamers. To-day Labuan chiefly exists as a trading 
depot for the natives of the neighbouring coast of Borneo, who 
sell their produce— beeswax, edible birds-nests, camphor, 
gutta, trepang, &c. ,— to Chinese shopkeepers, who resell it in 
Singapore. There is also a considerable trade in sago, much of 
which is produced on the mainland, and there are three small 
sago-factories on the island where the raw product is converted 
into flour. The Eastern Extension Telegraph Company has a 
central station at Labuan with cables to Singapore, Hong- 
Kong and British North Borneo. Monthly steam communication 
is maintained by a German firm between Labuan, Singapore 
and the Philippines. The colony joined the Imperial Penny 
Postage Union in 1889. There are a few miles of road on the 
island and a metre-gauge railway from the harbour to the coal 
mines, the property of the company. There is a Roman Catholic 
church with a resident priest, an Anglican church, visited periodic- 
ally by a clergyman from the mainland, two native and Chinese 
schools, and a sailors' club, built by the Roman Catholic mission. 
The bishop of Singapore and Sarawak is also bishop of Labuan. 
The European graveyard has repeatedly been the scene of 
outrages perpetrated, it is believed, by natives from the mainland 
of Borneo, the graves being rifled and the hair of the head and 
other parts of the corpses being carried off to furnish ornaments 
to weapons and ingredients in the magic philtres of the natives. 
Pulau Dat, a small island in the near neighbourhood of Labuan, 
is the site of a fine coco-nut plantation whence nuts and copra 
are exported in bulk. The climate is hot and very humid. 

_ Until 1869 the expenditure of the colony was partly defrayed by 
imperial grants-in-aid, but after that date it was left to its own 
resources. A garrison of imperial troops was maintained until 1871, 
when the troops were withdrawn after many deaths from fever and 
dysentery had occurred among them. Since then law and order 



32 



LABURNUM— LABYRINTH 



have been maintained without difficulty by a small mixed police 
force of Punjabis and Malays. From the 1st of January 1890 to the 
1st of January 1906 Labuan was transferred for administrative 
purposes to the British North Borneo Company, the governor for the 
time being of the company's territories holding also the royal com- 
mission as governor of Labuan. This arrangement did not work 
satisfactorily and called forth frequent petitions and protests from 
the colonists. Labuan was then placed under the government of 
the Straits Settlements, and is administered by a deputy governor 
who is a member of the Straits Civil Service. 

LABURNUM, known botanically as Laburnum vulgare (or 
Cytisus Laburnum), a familiar tree of the pea family (Legu- 
minosae); it is also known as " golden chain " and " golden rain." 
It is a native of the mountains of France, Switzerland, southern 
Germany, northern Italy, &c, has long been cultivated as an 
ornamental tree throughout Europe, and was introduced into 
north-east America by the European colonists. Gerard records 
it as growing in his garden in 1597 under the names of anagyris, 
laburnum or beane trefoyle (Herball, p. 1239), but the date of 
its introduction into England appears to be unknown. In 
France it is called I'aubour — a corruption from laburnum 
according to Du Hamel — as also arbois, i.e. arc-bois, " the 
wood having been used by the ancient Gauls for bows. It 
is still so employed in some parts of the Maconnois, where the 
bows are found to preserve their strength and elasticity for half 
a century " (Loudon, Arboretum, ii. 590). 

Several varieties of this tree are cultivated, differing in the 
size of the flowers, in the form of the foliage, &c, such as the 
"oak-leafed" (quercifolium) , pendulum, crispum, &c; var. 
aureum has golden yellow leaves. One of the most remarkable 
forms is Cytisus Adami (C. purpurascens), which bears three 
kinds of blossoms, viz. racemes of pure yellow flowers, others 
of a purple colour and others of an intermediate brick-red tint. 
The last are hybrid blossoms, and are sterile, with malformed 
ovules, though the pollen appears to be good. The yellow 
and purple " reversions " are fertile. It originated in Paris 
in 1828 by M. Adam, who inserted a " shield " of the bark of 
Cytisus purpureus into a stock of Laburnum. A vigorous shoot 
from this bud was subsequently propagated. Hence it would 
appear that the two distinct species became united by their 
cambium layers, and the trees propagated therefrom subsequently 
reverted to their respective parentages in bearing both yellow 
and purple flowers, but produce as well blossoms of an inter- 
mediate or hybrid character. Such a result may be called a 
" graft -hybrid." For full details see Darwin's Animals and 
Plants under Domestication. 

The laburnum has highly poisonous properties. The roots 
taste like liquorice, which is a member of the same family as 
the laburnum. It has proved fatal to cattle, though hares and 
rabbits eat the bark of it with avidity {Gardener's Chronicle, 
1881, vol. xvi. p. 666). The seeds also are highly poisonous, 
possessing emetic as well as acrid narcotic principles, especially 
in a green state. Gerard {loc. cit.) alludes to the powerful effect 
produced on the system by taking the bruised leaves medicinally. 
Pliny states that bees will not visit the flowers {N.H. xvi. 31), 
but this is an error, as bees and butterflies play an important 
part in the fertilization of the flowers, which they visit for the 
nectar. 

The heart wood of the laburnum is of a dark reddish-brown 
colour, hard and durable, and takes a good polish. Hence it 
is much prized by turners, and used with other coloured woods 
for inlaying purposes. The laburnum has been called false 
ebony from this character of its wood. 

LABYRINTH (Gr. Xa/Siiputfos, Lat. labyrinthus) , the name 
given by the Greeks and Romans to buildings, entirely or partly 
subterranean, containing a number of chambers and intricate 
passages, which rendered egress puzzling and difficult. The word 
is considered by some to be of Egyptian origin, while others 
connect it with the Gr. XaBpa, the passage of a mine. Another 
derivation suggested is from \a/3pvs, a Lydian or Carian word 
meaning a " double-edged axe " {Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
xxi. 109, 268), according to which the Cretan labyrinth or 
palace of Minos was the house of the double axe, the symbol 
of Zeus. 



Pliny {Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 19, 91) mentions the following as the 
four famous labyrinths of antiquity. 

1. The Egyptian: of which a description is given by Herodotus 
(ii. 148) and Strabo (xvii. 811). It was situated to the east of 
Lake Moeris, opposite the ancient site of Arsinoe' or Crocodilo- 
polis. According to Egyptologists, the word means " the temple 
at the entrance of the lake." According to Herodotus, the 
entire building, surrounded by a single wall, contained twelve 
courts and 3000 chambers, 1500 above and 1500 below ground. 
The roofs were wholly of stone, and the walls covered with 
sculpture. On one side stood a pyramid 40 orgyiae, or about 
243 ft. high. Herodotus himself went through the upper 
chambers, but was not permitted to visit those underground, 
which he was told contained the tombs of the kings who had 
built the labyrinth, and of the sacred crocodiles. Other ancient 
authorities considered that it was built as a place of meeting for 
the Egyptian nomes or political divisions; but it is more likely 
that it was intended for sepulchral purposes. It was the work 
of Amenemhe III., of the 12th dynasty, who lived about 2300B.C. 
It was first located by the Egyptologist Lepsius to the north of 
Hawara in the Fayum, and (in 1888) Flinders Petrie discovered 
its foundation, the extent of which is about 1000 ft. long by 
800 ft. wide. Immediately to the north of it is the pyramid of 
Hawara, in which the mummies of the king and his daughter 
have been found (see W. M. Flinders Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, 
and Arsinoe, 1889). 

2. The Cretan: said to have been built by Daedalus on the 
plan of the Egyptian, and famous for its connexion with the 
legend of the Minotaur. It is doubtful whether it ever had any 
real existence and Diodorus Siculus says that in his time it had 
already disappeared. By the older writers it was placed near 
Cnossus, and is represented on coins of that city, but nothing 
corresponding to it has been found during the course of the recent 
excavations, unless the royal palace was meant. The rocks of 
Crete are full of winding caves, which gave the first idea of the 
legendary labyrinth. Later writers (for instance, Claudian, 
De sexto Cons. Honorii, 634) place it near Gortyna, and a set 
of winding passages and chambers close to that place is still 
pointed out as the labyrinth; these are, however, in reality 
ancient quarries. 

3. The Lemnian: similar in construction to the Egyptian. 
Remains of it existed in the time of Pliny. Its chief feature 
was its 150 columns. 

4. The Italian: a series of chambers in the lower part of 
the tomb of Porsena at Clusium. This tomb was 300 ft. square 
and 50 ft. high, and underneath it was a labyrinth, from which 




Fig. 1. — Labyrinth of London and Wise. 

it was exceedingly difficult to find an exit without the assistance 
of a clew of thread. It has been maintained that this tomb is to 
be recognized in the mound named Poggio Gajella near Chiusi. 

Lastly, Pliny (xxxvi. 19) applies the word to a rude drawing on 
the ground or pavement, to some extent anticipating the modern 
or garden maze. 

On the Egyptian labyrinth see A. Wiedemann, Agyptische Ges- 
chichte (1884), p. 258, and his edition of the second book of 
Herodotus (1890); on the Cretan, C. Hock, Kreta (1823-1829), and 



LABYRINTH 



33 



A. J. Evans in Journal of Hellenic Studies; on the subject generally, 
articles in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and Daremberg and 
Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquMs. 

In gardening, a labyrinth or maze means an intricate network 
of pathways enclosed by hedges or plantations, so that those 




Fig. 2. — Labyrinth of Batty Langley. 
who enter become bewildered in their efforts to find the centre or 
make their exit. It is a remnant of the old geometrical style of 
gardening. There are two methods of forming it. That which 
is perhaps the more common consists of walks, or alleys as they 




to the centre, which is often raised, and generally contains a 
covered seat, a fountain, a statue or even a small group of trees. 
After reaching this point the next thing is to return to the 
entrance, when it is found that egress is as difficult as ingress. 
To every design of this sort there should be a key, but even those 
who know the key are apt to be perplexed. Sometimes the 
design consists of alleys only, as in fig. i, published in 1706 by 
London and Wise. In such a case, when the farther end is 
reached, there only remains to travel back again. Of a more 
pretentious character was a design published by Switzer in 1742. 



Fig. 3. — Labyrinth at Versailles. 

were formerly called, laid out and kept to an equal width or 
nearly so by parallel hedges, which should be so close and thick 
that the eye cannot readily penetrate them. The task is to get 




Fig. 4. — Maze at Hampton Court. 

This is of octagonal form, with very numerous parallel hedges and 
paths, and " six different entrances, whereof there is but one 
that leads to the centre, and that is attended with some difficulties 
and a great many stops." Some of the older designs for laby- 
rinths, however, avoid this close parallelism of the alleys, which, 
though equally involved and intricate in their windings, are 
carried through blocks of thick planting, as shown in fig. 2, from 
a design published in 1728 by Batty Langley. These blocks of 
shrubbery have been called wildernesses. To this latter class 
belongs the celebrated labyrinth at Versailles (fig. 3), of which 
Switzer observes, that it "is allowed by all to be the noblest of 
its kind in the world." 

Whatever style be adopted, it is essential that there should be a 
thick healthy growth of the hedges or shrubberies that confine the 
wanderer. The trees used should be impenetrable to the eye, and 
so tall that no one can look over them ; and the paths should be of 
gravel and well kept. The trees chiefly used for the hedges, and 
the best for the purpose, are the hornbeam among deciduous trees, 
or the yew among evergreens. The beech might be used instead of 
the hornbeam on suitable soil. The green holly might be planted 




Fig. 5. — Maze at Somerleyton Hall. 

as an evergreen with very good results, and so might the American 
arbor vitae if the natural soil presented no obstacle. The ground 
must be well prepared, so as to give the trees a good start, and a 
mulching of manure during the early years of their growth would 
be of much advantage. They must be kept trimmed in or clipped, 
especially in their earlier stages; trimming with the kniie is much to 
be preferred to clipping with shears. Any plants getting much in 
advance of the rest should be topped, and the whole kept to some 
4 ft. or 5 ft. in height until the lower parts are well thickened, when 
it may be allowed to acquire the allotted height by moderate annual 
increments. In cutting, the hedge (as indeed all hedges) should be 



xvi. 2 



34 



LABYRINTHULIDEA 



kept broadest at the base and narrowed upwards, which prevents it 
from getting thin and bare below by the stronger growth being drawn 
to the tops. 

The maze in the gardens at Hampton Court Palace (fig. 4) is con- 
sidered one of the finest examples in England. It was planted in 
the early part of the reign of William III., though it has been sup- 
posed that a maze had existed there since the time of Henry VIII. 
It is constructed on the hedge and alley system, and was, it is 
believed, originally planted with hornbeam, but many of the plants 
have been replaced by hollies, yews, &c, so that the vegetation 
is mixed. The walks are about half a mile in length, and the ground 
occupied is a little over a quarter of an acre. The centre contains 
two large trees, with a seat beneath each. The key to reach this 
resting place is to keep the right hand continuously in contact with 
the hedge from first to last, going round all the stops. 

The maze in the gardens at Somerleyton Hall, near Lowestoft (fig. 
5), was designed by Mr John Thomas. The hedges are of English 



approach to a " reproductive " state is the approximation of the 
amoebae, and their separate encystment in an irregular heap, 




Fig. 6. — Labyrinth in Horticultural Society's Garden. 

yew, are about 6| ft. high, and have been planted about sixty years. 
In the centre is a grass mound, raised to the height of the hedges, and 
on this mound is a pagoda, approached by a curved grass path. At 
the two corners on the western side are banks of laurels 15 or 16 ft. 
high. On each side of the hedges throughout the labyrinth is a 
small strip of grass. 

There was also a labyrinth at Theobald's Park, near Cheshunt, 
when this place passed from the earl of Salisbury into the possession 
of James I. Another is said to have existed at Wimbledon House, 
the seat of Earl Spencer, which was probably laid out by Brown in 
the 1 8th century. There is an interesting labyrinth, somewhat after 
the plan of fig 2, at Mistley Place, Manningtree. 

When the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at South 
Kensington were being planned, Albert, Prince Consort, the president 
of the society, especially desired that there should be a maze formed 
in the ante-garden, which was made in the form shown in fig. 6. 
This labyrinth, designed by Lieut. W. A. Nesfield, was for many years 
the chief point of attraction to the younger visitors to the gardens ; 
but it was allowed to go to ruin, and had to be destroyed. The gardens 
themselves are now built over. (T. Mo.) 

LABYRINTHULIDEA, the name given by Sir Ray Lankester 
(1885) to Sarcodina (q.v.) forming a reticulate plasmodium, 
the denser masses united by fine pseudopodical threads, hardly 
distinct from some Proteomyxa, such as Archcrina. 

This is a small and heterogeneous group. Labyrinthula, 
discovered by L. Cienkowsky, forms a network of relatively 
stiff threads on which are scattered large spindle-shaped enlarge- 
ments, each representing an amoeba, with a single nucleus. 
The threads are pseudopods, very slowly emitted and withdrawn. 
The amoebae multiply by fission in the active state. The nearest 




Labyrinthulidea. 



A colony or " cell-heap " of 
Labyrinthula vitellina, Cienk., 
crawling upon an Alga. 

A colony or " cell-heap " of 
Chlamydomyxa labyrinthul- 
oides, Archer, with fully ex- 
panded network of threads 
on which the oat-shaped 
corpuscles (cells) are moving. 
0, Is an ingested food particle ; 
at c a portion of the general 
protoplasm has detached it- 
self and become encysted. 

A portion of the network of 
Labyrinthula vitellina, Cienk., 
more highly magnified, p, Pro- 
toplasmic mass apparently 
produced by fusion of several 
filaments. p' , Fusion of 



several cells which have lost 
their definite spindle-shaped 
contour, s, Corpuscles which 
have become spherical and are 
no longer moving (perhaps 
about to be encysted). 

4. A single spindle cell and threads 

of Labyrinthula macrocystis, 
Cienk. n, Nucleus. 

5. A group of encysted cells of L. 

Macrocystis, embedded in a 
tough secretion. 

6. 7. Encysted cells of L. macro- 

cystis, with enclosed proto- 
plasm divided into four spores. 
8, 9. Transverse division of a non- 
encysted spindle-cell of L. 
macrocystis. 



LAC— LACAITA 



35 



recalling the Acrasieae. From each cyst ultimately emerges a 
single amoebae, or more rarely four (figs. 6, 7). The saprophyte 
Diplophrys (?) stercorea (Cienk.) appears closely allied to this. 

Chlamydomyxa (W. Archer) resembles Labyrinthitis in its 
freely branched Plasmodium, but contains yellowish chromato- 
phores, and minute oval vesicles (" physodes ") filled with a 
substance allied to tannin — possibly phloroglucin — which glide 
along the plasmodial tracks. The cell-body contains numerous 
nuclei; but in its active state is not resolvable into distinct oval 
amoeboids. It is amphitrophic, ingesting and digesting other 
Protista, as well as " assimilating" by its chromatophores, the 
product being oil, not starch. The whole body may form a 
laminated cellulose resting cyst, from which it may only tem- 
porarily emerge (fig. 2) , or it may undergo resolution into nucleate 
cells which then encyst, and become multinucleate before ruptur- 
ing the cyst afresh. 

Leydcnia (F. Schaudinn) is a parasite in malignant diseases 
of the pleura. The pseudopodia of adjoining cells unite to form 
a network; but its affinities seem to such social naked Fora- 
minifera as Mikrogromia. 

SeeCienkowsky.ylrcfoV/. Micro scopische Anatomie, iii. 274 (1867), 
xii. 44 (1876); VV. Archer, Quart. Jour. Microscopic Science, xv. 107 
(!875); E. R- Lankester, Ibid., xxxix., 233 (1896); Hieronymus and 
Jenkinson, Ibid., xlii. 89 (1899); W. Zopf, Beitrage zur Physiologie 
und Morphologie niederer Organismen, ii. 36 (1892), iv. 60 (1894); 
Pdnard, Archil! fur Protistenkunde, iv. 296 (1904); F. Schaudinn 
and Leyden, Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich preussischen Akademie 
der Wissenschaft, vi. (1896). 

LAC, a resinous incrustation formed on the twigs and young 
branches of various trees by an insect, Coccus lacca, which infests 
them. The term lac (laksha, Sanskrit; lakh, Hindi ) is the same 
as the numeral lakh — a hundred thousand — and is indicative 
of the countless hosts of insects which make their appearance 
with every successive generation. Lac is a product of the East 
Indies, coming especially from Bengal, Pegu, Siam and Assam, 
and is produced by a number of trees of the species Ficus, 
particularly F. religiosa. The insect which yields it is closely 
allied to the cochineal insect, Coccus cacti; kermes, C. ilicis 
and Polish grains, C. polonicus, all of which, like the lac insect, 
yield a red colouring matter. The minute larval insects fasten 
in myriads on the young shoots, and, inserting their long pro- 
boscides into the bark, draw their nutriment from the sap of the 
plant. The insects begin at once to exude the resinous secretion 
over their entire bodies; this forms in effect a cocoon, and, the 
separate exudations coalescing, a continuous hard resinous 
layer regularly honeycombed with small cavities is deposited 
over and around the twig. From this living tomb the female 
insects, which form the great bulk of the whole, never escape. 
After their impregnation, which takes place on the liberation 
of the males, about three months from their first appearance, the 
females develop into a singular amorphous organism consisting 
in its main features of a large smooth shining crimson-coloured 
sac — the ovary — with a beak stuck into the bark, and a few 
papillary processes projected above the resinous surface. The 
red fluid in the ovary is the substance which forms the lac dye 
of commerce. To obtain the largest amount of both resin and 
dye-stuff it is necessary to gather the twigs with their living 
inhabitants in or near June and November. Lac encrusting 
the twigs as gathered is known in commerce as "stick lac"; the 
resin crushed to small fragments and washed in hot water to 
free it from colouring matter constitutes " seed lac "; and this, 
when melted, strained through thick canvas, and spread out into 
thin layers, is known as " shellac," and is the form in which the 
resin is usually brought to European markets. Shellac varies 
in colour from a dark amber to an almost pure black; the palest, 
known as " orange-lac," is the most valuable; the darker varieties 
— " liver-coloured," " ruby," " garnet," &c. — diminish in 
value as the colour deepens. Shellac may be bleached by dissolv- 
ing it in a boiling lye of caustic potash and passing chlorine 
through the solution till all the resin is precipitated, the product 
being known as white shellac. Bleached lac takes light delicate 
shades of colour, and dyed a golden yellow it is much used in 
the East Indies for working into chain ornaments for the head 



and for other personal adornments. Lac is a principal ingredienj 
in sealing-wax, and forms the basis of some of the most valuable 
varnishes, besides being useful in various cements, &c. Average 
stick lac contains about 68 % of resin, 10 of lac dye and 6 of a 
waxy substance. Lac dye is obtained by evaporating the water 
in which stick lac is washed, and comes into commerce in the 
form of small square cakes. It is in many respects similar to, 
although not identical with, cochineal. 

LACAILLB, NICOLAS LOUIS DE (1713-1762), French astro- 
nomer, was born at Rumigny, in the Ardennes, on the 15th of 
March 1713. Left destitute by the death of his father, who held 
a post in the household of the duchess of Vendome, his theological 
studies at the College de Lisieux in Paris were prosecuted at the 
expense of the duke of Bourbon. After he had taken deacon's 
orders, however, he devoted himself exclusively to science, and, 
through the patronage of J. Cassini, obtained employment, 
first in surveying the coast from Nantes to Bayonne, then, in 
1739, in remeasuring the French arc of the meridian. The 
success of this difficult operation, which occupied two years, and 
achieved the correction of the anomalous result published by 
J. Cassini in 17 18, was mainly due to Lacaille's industry and 
skill. He was rewarded by admission to the Academy and the 
appointment of mathematical professor in Mazarin college, 
where he worked in a small observatory fitted for his use. His 
desire to observe the southern heavens led him to propose, in 
1750, an astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, 
which was officially sanctioned, and fortunately executed. 
Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the 
solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first 
measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the 
observation of 10,000 southern stars. On his return to Paris 
in 1754 Lacaille was distressed to find himself an object of public 
attention; he withdrew to Mazarin college, and there died, 
on the 21st of March 1762, of an attack of gout aggravated by 
unremitting toil. Lalande said of him that, during a compara- 
tively short life, he had made more observations and calculations 
than all the astronomers of his time put together. The quality 
of his work rivalled its quantity, while the disinterestedness 
and rectitude of his moral character earned him universal 
respect. 

His principal works are: Astronomiae Fundamenta (1757), con- 
taining a standard catalogue of 398 stars, re-edited by F. Baily 
{Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society, v. 93) ; Tabulae Solares (1758) ; Coelum 
auslrale stelliferum (1763) (edited by J. D. Maraldi), giving zone- 
observations of 10,000 stars, and describing fourteen new constella- 
tions; " Observations sur 515 etoiles du Zodiaque " (published in t. 
vi. of his Uphemerides, 1763); Lecons elementaires de Mathematiques 
(1741), frequently reprinted; ditto de Mecanique (1743), &c. ; ditto 
d Asironomie (1746), 4th edition augmented by Lalande (1779) ; ditto 
d'Optique (1750), &c. Calculations by him of eclipses for eighteen 
hundred years were inserted in L'Art de verifier les dates (175c); he 
communicated to the Academy in 1755 a classed catalogue of forty- 
two southern nebulae, and gave in t. ii. of his £,phemerides (1755) 
practical rules for the employment of the lunar method of longitudes, 
proposing in his additions to Pierre Bouguer's Traiti de Navigation 
(1760) the model of a nautical almanac. 

See G. de Fouchy, "Eloge de Lacaille," Hist, de V Acad, des Sciences, 
p. 197 (1762); G. Brotier, Preface to Lacaille's Coelum austraie; 
Claude Carlier, Discours historique, prefixed to Lacaille's Journal 
historique du voyage fait au Cap (1763); J. J. Lalande, Connoissance 
des temps, p. 185 (1767); Bibl. astr. pp. 422, 456, 461, 482'; J. 
Delafnbre, Hist, de I'astr. au XVIII" sibcle, pp. 457-542 ; J. S. Bailly, 
Hist, de I'astr. moderne, tomes ii., iii., passim; J. C. Poggendorff, Biog. 
Lit. Handworterbuch; R. Grant, Hist, of Physical Astronomy, pp. 
486, &c. ; R. Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomic A catalogue of 9766 
stars, reduced from Lacaille's observations by T. Henderson, under 
the supervision of F. Baily, was published in London in 1847. 

LACAITA, SIR JAMES [Giacomo] (1813-1895), Anglo-Italian 
politician and writer. Born at Manduria in southern Italy, 
he practised law in Naples, and having come in contact with 
a number of prominent Englishmen and Americans in that city, 
he acquired a desire to study the English language. Although 
a moderate Liberal in politics, he never joined any secret society, 
but in i85r after the restoration of Bourbon autocracy he was 
arrested for having supplied Gladstone with information or 
Bourbon misrule. Through the intervention of the British 
and Russian ministers he was liberated, but on the publication 



36 



LA CALLE— LACCADIVE ISLANDS 



of Gladstone's famous letters to Lord Aberdeen he was obliged 
to leave Naples. He first settled in Edinburgh, where he married 
Maria Carmichael, and then in London where he made numerous 
friends in literary and political circles, and was professor of 
Italian at Queen's College from 1853 to 1856. In the latter year 
he accompanied Lord Minto to Italy, on which occasion he 
first met Cavour. From 1857 to 1863 he was private secretary 
(non-political) to Lord Lansdowne, and in 1858 he accompanied 
Gladstone to the Ionian Islands as secretary, for which services 
he was made a K.C.M.G. the following year. In i860 Francis II. 
of Naples had implored Napoleon III. to send a squadron to 
prevent Garibaldi from crossing over from Sicily to Calabria; 
the emperor expressed himself willing to do so provided Great 
Britain co-operated, and Lord John Russell was at first inclined 
to agree. At this juncture Cavour, having heard of the scheme, 
entrusted Lacaita, at the suggestion of Sir James Hudson, the 
British minister at Turin, with the task of inducing Russell to 
refuse co-operation. Lacaita, who was an intimate friend both 
of Russell and his wife, succeeded, with the help of the latter, 
in winning over the British statesman just as he was about to 
accept the Franco-Neapolitan proposal, which was in con- 
sequence abandoned. He returned to Naples late in i860 and the 
following year was elected member of parliament for Bitonto, 
although he had been naturalized a British subject in 1855. 
He took little part in parliamentary politics, but in 1876 was 
created senator. He was actively interested in a number of 
English companies operating in Italy, and was made one of the 
directors of the Italian Southern Railway Co. He had a wide 
circle of friends in many European countries and in America, 
including a number of the most famous men in politics and 
literature. He died in 1895 at Posilipo near Naples. 

An authority on Dante, he gave many lectures on Italian literature 
and history while in England; and among his writings may be 
mentioned a large number of articles on Italian subjects in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica (1857-1860), and an edition of Benvenuto 
da Imola's Latin lectures on Dante delivered in 1375; he co- 
operated with Lord Vernon in the latter's great edition of Dante's 
Inferno (London, 1 858-1 865), and he compiled a catalogue in four 
volumes of the duke of Devonshire's library at Chatsworth (London, 
1879). 

LA CALLE, a seaport of Algeria, in the arrondissement of 
Bona, department of Constantine, 56 m. by rail E. of Bona and 10 
m. W. of the Tunisian frontier. It is the centre of the Algerian 
and Tunisian coral fisheries and has an extensive industry in 
the curing of sardines; but the harbour is small and exposed 
to the N.E. and W. winds. The old fortified town, now almost 
abandoned, is built on a rocky peninsula about 400 yds. long, 
connected with the mainland by a bank of sand. Since the 
occupation of La Calle by the French in 1836 a new town has 
grown up along the coast. Pop. (1906) of the town, 2774; of the 
commune, 4612. 

La Calle from the times of its earliest records in the 10th century 
has been the residence of coral merchants. In the 16th century 
exclusive privileges of fishing for coral were granted by the 
dey of Algiers to the French, who first established themselves 
on a bay to the westward of La Calle, naming their settlement 
Bastion de France; many ruins still exist of this town. In 1677 
they moved their headquarters to La Calle. The company — 
Compagnie d'Afrique — who owned the concession for the fishery 
was suppressed in 1798 on the outbreak of war between France 
and Algeria. In 1806 the British consul-general at Algiers 
obtained the right to occupy Bona and La Calle for an annual 
rent of £11,000; but though the money was paid for several 
years no practical effect was given to the agreement. The 
French regained possession in 181 7, were expelled during the 
wars of 1827, when La Calle was burnt, but returned and rebuilt 
the place in 1836. The boats engaged in the fishery were mainly 
Italian, but the imposition, during the last quarter of the 19th 
century, of heavy taxes on all save French boats drove the foreign 
vessels away. For some years the industry was abandoned, 
but was restarted on a small scale in 1903. 

See Abbe Poiret, Voyage en Barbarie . . . (Paris, 1789); E. 
Broughton, Six Years' Residence in Algiers (London, 1839) and Sir 
R. L. Playfair, Travels in the Footsteps of Bruce (London, 1877). 



LA CALPRENEDE, GAUTHIER DE COSTES, Seigneur de 
(c. 1610-1663), French novelist and dramatist, was born at the 
Chateau of Tolgou, near Sarlat (Dordogne), in 1609 or 1610. 
After studying at Toulouse, he came to Paris and entered the 
regiment of the guards, becoming in 1650 gentleman-in-ordinary 
of the royal household. He died in 1663 in consequence of a 
kick from his horse. He was the author of several long heroic 
romances ridiculed by Boileau. They are: Cassandre (10 vols., 
1642-1650); Cleopatre (1648); Faramond (1661); and Les 
Nouvelles, ou les Divertissements de la princesse Alcidiane (1661) 
published under his wife's name, but generally attributed to 
him. His plays lack the spirit and force that occasionally redeem 
the novels. The best is Le Comte d' Essex, represented in 1638, 
which supplied some ideas to Thomas Corneille for his tragedy 
of the same name. 

LA CARLOTA, a town of the province of Negros Occidental, 
Philippine Islands, on the W. coast of the island and the left 
bank of San Enrique river, about 18 m. S. of Bacolod, the 
capital of the province. Pop. (1903), after the annexation of 
San Enrique, 19,192. There are fifty-four villages or barrios 
in the town; the largest had a population in 1903 of 3254 and 
two others had each more than 1000 inhabitants. The Panayano 
dialect of the Visayan language is spoken by most of the inhabi- 
tants. At La Carlota the Spanish government established a 
station for the study of the culture of sugar-cane; by the 
American government this has been converted into a general 
agricultural experiment station, known as " Government Farm." 
LACCADIVE ISLANDS, a group of coral reefs and islands in 
the Indian Ocean, lying between io° and 12° 20' N. and 71 
40' and 74 E. The name Laccadives (laksha dwipa, the " hundred 
thousand isles ") is that given by the people of the Malabar 
coast, and was probably meant to include the Maldives; they 
are called by the natives simply Divi, " islands," or Amendivi, 
from the chief island. There are seventeen separate reefs, 
" round each of which the 100-fathom line is continuous " 
(J. S. Gardiner). There are, however, only thirteen islands, and 
of these only eight are inhabited. They fall into two groups 
— the northern, belonging to the collectorate of South Kanara, 
and including the inhabited islands of Amini, Kardamat, Kiltan 
and Chetlat; and the southern, belonging to the administrative 
district of Malabar, and including the inhabited islands of Agatti, 
Kavaratti, Androth and Kalpeni. Between the Laccadives 
and the Maldives to the south lies the isolated Minikoi, which 
physically belongs to neither group, though somewhat nearer 
to the Maldives (q.v.). The principal submerged banks lie north 
of the northern group of islands; they are Munyal, Coradive 
and Sesostris, and are of greater extent than those on which 
the islands lie. The general depth over these is from 23 to 28 
fathoms, but Sesostris has shallower soundings " indicating 
patches growing up, and some traces of a rim " (J. S. Gardiner). 
The islands have in nearly all cases emerged from the eastern 
and protected side of the reef, the western being completely 
exposed to the S.W. monsoon. The islands are small, none 
exceeding a mile in breadth, while the total area is only about 
80 sq. m. They lie so low that they would be hardly discernible 
but for the coco-nut groves with which they are thickly covered. 
The soil is light coral sand, beneath which, a few feet down, 
lies a stratum of coral stretching over the whole of the islands. 
This coral, generally a foot to a foot and a half in thickness, 
has been in the principal islands wholly excavated, whereby 
the underlying damp sand is rendered available for cereals. 
These excavations — a work of vast labour — were made at a 
remote period, and according to the native tradition by giants. 
In these spaces (totam, " garden ") coarse grain, pulse, bananas 
and vegetables are cultivated; coco-nuts grow abundantly 
everywhere. For rice the natives depend upon the mainland. 

Population and Trade. — The population in 1901 was 10,274. 
The people are Moplas, i.e. of mixed Hindu and Arab descent, 
and are Mahommedans. Their manners and customs are similar 
to those of the coast Moplas; but they maintain their own 
ancient caste distinctions. The language spoken is Malayalim, 
but it is written in the Arabic character. Reading and writing 



LACCOLITE— LACE 



37 



are common accomplishments among the men. The chief 
industry is the manufacture of coir. The various processes 
are entrusted to the women. The men employ themselves 
with boatbuilding and in conveying the island produce to the 
coast. The exports from the Laccadives are of the annual 
value of about £17,000. 

History. — No data exist for determining at what period the 
Laccadives were first colonized. The earliest mention of them as 
distinguished from the Maldives seems to be by Albiruni (c. 10x0), 
who divides the whole archipelago (Dibajat) into the Divah Kuzah 
or Cowrie Islands (the Maldives), and the Divah Kanbar or Coir 
Islands (the Laccadives). (See Journ. Asiat. Soc, September 1844, 
p. 265). The islanders were converted to Islam by an Arab apostle 
named Mumba Mulyaka, whose grave at Androth still imparts a 
peculiar sanctity to that island. The kazee of Androth was in 1847 
still a member of his family, and was said to be the twenty-second 
who had held the office in direct line from the saint. This gives 
colour to the tradition that the conversion took place about 1250. 
It is also further corroborated by the story given by the Ibn Batuta 
of the conversion of the Maldives, which occurred, as he heard, four 
generations (say one hundred and twenty years) before his visit to 
these islands in 1342. The Portuguese discovered the Laccadives in 
May 1498, and built forts upon them, but about 1545 the natives 
rose upon their oppressors. The islands subsequently became a 
suzerainty of the raja of Cannanore, and after the peace of Seringa- 
patam, 1792 the southern group was permitted to remain under the 
management of the native chief at a yearly tribute. This was often 
in arrear, and on this account these islands were sequestrated by the 
British government in 1877. 

See The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive 
Archipelagoes, ed. J. Stanley Gardiner (Cambridge 1901-1905); 
Malabar District Gazetteer (Madras, 1908) ; G. Pereira, " As Ilhas de 
Dyve " (Boletim da Soc. Geog., Lisbon, 1 898-1 899) gives details 
relating to the Laccadives from the 16th-century MS. volume De 
insulis et peregrinatione lusitanorum in the National Library, Lisbon. 
LACCOLITE (Gr. Xdx/cos, cistern, \idos, stone), iin geology, 
the name given by Grove K. Gilbert to intrusive masses 
of igneous rock possessing a cake-like form, which he first 
described from the Henry Mountains of southern Utah. Their 
characteristic is that they have spread out along the bedding 
planes of the strata, but are not so broad and thin as the sheets 
or intrusive sills which, consisting usually of basic rocks, have 
spread over immense distances without attaining any great 
thickness. Laccolites cover a comparatively small area and 
have greater thickness. Typically they have a domed upper 
surface while their base is flat. In the Henry Mountains they 
are from 1 to 5 m. in diameter and range in thickness up to 
about 5000 ft. The cause of their peculiar shape appears to 
be the viscosity of the rock injected, which is usually of inter- 
mediate character and comparatively rich in alkalis, belonging 
to the trachytes and similar lithological types. These are 
much less fluid than the basalts, and the latter in consequence 
spread out much more readily along the bedding planes, forming 
thin fiat-topped sills. At each side the laccolites thin out rapidly 
so that their upper surface slopes steeply to the margins. The 
strata above them which have been uplifted and bent are often 
cracked by extension, and as the igneous materials well into 
the fissures a large number of dikes is produced. At the base 
of the laccolite, on the other hand, the strata are flat and dikes 
are rare, though there may be a conduit up which the magma 
has flowed into the laccolite. The rocks around are often 
much affected by contact alteration, and great masses of them 
have sometimes sunk into the laccolite, where they may be 
partly melted and absorbed. 

Gilbert obtained evidence that these laccolites were filled 
at depths of 7000 to 10,000 ft. and did not reach the surface, 
giving rise to volcanoes. From the effects on the drainage of 
the country it seemed probable that above the laccolites the 
strata swelled up in flattish eminences. Often they occur side 
by side in groups belonging to a single period, though all the 
members of each group are not strictly of the same age. One 
laccolite may be formed on the side of an earlier one, and com- 
pound laccolites also occur. When exposed by erosion they 
give rise to hills, and their appearance varies somewhat with the 
stage of development. 

In the western part of South America laccolites agreeing in all 
essential points with those described by Gilbert occur in considerable 
numbers and present some diversity of types. Occasionally they are 



asymmetrical, or have one steep or vertical side while the other is 
gently inclined. In other cases they split into a number of sheets 
spreading outwards through the rocks around. But the term 
laccolite has also been adopted by geologists in Britain and elsewhere 
to describe a variety of intrusive masses not strictly identical in 
character with those of the Henry Mountains. Some of these rest 
on a curved floor, like the gabbro masses of the Cuillin Hills in Skye; 
others are injected along a flattish plane of unconformability where 
one system of rocks rests on the upturned and eroded edges of an 
older series. An example of the latter class is furnished by the felsite 
mass of the Black Hill in the Pentlands, near Edinburgh, which has 
followed the line between the Silurian and the Old Red Sandstone, 
forcing the rocks upwards without spreading out laterally to any 
great extent. 

The term laccolite has also been applied to many granite intrusions, 
such as those of Cornwall. We know from the evidence of mining 
shafts which have been sunk in the country near the edge of these 
granites that they slope downwards underground with an angle of 
twenty to thirty degrees. They have been proved also to have been 
injected along certain wall-marked horizons; so that although the 
rocks of the country have been folded in a very complicated manner 
the granite can often be shown to adhere closely to certain members 
of the stratigraphical sequence for a considerable distance. Hence it 
is clear that their upper surfaces are convex and gently arched, and it 
is conjectured that the strata must extend belo.v them, though at a 
great depth, forming a floor. The definite proof of this has not been 
attained for no borings have penetrated the granites and reached 
sedimentary rocks beneath them. But often in ; mountainous 
countries where there are deep valleys the bases of great granite 
laccolites are exposed to view in the hill sides. These granite sills 
have a considerable thickness in proportion to their length, raise the 
rocks above them and fill them with dikes, and behave generally like 
typical laccolites. In contradistinction to intrusions of this type with 
a well-defined floor we may place the batholiths, bysmaliths, plutonic 
plugs and stocks, which have vertical margins and apparently descend 
to unknown depths. It has been conjectured that masses of this type 
eat their way upwards by dissolving the rock above them and ab- 
sorbing it, or excavate a passage by breaking up the roof of the space 
they occupy while the fragments detached sink downwards and are 
lost in the ascending magma. (J. S. F.) 

LACE (corresponding to Ital. merletto, trina; Genoese pizzo; 
Ger. spitzen; Fr. denlelle; Dutch kanten; Span, encaje; the 
English word owes something to the Fr. lassis or lads, but both 
are connected with the earlier Lat. laqueus; early French laces 
were also called passements or insertions and dents or edgings), 
the name applied to ornamental open work formed of threads of 
flax, cotton, silk, gold or silver, and occasionally of mohair or 
aloe fibre, looped or plaited or twisted together by hand, (1) with 
a needle, when the work is distinctively known as " needlepoint 
lace "; (2) with bobbins, pins and a pillow or cushion, when the 
work is known as "pillow lace"; and- (3) by steam-driven 
machinery, when imitations of both needlepoint and pillow 
laces are produced. Lace^making implies the production of 
ornament and fabric concurrently. Without a pattern or design 
the fabric of lace cannot be made. 

The publication of patterns for needlepoint and pillow laces 
dates from about the middle of the 16th century. Before that 
period lace described such articles as cords and narrow braids of 
plaited and twisted threads, used not only to fasten shoes, 
sleeves and corsets together, but also in a decorative manner to 
braid the hair, to wind round hats, and to be sewn as trimmings 
upon costumes. In a Harleian MS. of the time of Henry VI. 
and Edward IV., about 1471, directions are given for the making 
of " lace Bascon, lace indented, lace bordered, lace covert, a 
brode lace, a round lace, a thynne lace, an open lace, lace for 
hattys," &c. The MS. opens with an illuminated capital letter, 
in which is the figure of a woman making these articles. The 
MS. supplies a clear description how threads in combinations of 
twos, threes, fours, fives, to tens and fifteens, were to be twisted 
and plaited together. Instead of the pillow, bobbins and pins 
with which pillow lace soon afterwards was made, the hands were 
used, each finger of a hand serving as a peg upon which was 
placed a " bowys " or " bow," or little ball of thread. Each 
ball might be of different colour from the other. The writer of 
the MS. says that the first finger next the thumb shall be called 
A, the next B, and so on. According to the sort of cord or braid 
to be made, so each of the four fingers, A, B, C, D might be called 
into service. A " thynne lace " might be made with three 
threads, and then only fingers A, B, C would be required. A 



38 



LACE 



" round " lace, stouter than the " thynne " lace, might require 
the service of four or more fingers. By occasionally dropping 
the use of threads from certain fingers a sort of indented lace or 
braid might be made. But when laces of more importance 
were wanted, such as a broad lace for " hattys," the fingers on 
the hands of assistants were required. The smaller cords or 
" thynne laces," when fastened in simple or fantastic loops along 
the edges of collars and cuffs, were called " purls " (see the small 
edge to the collar worn by Catherine de' Medici, PI. II. fig. 4). 
In another direction from which some suggestion may be derived 
as to the evolution of lace-making, notice should be taken of the 
fact that at an early period the darning of varied ornamental 
devices, stiff and geometric in treatment into hand-made network 
of small square meshes (see squares of " lacis," PI. I. fig. 1) 
became specialized in many European countries. This is held 
by some writers to be "opus filatorium," or " opus araneum " 
(spider work). Examples of this " opus filatorium," said to date 
from the 13 th century exist in public collections. The produc- 
tions of this darning in the early part of the 16th century came 
to be known as " punto a maglia quadra " in Italy and as 
" lacis " in France, and through a growing demand for household 
and wearing linen, very much of the " lacis " was made in white 
threads not only in Italy and France but also in Spain. In 
appearance it is a filmy fabric. With white threads also were 
the " purlings " above mentioned made, by means of leaden 
bobbins or " fuxii," and were called " merletti a piombini " (see 
lower border, PI. II. fig. 3). Cut and drawn thread linen work 
(the latter known as " tela tirata " in Italy and as " deshilado " 
in Spain) were other forms of embroidery as much in vogue as 
the darning on net and the " purling." The ornament of much 
of this cut and drawn linen work (see collar of Catherine de' 
Medici, PI. II. fig. 4), more restricted in scope than that of the 
darning on net, was governed by the recurrence of open squares 
formed by the withdrawal of the threads. Within these squares 
and rectangles radiating devices usually were worked by means 
of whipped and buttonhole stitches (PI. fig. 5). The general 
effect in the linen was a succession of insertions or borders of 
plain or enriched reticulations, whence the name " punto a 
reticella " given to this class of embroidery in Italy. Work of 
similar style and especially that with whipped stitches was done 
rather earlier in the Grecian islands, which derived it from Asia 
Minor and Persia. The close connexion of the Venetian republic 
with Greece and the eastern islands, as well as its commercial 
relations with the East, sufficiently explains an early transplant- 
ing of this kind of embroidery into Venice, as well as in southern 
Spain. At Venice besides being called " reticella," cut work was 
also called " punto tagliato." Once fairly established as home 
industries such arts were quickly exploited with a beauty and 
variety of pattern, complexity of stitch and delicacy of execu- 
tion, until insertions and edgings made independently of any 
linen as a starting base (see first two borders, PI. II. fig. 3) came 
into being under the name of " Punto in aria " (PI. II. fig. 7). 
This was the first variety of Venetian and Italian needlepoint 
lace in the middle of the 16th century, 1 and its appearance then 
almost coincides in date with that of the " merletti a piombini," 
which was the earliest Italian cushion or pillow lace (see lower 
edging, PI. II. fig. 3). 

The many varieties 01 needlepoint and pillow laces will be 

1 The prevalence of fashion in the above-mentioned sorts of em- 
broidery during the 16th century is marked by the number of pattern- 
books then published. In Venice a work of this class was issued by 
Alessandro Pagannino in 1527; another of a similar nature, printed 
by Pierre Quinty, appeared in the same year at Cologne; and La 
Fleur de la science de pourtraicture et patrons de broderie,facon arabicque 
et ytalique, was published at Paris in 1530. From these early dates 
until the beginning of the 17th century pattern-books for embroidery 
in Italy, France, Germany and England were published in great 
abundance. The designs contained- in many of those dating from the 
early 16th century were to be worked for costumes and hangings, and 
consisted of scrolls, arabesques, birds, animals, flowers, foliage, herbs 
and grasses. So far, however, as their reproduction as laces might be 
concerned, the execution of complicated work was involved which 
none but practised lace-workers, such as those who arose a century 
later, could be expected to undertake. 



touched on under the heading allotted to each of these methods 
of making lace. Here, however, the general circumstances of 
their genesis may be briefly alluded to. The activity in cord 
and braid-making and in the particular sorts of ornamental 
needlework already mentioned clearly postulated such special 
labour as was capable of being converted into lace-making. 
And from the 16th century onwards the stimulus to the industry 
in Europe was afforded by regular trade demand, coupled with 
the exertions of those who encouraged their dependents ot 
proteges to give their spare time to remunerative home occupa- 
tions. Thus the origin and perpetuation of the industry have 
come to be associated with the women folk of peasants and 
fishermen in circumstances which present little dissimilarity 
whether in regard to needle lace workers now making lace in 
whitewashed cottages and cabins at Youghal and Kenmare in 
the south of Ireland, or those who produced their " punti in aria " 
during the 16th century about the lagoons of Venice, or French- 
women who made the sumptuous " Points de France " at 
Alencon and elsewhere in the 17th and 18th centuries; or pillow 
lace workers to be seen at the present day at little seaside villages 
tucked away in Devonshire dells, or those who were engaged 
more than four hundred years ago in " merletti a piombini " in 
Italian villages or on " Dentelles au fuseau " in Flemish low- 
lands. The ornamental character, however, of these several 
laces would be found to differ much; but methods, materials, 
appliances and opportunities of work would in the main be alike. 
As fashion in wearing laces extended, so workers came to be 
drawn together into groups by employers who acted as channels 
for general trade. 2 Nuns in the past as in the present have also 
devoted attention to the industry, often providing in the convent 
precincts workrooms not only for peasant women to carry out 
commissions in the service of the church or for the trade, but 
also for the purpose of training children in the art. Elsewhere 
lace schools have been founded by benefactors or organized by 
some leading local lace-maker 3 as much for trading as for 
education. In all this variety of circumstance, development 
of finer work has depended upon the abilities of the workers being 
exercised under sound direction, whether derived through their 
own intuitions, or supplied by intelligent and tasteful employers. 
Where any such direction has been absent the industry viewed 
commercially has suffered, its productions being devoid of artistic 
effect or adaptability to the changing tastes of demand. 

It is noteworthy that the two widely distant regions of Europe 
where pictorial art first flourished and attained high perfection, 
north Italy and Flanders, were precisely the localities where 
lace-making first became an industry of importance both from 
an artistic and from a commercial point^of view. Notwithstand- 
ing more convincing evidence as to the earlier development of 
pillow lace making in Italy the invention of pillow lace is often 
credited to the Flemings; but there is no distinct trace of the 
time or the locality. In a picture said to exist in the church of 
St Gomar at Lierre, and sometimes attributed to Quentin 
Matsys (1495), is introduced a girl apparently working at some 
sort of lace with pillow, bobbins, &c, which are somewhat 
similar to the implements in use in more recent times. 4 From 
the very infancy of Flemish art an active intercourse was main- 
tained between the Low Countries and the great centres of 
Italian art; and it is therefore only what might be expected 
that the wonderful examples of the art and handiwork of Venice 
in lace-making should soon have come to be known to and 
rivalled among the equally industrious, thriving and artistic 
Flemings. At the end of the 16th century pattern-books were 
issued in Flanders having the same general character as those 
published for the guidance of the Venetian and other Italian 
lace-makers. 

2 A very complete account of how these conditions began and 
developed at Alengon, for instance, is given in Madame Despierre's 
Histoire du Point d % Alencon (1886) to which is appended an interesting 
and annotated list of merchants, designers and makers of Point 
d'Alencon. 

3 E.g. The family of Camusat at Alencon from 1602 until 1795. 

4 The picture, however, as Seguin has pointed out, was probably 
painted some thirty years later, and by Jean Matsys. 



LACE 



Plate I. 



t . ,!•'.'. 












Ifapi 
W 

SSL™ 



Fig. i. -PORTION OF A COVERLET COMPOSED OF SQUARES OF "LACIS" OR DARNED NETTING, DIVIDED BY 

The squares are worked with groups representing the twelve months, and with scenes from the old Spanish dramatic story "Celcst: 

16th century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 



LINEN CUT-WORK BANDS. 

na." Spanish or Portuguese. 




Fro. 2.- CORNER OF A BED-COVER OF PILLOW-MADE LACE OF A TAPE-LIKE TEXTURE WITH CHARACTERISTICS IN THE TWISTED AND 

PLAITED THREADS RELATING THE WORK TO ITALIAN "MERLETTI A PIOMBINI OR EARLY ENGLISH "BONE LACE " 

Possibly made in I- landers or italy during the early part of the 17th or at the end of the 16th century.-' The design includes the Imperial double-headed eagle of Austria 

with the ancient crown of the German Empire. (Victoria and Albert Museum.} 



Plate 11. 



LACE 




Fig. 3.— THREE VANDYKE OR DENTATED BORDERS OF 
ITALIAN LACE OF THE LATE i6th CENTURY. 
Style usually called " Reticella " on account of the patterns being 
based on repeated squares or reticulations. The two first borders 
are of needlepoint work; the lower border is of such pillow lace 
as was known in Italy as " merletti a piombini." 





Fig. 4.— CATHERINE DE MEDICI, WEARING A LINEN 
UPTURNED COLLAR OF CUT WORK AND NEEDLE- 
POINT LACE. LouTre. About 1540. 



Fig. 7.— BORDER OF FLAT NEEDLEPOINT LACE OF 
FULLER TEXTURE THAN THAT OF FIG. 3, AND 
FROM A FREER STYLE OF DESIGN IN WHICH 
CONVENTIONALIZED FLORAL FORMS HELD TO- 
GETHER BY SMALL BARS OR TYES ARE USED. 
Style called " Punto in Aria," chiefly on account of its indepen- 
dence of squares or reticulations. Italian. Early 17th century. 





Fig. 5.— CORNER OF A NAPKIN OR HANDKERCHIEF Fig. 6.— AMELIE ELISABETH, COMTESSE DE HAINAULT, 
BORDERED WITH "RETICELLA" NEEDLEPOINT WEARING A RUFF OF NEEDLEPOINT RETICELLA 

LACE IN THE DESIGN OF WHICH ACORNS AND LACE. By Morcelse. The Hague. About 1600.. 

CARNATIONS ARE MINGLED WITH GEOMETRIC (Figs. 4 and 6 by permission of Messrs Braun, Clement & Co., 

RADIATIONS. Probably of English early 17th century. Dornach (Alsace), and Paris.) 



LACE 



39 



France and England were not far behind Venice and Flanders 
in making needle and pillow lace. Henry III. of France (1574- 
1589) appointed a Venetian, Frederic Vinciolo, pattern maker 
for varieties of linen needle works and laces to his court. Through 
the influence of this fertile designer the seeds of a taste for lace 
in France were principally sown. But the event which par 
excellence would seem to have fostered the higher development 
of the French art of lace-making was the aid officially given it 
in the following century by Louis XIV., acting on the advice 



done on a pillow or cushion and with the needle, in the style 
of the laces made at Venice, Genoa, Ragusa and other places; 
these French imitations were to be called " points de France." 
By 1671 the Italian ambassador at Paris writes, " Gallantly 
is the minister Colbert on his way to bring the ' lavori d'aria' to 
perfection." Six years later an Italian, Domenigo Contarini, 
alludes to the " punto in aria," " which the French can now 
do to admiration." The styles of design which emanated from 
the chief of the French lace centre, Alencon, were more fanciful 




Fig. 24. — Portion of a Flounce of Needlepoint Lace, French, early 
sidered to be a peculiarity of " Point d'Argentan ": some of the 

of his minister Colbert. Intrigue and diplomacy were put into 
action to secure the services of Venetian lace-workers; and by 
an edict dated 1665 the lace-making centres at Alencon, Quesnoy, 
Arras, Reims, Sedan, Chateau Thierry, Loudun and elsewhere 
were selected for the operations of a company in aid of which 
the state made a contribution of 36,000 francs; at the same 
time the importation of Venetian, Flemish and other laces was 
strictly forbidden. 1 The edict contained instructions that the 
lace-makers should produce all sorts of thread work, such as those 

1 See the poetical skit Revolte des passentents et broderies, written 
by Mademoiselle de la Tousse, cousin of Madame de Sevigne, in the 
middle of the 17th century, which marks the favour which foreign 
laces at that time commanded amongst the leaders of French fashion. 



18th century, " Point de France." The honeycomb ground is con- 
fillings are made in the manner of the " Point dAlencon " reseau. 

and less severe than the Venetian, and it is evident that the 
Flemish lace-makers later on adopted many of these French 
patterns for their own use. The provision of French designs 
(fig. 24) which owes so much to the state patronage, contrasts 
with the absence of corresponding provision in England and 
was noticed early in the 18th century by Bishop Berkeley. 
" How," he asks, " could France and Flanders have drawn 
so much money from other countries for figured silk, lace and 
tapestry, if they had not had their academies of design?" 

It is fairly evident too that the French laces themselves, known 
as " bisette," " gueuse," " campane " and " mignonette," were 
small and comparatively insignificant works, without pretence to 
design. 



4° 



LACE 



The humble endeavours of peasantry in England (which 
could boast of no schools of design), Germany, Sweden, Russia 
and Spain could not result in work of so high artistic pretension 
as that of France and Flanders. In the 18th century good lace 
was made in Devonshire, but it is only in recent years that to 
some extent the hand lace-makers of England and Ireland have 
become impressed with the necessity of well-considered designs 
for their work. Pillow lace making under the name of " bone 
lace making " was pursued in the 17th century in Buckingham- 
shire, Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, and in 1724 Defoe refers 
to the manufacture of bone lace in which villagers were " wonder- 
fully exercised and improved within these few years past." 
" Bone " lace dates from the 17th century in England and was 
practically the counterpart of Flemish " dentelles au fuseau," 
and related also to the Italian " merletti a piombini " (see 
PI. fig. 10). In Germany, Barbara Uttmann, a native 
of Nuremberg, instructed peasants of the Harz mountains to 
twist and plait threads in 1561. She was assisted by certain 
refugees from Flanders. A sort of " purling " or imitation of 
the Italian " merletti a piombini " was the style of work produced 
then. 

Lace of comparatively simple design has been made for centuries 
in villages of Andalusia as well as in Spanish conventual estab- 
lishments. The " point d'Espagne," however, appears to have 
been a commercial name given by French manufacturers of a 
class of lace made in France with gold or silver threads on the 
pillow and greatly esteemed by Spaniards in the 17 th century. 
No lace pattern-books have been found to have been published 
in Spain. The needle-made laces which came out of Spanish 
monasteries in 1830, when these institutions were dissolved, 
were mostly Venetian needle-made laces. The lace vestments 
preserved at the cathedral at Granada hitherto presumed to be of 
Spanish work are verified as being Flemish of the 17th century 
(similar in style to PI. fig. 14). The industry is not alluded 
to in Spanish ordinances of the 15th, 16th or 17th centuries, but 
traditions which throw its origin back to the Moors or Saracens 
are still current in Seville and its neighbourhood, where a 
twisted and knotted arrangement of fine cords is often worked x 
under the name of " Morisco " fringe, elsewhere called macram6 
lace. Black and white silk pillow laces, or " blondes," date from 
the 1 8th century. They were made in considerable quantity 
in the neighbourhood of Chantilly, and imported for mantillas 
by Spain, where corresponding silk lace making was started. 
Although after the 18th century the making of silk laces more or 
less ceased at Chantilly and the neighbourhood, the craft is now 
carried on in Normandy — at Bayeux and Caen — as well as in 
Auvergne, which is also noted for its simple " torchon " laces. 
Silk pillow lace making is carried on in Spain, especially at 
Barcelona. The patterns are almost entirely imitations from 
18th-century French ones of a large and free floral character. 
Lace-making is said to have been promoted in Russia through 
the patronage of the court, after the visit of Peter the Great to 
Paris in the early days of the 18th century. Peasants in the 
districts of Vologda, Balakhua (Nijni-Novgorod), Bieleff (Tula) 
and Mzensk (Orel) make pillow laces of simple patterns. Malta 
is noted for producing a silk pillow lace of black or white, or red 
threads, chiefly of patterns in which repetitions of circles, 
wheels and radiations of shapes resembling grains of wheat 
are the main features. This characteristic of design, appearing 
in white linen thread laces of similar make which have been 
identified as Genoese pillow laces of the early 17th century, 
reappears in Spanish and Paraguayan work. Pillow lace in 
imitation of Maltese, Buckinghamshire and Devonshire laces 
is made to a small extent in Ceylon, in different parts of India 
and in Japan. A successful effort has also been made to re- 
establish the industry in the island of Burano near Venice, and 
pillow and needlepoint lace of good design is made there. 

At present the chief sources of hand-made lace are France, 
Belgium, Ireland and England. 

France is faithful to her traditions in maintaining a lively 

1 Useful information has been communicated to the writer of the 
present article on lace by Mrs B. Wishaw of Seville. 



and graceful taste in lace-making. Fashion of late years has 
called for ampler and more boldly effective laces, readily produced 
with both braids and cords and far less intricate needle or pillow 
work than was required for the dainty and smaller laces of 
earlier date. 

In Belgium the social and economic conditions are, as they 
have been in the past, more conducive and more favourable 
than elsewhere to lace-making at a sufficiently remunerative 




Fig. 25. — Collar and Berthe of Irish Crochet Lace. 

rate of wages. The production of hand-made laces in Belgium 
was in 1900 greater than that of France. The principal modern 
needle-made lace of Belgium is the " Point de Gaze "; 
" Duchesse " and Bruges laces are the .chief pillow-made laces; 
whilst " Point Applique " and " Plat Applique " are frequently 
the results not only of combining needle-made and pillow work, 
but also of using them in conjunction with machine-made net. 
Ireland is the best producer of that substantial looped-thread 




Fig. 26. — Collar of Irish Crochet Lace. 



work known as crochet (see figs. 25, 26, 27), which must be 
regarded as a hand-made lace fabric although not classifiable 
as a needlepoint or pillow lace. It is also quite distinct in char- 
acter from pseudo-laces, which are really embroideries with a 
lace-like appearance, e.g. embroideries on net, cut and embroidered 
cambrics and fine linen. For such as these Ireland maintains 
a reputation in its admirable Limerick and Carrickmacross 
laces, made not only in Limerick and Carrickmacross, but also 




LACE 



Plate III. 




Fig. o.— HENRI II..DUCDE MONTMORENCY, WEARING A 

FALLING LACE COLLAR. By Le Naix. Louvre. About 1628. 

(By permission of Messrs Braun, Clement & Co., 

Dornach (Alsace), and Paris.) 



Fig. 



i.— MARY, COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE, WEARING 
A COIF AND CUFFS OF RETICELLA LACE. 
National Portrait Gallery. Dated 1614. 





Fig. 10.— SCALLOPPED COLLAR OF TAPE-LIKE 
PILLOW-MADE LACE. 
Possibly of English early 17th-century work. Its texture is 
typical of a development in pillow-lace-making later than that of 
the lower edge of " merletti a piombini" in PI. II. fig. 3. 



Fig. 11.— JAMES II. WEARING A JABOT AND CUFFS 

OF RAISED NEEDLEPOINT LACE. 

By Riley. National Portrait Gallery. About 1685. 

(Figs. 8 and 1 1 , photo by Emery Walker.) 




Fig. 12.— JABOT OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE WORKED 
PARTLY IN RELIEF, AND USUALLY KNOWN AS 
"GROS POINT DE VENISE." 
Middle of 17th century. Conventional scrolling stems with off- 
shooting psepdo-blossoms and leafs are specially characteristic 



Plate IV. 



LACE 




Fig. 13 
From the 



— MME VERBIEST, WEARING PILLOW-MADE 

LACE J RESEAU. 
family group by Gonzales Coquer. Buckingham Palace. 

About 1664. 
(By permission of Messrs Braun, Clement £f Co., 
Dornack {Alsace), and Paris.) 



Fig. 15— PRINCESS MARIA TERESA STUART, WEARING 
A FLOUNCE OR TABLIER OF LACE SIMILAR TO 
THAT IN FIG. 17. Dated 1695. 

From a group by Largilliere. National Portrait Gallery. 
(Photo by Emery Walker.) 




mmmmmfmy ■-.•■ ,. — >jj!LLJ:*l^*.* 



^aM^ 



Fig 




FLOUNCE OF PILLOW-MADE LACE A RESEA V. 



Flemish, of the middle of the 17th century. This lace is usually 
thought to be the earliest type of "Point d Angleterre" in contra- 
distinction to the "Point de Flandres" (fig. 14). 



Fig. 14.— PIECE OF PILLOW-MADE LACE USUALLY 

KNOWN AS "POINT DE FLANDRES A BRIDES." 
Of the middle of the 17th century, the designs for which were 
ofren adaptations from those made for such needlepoint lace as that 
of the Jabot in fig. 12. 




Fig 17.— VERY DELICATE NEEDLEPOINT LACE WITH 
CLUSTERS OF SMALL RELIEF WORK. 

Venetian, middle of the 17th century, and often called '-'rose- 
point lace," and sometimes " Point de Neige." 



LACE 



4 1 




in Kinsale, Newry, Crossmaglen and elsewhere. The demand 
from France for Irish crochet is now far beyond the supply, a 
condition which leads not only to the rapid repetition by Irish 
workers of old patterns, but tends also to a gradual debasement 
of both texture and ornament. Attempts have been made to 

counteract this tend- 
ency, with some 
success, as the speci- 
mens of Irish crochet 
in figs. 25, 26 and 27 
indicate. 

An a p p r e ciable 
amount of pillow- 
made lace is annu- 
ally supplied from 

,..,,,.. Devonshire, Buck- 

Fig. 27.— Lady s Sleeve of Irish Crochet Lace. inghamsh ; re) Bed- 
fordshire and Northampton, but it is bought almost wholly for 
home use. The English laces are made almost entirely in accord- 
ance with the precedents of the 19th century— that is to say, in 
definite lengths and widths, as for borders, insertions and flounces, 
although large shaped articles, such as panels for dresses, long 
sleeves complete skirts, jackets, blouses, and fancifully shaped 
collars of considerable dimensions have of late been freely made 
elsewhere. To make such things entirely of lace necessitates 
many modifications in the ordinary methods; the English 
lace-workers are slow to adapt their work in the manner requisite, 
and hence are far behind in the race to respond to the fashionable 
demand. No countries succeed so well in promptly answering 
the variable call of fashion as France and Belgium. 

As regards trade in lace, America probably buys more from 
Belgium than from France; France and England come next as 
purchasers of nearly equal quantities, after which come Russia and 
Italy. 

The greatest amount of lace now made is that which issues from 
machines in England, France and Germany. The total number of 
persons employed in the lace industry in England in 1871 was 49,370, 
and in 1901 about 34,929, of whom not more than 5000 made lace 
by hand. 

The early history 1 of the lace-making machine coincides 
with that of the stocking frame, that machine having been 
adapted about the year 1768 for producing open-looped fabrics 
which had a net-like appearance. About 1 786 frames for making 
point nets by machinery first appear at Mansfield and later at 
Ashbourne and Nottingham and soon afterwards modifications 
were introduced into such frames in order to make varieties of 
meshes in the point nets which were classed as figured nets. 
In 1808 and 1809 John Heathcoat of Nottingham obtained 
patents for machines for making bobbin net with a simpler and 
more readily produced mesh than that of the point net just 
mentioned. For at least thirty years thousands of women 
had been employed in and about Nottingham in the embroidery 
of simple ornament on net. In 1813 John Leavers began to 
improve the figured net weaving machines above mentioned, 
and from these the lace-making machines in use at the present 
time were developed. But it was the application of the cele- 
brated Jacquard apparatus to such machines that enabled 
manufacturers to produce all sorts of patterns in thread-work 
in imitation of the patterns for hand-made lace. A French 
machine called the " dentelliere " was devised (see La Nature 
for the 3rd of March 1881), and the patterns produced by it 
were of plaited threads. The expense, however, attending the 
production of plaited lace by the " dentelliere " is as great as 
that of pillow lace made by the hand, and so the machine has 
not succeeded for ordinary trade purposes. More successful 
results have been secured by the new patent circular lace machine 
of Messrs. Birkin & Co. of Nottingham, the productions of which, 
all of simple design, cannot be distinguished from hand-made 
pillow lace of the same style (see figs. 57, 58, 59). 

Before dealing with technical details in processes of making 
lace whether by hand or by the machine, the component parts of 
different makes of lace may be considered. These are governed 

1 See Felkin's Machine-wrought Hosiery and Lace Manttfactures. 



by the ornaments or patterns, which may be so designed, as 
they were in the earlier laces, that the different component parts 
may touch one another without any intervening ground-work. 
But as a wish arose to vary the effect of the details in a pattern 
ground-works were gradually developed and at first consisted of 
links or ties between the substantial parts of the pattern. The 
bars or ties were succeeded by grounds of meshes, like nets. 
Sometimes the substantial parts of a pattern were outlined with a 
single thread or by a strongly marked raised edge of buttonhole- 
stitched or of plaited work. Minute fanciful devices were then 
introduced to enrich various portions of the pattern. Some 
of the heavier needle-made laces resemble low relief carving in 
ivory, and the edges of the relief portions are often decorated 
with clusters of small loops. For the most part all this elabora- 
tion was brought to a high pitch of variety and finish by French 
designers and workers; and French terms are more usual in 
speaking of details in laces. Thus the solid part of the pattern 
is called the toile or clothing, the links or ties are called brides, 
the meshed grounds are called reseaux, the outline to the edges 
of a pattern is called cordonnet or brodS, the insertions of 
fanciful devices modes, the little loops picots. These terms are 
applicable to the various portions of laces made with the needle, 
on the pillow or by the machine. 

The sequence of patterns in lace (which may be verified upon 
referring to figs. 1 to 23) is roughly as follows. From about 
1540 to 1590 they were composed of geometric forms set within 
squares, or of crossed and radiating line devices, resulting in 
a very open fabric, stiff and almost wiry in effect, without 
brides or riseaux. From 1590 may be dated the introduction 
into patterns of very conventional floral and even human 
and animal forms and slender scrolls, rendered in a tape-like 
texture, held together by brides. To the period from 1620 to 
T670 belongs the development of long continuous scroll patterns 
with riseaux and brides, accompanied in the case of needle- 
made laces with an elaboration of details, e.g. cordonnet with 
massings of picots. Much of these laces enriched with fillings 
or modes was made at this time. From 1650 to 1700 the scroll 
patterns gave way to arrangements of detached ornamental 
details (as in PI. VI. fig. 22): and about 1700 to 1760 more 
important schemes or designs were made (as in PI. fig. 19, 
and in fig. 24 in text), into which were introduced naturalistic 
renderings Of garlands, flowers, birds, trophies, architectural 
ornament and human figures. Grounds composed entirely 
of varieties of modes as in the case of the riseau rosaci (PI. V. 
fig. 21) were sometimes made then. From 1760 to 1800 small 
details consisting of bouquets, sprays of flowers, single flowers, 
leaves, buds, spots and such like were adopted, and sprinkled 
over meshed grounds, and the character of the texture was gauzy 
and filmy (as in figs. 40 and 42). Since that time variants of 
the foregoing styles of pattern and textures have been used 
according to the bent of fashion in favour of simple or complex 
ornamentation, or of stiff, compact or filmy textures. 

Needlepoint Lace. — The way in which the early Venetian 
" punto in aria " was made corresponds with that in which 
needlepoint lace is now worked. The pattern is first drawn 
upon a piece of parchment. The parchment is then stitched 
to two pieces of linen. Upon the leading lines drawn on the 
parchment a thread is laid, and fastened through to the parch- 
ment and linen by means of stitches, thus constructing a skeleton 
thread pattern (see left- 



hand part of fig. 30). 
Those portions which 
are to be represented as 
the " clothing " or toile 
are usually worked as 
indicated in the en-* 
Urged diagram (fig. 29), 




Fig. 28. 



Fig. 29. 

and then edged as a" rule With buttonhole stitching (fig. 28). 
Between these toils portions of the pattern are worked ties 
(brides) or meshes (riseaux), and thus the various parts united into 
one fabric are wrought on to the face of the parchment pattern 
and reproducing it (see right-hand part of fig. 30). A knife is 



42 



LACE 



passed between the two pieces of linen at the back of the parch- 
ment, cutting the stitches which have passed through the parch- 
ment and linen, and so releasing the lace itself from its pattern 
parchment. In the earlier stages, the lace was made in lengths 
to serve as insertions (passements) and also in Vandykes (dentelles) 




Fig. 30. — Parchment Pattern showing work in progress: the 
more complete lace is on the right half of the pattern. 

to serve as edgings. Later on insertions and Vandykes were 
made in one piece. All of such were at first of a geometric 
style of pattern (PI. figs. 3-5 and 6). 

Following closely upon them came the freer style of design 
already mentioned, without and then with links or ties — brides — 
interspersed between the various details of the patterns (PI. II. 
fig- 7)) which were of flat tapelike texture. In elaborate speci- 
mens of this flat point lace some lace workers occasionally used 
gold thread with the white thread. These flat laces (" Punto in 
Aria ") are also called " flat Venetian point." About 1640 " rose 
(raised) point " laces began to be made (PI. III. fig. 12). They 
were done in relief and those of bold design with stronger reliefs 
are called " gros point de Venise." Lace of this latter class was 
used for altar cloths, flounces, jabots or neckcloths which hiing 
- beneath the chin over the breast (PI. III. fig. n), as well as for 
trimming the turned-over tops of jack boots. Tabliers and 
ladies' aprons were also made of such lace. In these no regular 
ground was introduced. All sorts of minute embellishments, 
like little knots, stars and loops or picots, were worked on to the 
irregularly arranged brides or ties holding the main patterns 
together, and the more dainty of these raised laces (PI. fig. 17) 
exemplify the most subtle uses to which the buttonhole stitch 
appears capable of being put in making ornaments. But about 
1660 came laces with brides or ties arranged in a honeycomb 
reticulation or regular ground. To them succeeded lace in 
which the compact relief gave place to daintier and lighter 
material combined with a ground of meshes or reseau. The 
needle-made meshes were sometimes of single and sometimes of 
double threads. A diagram is given of an ordinary method of 
making such meshes (fig- 31). At the end of the 17th century 
the lightest of the Venetian needlepoint 
laces were made; and this class which 
was of the filmiest texture is usually 
known as " point de Venise a. reseau " 
(PI. V. fig. 20a). It was contemporary 
with the needle-made French laces of Alen- 
con and Argentan 1 that became famous 
towards the latter part of the 17th century 
(PI. V. fig. 206). "Point d' Argentan" has been thought to 
be especially distinguished on account of its delicate honeycomb 
ground of hexagonally arranged brides (fig. 32), a peculiarity 
already referred to in certain antecedent Venetian point laces. 
Often intermixed with this hexagonal brides ground is the fine- 
meshed ground or reseau (fig. 206), which has been held to be 
distinctive of " point d'Alencon." But the styles of patterns 
and the methods of working them, with rich variety of insertions 
or modes, with the brode or cordonnet of raised buttonhole stitched 
edging, are alike in Argentan and Alencon needle-made laces 
(PI. V. fig. 20b and fig. 32). Besides the hexagonal brides 

1 After 1650 the lace-workers at Alencon and its neighbourhood 
produced work of a daintier kind than that which was being made by 
the Venetians. As a rule the hexagonal bride grounds of Alencon 
laces are smaller than similar details in Venetian laces. The average 
size of a diagonal taken from angle to angle in an Alencon (or so- 
called Argentan) hexagon was about one-sixth of an inch, and each 
side of the hexagon was about one-tenth of an inch. An idea of the 
minuteness of the work can be formed from the fact that a side of a 
hexagon would be overcast with some nine or ten buttonhole stitches. 




ground and the ground of meshes another variety of grounding 
(reseau rosact) was used in certain Alencon designs. This ground 
consisted of -buttonhole-stitched skeleton hexagons within each 
of which was worked a small hexagon of toile connected with the 
outer surrounding hexagon by means of six little ties or brides 
(PI. V. fig. 21). Lace with this particular ground has been 
called " Argentella," and some writers have thought that it was 
a specialty of Genoese or Venetian work. But the character 
of the work and the style of the floral patterns are those of 
Alencon laces. The industry at Argentan was virtually an off- 
shoot of that nurtured at Alencon, where " lacis," " cut work " 
and " velin " (work on parchment) had been made for years 
before the well-developed needle-made " point d'Alencon " 
came into vogue under the favouring patronage of the state- 
aided lace company mentioned as having been formed in 1665. 




Fig. 32. — Border of Needlepoint Lace made in France about 
1740-1750, the clear hexagonal mesh ground, which is compactly 
stitched, being usually regarded as characteristic of the point de 
France made at Argentan. 

Madame Despierre in her Histoire du point d'Alencon gives an 
interesting and trustworthy account of the industry. 

In Belgium, Brussels has acquired some celebrity for needle- 
made laces. These, however, are chiefly in imitation of those 
made at Alencon, but the toile is of less compact texture and 
sharpness in definition of pattern. Brussels needlepoint lace is 
often worked with meshed grounds made on a pillow, and a plain 




Fig. 33. — Shirt decorated with Insertions of Flat Needlepoint Lace. 
(English, 17th century. Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

thread is used as a cordonnet for their patterns instead of a thread 
overcast with buttonhole stitches as in the French needlepoint 
laces. Note the bright sharp outline to the various ornamental 
details in PL V. fig. 206. 
Needlepoint lace has also been occasionally produced in 



LACE 



Plate V. 




Fig. 18.— CHARLES GASPARD Gl'ILLAUME DE VINTI 
MILLE, WEARING LACE SIMILAR IN STYLE OF 
DESIGN SHOWN IN FIG. 19. About 1730. 







Fig. 19.— PORTION OF FLOUNCE, NEEDLEPOINT LACE 
COPIED AT THE BURANO LACE SCHOOL FROM THE 
ORIGINAL OF THE SO-CALLED "POINT DE VENISE 
A BRIDES PICOTEES." 

17th century. Formerly belonging to Pope Clement XIII. , but 
now the property of the queen of Italy. The design and work, 
however, are indistinguishable from those of important flounces of 
'' Point de F ranee." The pattern consists of repetitions of two 
vertically-arranged groups of fantastic pine-apples and vases with 
flowers, intermixed with bold rococo bands and large leaf devices. 
The hexagonal meshes of the ground, although similar to the 
Venetian " brides picotees," arc much akin to the button-hole 
Stitched ground of "Point d'Atgentan." (Victoria and Albert 
Museum.) 




A.— A LAPPET OF 



Fig. 20. b 

'POINT DE VENISE A RESEAU.' 



The conventional character of the pseudo-leaf and floral forms 
contrasts with that of the realistic designs of contemporary French 
laces. Italian. Early 18th century. 

B.— A LAPPET OF FIXE "POINT D'ALENgON." 
Louis XV. period. The variety of the fillings of geometric design 
is_partic,ularly remarkable in this specimen, as is the button-hole 
stitched cordonnat or outline to the various ornamental forms 




Fig. 21.— BORDER OF FRENCH NEEDLEPOINT LACE 
WITH GROUND OF "RESEAU ROSACE." 18th century. 



PlATE VI. 



LACE 




Fig. 22.-JABOT OR CRAVAT OF PILLOW-MADE LACE. Brussels. Late 17th century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 




Fig. 23.— JABOT OR CRAVAT OF PILLOW-MADE LACE OF FANTASTIC FLORAE DESIGN, THE GROUND OF WHICH IS 
COMPOSED OF LITTLE FLOWERS AND LEAVES ARRANGED WITHIN SMALL OPENWORK VERTICAL STRIPS. 
Brussels. 18th century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 



LACE 



43 



England. Whilst the character of its design in the early 17th 
century was rather more primitive, as a rule, than that of the 
contemporary Italian, the method of its workmanship is virtually 
the same and an interesting specimen of English needle-made 
lace inset into an early 17th-century shirt is illustrated in fig. 33. 
Specimens of needle-made work done by English school children 
may be met with in samplers of the 17th and 18th centuries. 
Needlepoint lace is successfully made at Youghal, Kenmare and 
New Ross in Ireland, where of late years attention has been given 
to the study of designs for it. The lace-making school at Burano 
near Venice produces hand-made laces which are, to a great extent, 
careful reproductions of the more celebrated classes of point laces, 
such as " punto in aria," " rose point de Venise," " point de 
Venise a reseau," "point d'Alencon," "point d'Argentan" 
and others. Some good needlepoint lace is made in Bohemia 
and elsewhere in the Austrian empire. 

Pillow-made Lace. — Pillow-made lace is built upon no sub- 
structure corresponding with a skeleton thread pattern such as 
is used for needlepoint lace, but is the representation of a pattern 
obtained by twisting and plaiting threads. 

These patterns .were never so strictly geometric in style as 
those adopted for the earliest point lace making from the ante- 
cedent cut linen and drawn thread embroideries. Curved forms, 
almost at the outset of pillow lace, seem to have been found easy 
of execution (see lower border, PI. II. fig. 3); its texture was 
more lissom and less crisp and wiry in appearance than that of 
contemporary needle-made lace. The early twisted and plaited 
thread laces, which had the appearance of small cords merging 
into one another, were soon succeeded by laces of similar make but 
with flattened and broader lines more like fine braids or tapes 
(PI. I. fig. 2, and PI. fig. 10). But pillow laces of this tapey' 
character must not be confused with laces in which actual tape 
or braid is used. That peculiar class of lace- work does not arise 
until after the beginning of the 17th century when the weaving 
of tape is said to have commenced in Flanders. In England 
this sort of tape-lace dates no farther back than 1747, when two 
Dutchmen named Lanfort were invited by an English firm to 
set up tape looms in Manchester. 

The process by which lace is made on the pillow is roughly 
and briefly as follows. A pattern is first drawn upon a piece 
of paper or parchment. It is then 
pricked with holes by a skilled " pattern 
pricker," who determines where the 
principal pins shall be stuck for guid- 
ing the threads. This pricked pattern 
is then fastened to the pillow. The 
pillow or cushion varies in shape in 
different countries. Some lace-makers 
use a circular pad, backed with a flat 
board, in order that it may be placed 
upon a table and easily moved. Other 
lace-workers use a well-stuffed round 
pillow or short bolster, flattened at 
the two ends, so that they may hold it conveniently on their 
laps. From the upper part of pillow with the pattern fastened 
on it hang the threads from the bobbins. The bobbin threads 
thus hang across the pattern. Fig. 34 shows the commence- 
ment, for instance, of a double set of three-thread 
plaitings. The compact portion in a pillow lace 
J has a woven appearance (fig. 35). 

About the middle of the 17 th century pillow 
' lace of formal scroll patterns somewhat in imita- 
tion of those for point lace was made, chiefly 
in Flanders. The earlier of these had grounds of 
ties or brides and was often called "point de Flandres" (PI. 
fig. 14) in contradistinction to scroll patterns with a mesh 
ground, which were called "point d' Angleterre " (PI. fig. 16). 
Into Spain and France much lace from Venice and Flanders was 
imported as well as into England, where from the 16th century 
the manufacture of the simple pattern " bone lace " by peasants 
in the midland and southern counties was still being carried on. 
In Charles II. 's time its manufacture was threatened with 




Fig. 34. — Diagram show- 
ing six Bobbins in use. 




extinction by the preference given to the more artistic and 
finer Flemish laces. The importation of the latter was accord- 
ingly prohibited. Dealers in Flemish lace sought to evade the 
prohibitions by calling certain of their laces ' ' point d' Angleterre,'? 




Fig. 36. — Border of English Pillow-made (Devonshire) Lace in 
the style of a Brussels design of the middle of the 18th century. 

and smuggling them into England. But smuggling was made 
so difficult that English dealers were glad to obtain the services 
of Flemish lace-makers and to induce them to settle in England. 
It is from some such cause that the better 17th- and 18th-century 




Fig. 37. — Border of English (Bucks, or Beds.) Pillow-made Lace 
in the style of a Mechlin design of the latter part of the 18th century. 

English pillow laces bear resemblance to pillow laces of Brussels, 
of Mechlin and of Valenciennes. 

As skin in the European lace-making developed soon after the 
middleof the 17th century, patterns and particular plaitings 



<*. « 


^SS. 


f5TS^^^HK^E?5H 




%£&* 


w 




3pfc^3i2|2Q Imp* 







Fig. 38. — Border of Pillow-made Lace, Mechlin, from a design 
similar to such as was used for point d'Alencon of the Louis XV. 
peri'od. \ 

came to be identified with certain localities. Mechlin,. .for 
instance, enjoyed a high reputation, for her productions. The 
chief technical features of. this pillow lace lie in the plaiting of 
the meshes, and the outlining of the clothing c% toils with & 
thread cordonnet. The ordinary Mechlin 
mesh is- hexagonal in shape. Four of the 
sides are of double twisted threads, two 
are of four threads plaited three times 

(% 39)- 

In Brussels pillow lace, which has 
greater variety of design, the mesh is 
also hexagonal; but in contrast with the 
Mechlin mesh whilst four of its sides are 
of double-twisted threads the other two 
are of four threads plaited four times 
(fig. 41). The finer specimens of Brussels 
lace are remarkable for the fidelity and 
grace with which the botanical forms in many of its patterns 
are rendered (PL VI. fig. 23). These are mainly reproductions or 
adaptations of designs for point d'Alencon, and the soft quality 
imparted to them in the texture of pillow-made lace contrasts 
with the harder and more crisp appearance in needlepoint 




Fig. 39. — Mechlin 
Mesh. 



4-4 



LACE 



lace. An example of dainty Brussels pillow lace is given in 
fig. 42. In the Brussels pillow lace a delicate modelling effect 






Fig. 40. — Border of Pillow-made Lace, Mechlin, end of the 
18th century. 

is often imparted to the close textures of the flowers by means 
of pressing them with a bone instrument which gives concave 
shapes to petals and leaves, the edges 
of which consist in part of slightly raised 
cordonnet of compact plaited work. 

Honiton pillow lace resembles Brussels 
lace, but in most of the English pillow 
laces (Devonshire, Buckinghamshire, 
Bedfordshire) the reseau is of a simple 
character (fig. 43). As a rule, English 
lace is made with a rather coarser thread 
than that used in the older Flemish 
laces. In real Flemish Valenciennes 
lace there are no twisted sides to the 
mesh; all are closely plaited (fig. 44) 
and as a rule the shape of the mesh is 
diamond but without the openings as 
Fig. 41 . — Enlargement shown in fig. 44. No outline or cordonpet 
of Brussels Mesh. to define the pattern is used in Valen- 
ciennes lace (see fig. 45). Much lace of the Valenciennes type 
(fig. 54) is made at Ypres. Besides these distinctive classes of 
pillow-like laces, there are others in which equal care in plait- 





Fig. 42. — Portion of a Wedding Veil, 7 ft. 6 in.X6 ft. 6 in., of 
Pillow-made Lace, Brussels, late 18th century. The design consists 
of light leafy garlands of orange blossoms and other flowers daintily 
festooned. Little feathery spirals and stars are powdered over the 
ground, which is of Brussels vrai reseau. In the centre upon a more 
open ground of pillow-made hexagonal brides is a group of two birds, 
one flying towards the other which appears ready to take wing from 
its nest; an oval frame containing two hearts pierced by an arrow, 
and a hymeneal torch. Throughout this veil is a profusion of pillow 
renderings of various modes, the reseau rosace, star devices, &c. The 
ornamental devices are partly applied and partly worked into the 
ground (Victoria and Albert Museum). 



ing and twisting threads is displayed, though the character of 
the design is comparatively simple, as for instance in ordinary 
pillow laces from Italy, from the Auvergne, from Bucking- 
hamshire, or rude and primitive as in laces from Crete, 
southern Spain and Russia. Pillow lace-making in Crete is 
now said to be extinct. The laces were made chiefly of silk. The 





Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



patterns in many specimens are outlined with one, two or 

three bright-coloured silken threads. Uniformity in simple 

character of design may also be observed in many Italian, 

Spanish, Bohemian, Swedish and Russian pillow laces (see the 

lower edge of fig. 46). 

Guipure. — This name is often applied to needlepoint and 

pillow laces in which the ground consists of ties or brides, but 

it more properly designates a kind of lace or " passementerie," 

made with gimp of fine wires whipped 

round with silk, and with cotton 

thread. An earlier kind of gimp was 

formed with " Cartisane," a little strip 

of thin parchment or vellum covered 

with silk, gold or silver thread. These 

stiff gimp threads, formed into a 

pattern, were held together by 

stitches worked with the needle. Gold 

and silver thread laces have been 
usually made on the pillow, though 
gold thread has been used with fine 
effect in 17th-century Italian needle- 
point laces. 

Machine-made Lace. — We have 
already seen that a technical peculi- 
arity in making needlepoint lace is 
that a single thread and needle are 
alone used to form the pattern, and 
that the buttonhole stitch and other 
loopings which can be worked by 
means of a needle and thread mark 
a distinction between lace made in 
this manner and lace made on the 
pillow. For the process of pillow lace 
making a series of threads are in 
constant employment, plaited and 
twisted the one with another. A 
buttonhole stitch is not producible 
by it. The Leavers lace machine 
does not make either a buttonhole 
stitch or a plait. An essential prin- 
ciple of this machine-made work is 
that the threads are twisted together 
as in stocking net. The Leavers lace 
machine is that generally in use at 
Nottingham and Calais. French in- 
genuity has developed improvements 
in this machine whereby laces of deli- 
cate thread are made; but as fast 
as France makes an improvement 
England follows with another, and 

both countries virtually maintain an equal position in this 
branch of industry. The number of threads brought into opera- 
tion in a Leavers machine is regulated by the pattern to be 
produced, the threads being of two sorts, beam or wa.rp threads 




Fig. 45. — Lappet of deli- 
cate Pillow-made Lace, 
Valenciennes, about 1750. 
The peculiarity of Valen- 
ciennes lace is the filmy 
cambric-like texture and 
the absence of any cordon- 
net to define the separate 
parts of the ornament such 
as is used in needlepoint lace 
of Alengon, and in pillow 
Mechlin and Brussels lace. 



LACE 



45 



and bobbin or weft threads. Upwards of 8880 are sometimes 
used, sixty pieces of lace being made simultaneously, each piece 
requiring 148 threads — 100 beam threads and 48 bobbin threads. 
The ends of both sets of threads are fixed to a cylinder upon 
which as the manufacture proceeds the lace becomes wound. 




and the warp thread slack, the warp thread a will be twisted 
upon the weft threads. But if the warp thread a be tight and 
the weft threads b, b, b, b, be slack, as in fig. 48, then the weft 
threads will be twisted on the warp thread. At the same time 



Fig. 46. — Border to a Cloth. The wide part bearing the double- 
headed eagle of Russia is of drawn thread embroidery : the scalloped 
edging is of Russian pillow-made lace, though the style of its pattern 
is often seen in pillow laces made by peasants in Danubian provinces 
as well as in the south of Spain. 

The supply of the beam or warp threads is held upon reels, and 
that of the bobbins or weft threads is held in bobbins. The 
beam or warp thread reels are arranged in frames or trays 
beneath the stage, above which and between it and the cylinder 
the twisting of the bobbin or weft with beam or warp threads 
„ ..,.. takes place. The bobbins 

e^r* 1 * c= 1yN£ : 1H) F ?r =s containing the bobbin or 

weft threads are flat- 
tened in shape so as 
to pass conveniently be- 
tween the stretched beam 
or warp threads. Each 
bobbin can contain about 
120 yds. of thread. By 
most ingenious mechan- 
ism varying degrees of 
tension can be imparted 
to warp and weft threads 
as required. As the bob- 
bins or weft threads pass 
like pendulums between 
the warp threads the 
latter are made to oscil- 
late, thus causing them 
to become twisted with 
the bobbin threads. As 
the twistings take place, 
combs passing through 
both warp and weft 
threads compress the 
twistings. Thus the tex- 
ture of the clothing or 




Fig. 47 



toils in machine-made lace may generally be detected by 
its ribbed appearance, due to the compressed twisted threads. 
Figs. 47 and 48 are intended to show effects obtained by 
varying the tensions of weft and warp threads. For in- 
stance, if the weft, as threads b, b, b, b in fig. 47, be tight 




Fig. 49. — Section of Lace Machine. 

the twisting in both these cases arises from the conjunction of 
movements given to the two sets of threads, namely, an Oscilla- 
tion or movement from side to side of the beam or warp threads, 
and the swinging or pendulum-like movement of the bobbin 
or weft threads between the 
warp threads. Fig. 49 is a 
diagram of a sectional eleva- 
tion of a lace machine repre- 
senting its more essential parts. 
E is the cylinder or beam upon 
which the lace is rolled as made, 
and upon which the ends of 
both warp and weft threads are 
fastened at starting. Beneath 
are w, w, w, a series of trays 
or beams, one above the other, 
containing the reels of the 
supplies of warp threads; c, c 
represent the slide bars for the 
passage of the bobbin b with 
its thread from k to k, the 
landing bars, one on each side 
of the rank of warp threads; s, t are the combs which take it 
in turns to press together the twistings as they are made. 
The combs come away clear from the threads as soon as 
they have pressed them together and fall into positions ready 




Fig. 50.-^Machine-made Lace in 
imitation of 16th-century Needle- 
point " Reticella '' Lace. 



4 6 



LACE 



to perform their pressing operations again. The contrivances 
for giving each thread a particular tension and movement at 
a certain time are connected with an adaptation of the Jacquard 
system of pierced cards. The machine lace pattern drafter has 
to calculate how many holes shall be punched in a card, and to 

.determine the position of 
such holes. Each hole 
regulates the mechanism 
for giving movement to a 
thread. Fig. 54 displays a 
piece of hand-made Valen- 
ciennes (Ypres) lace and 
fig. 55 a corresponding piece 
woven by the machine. The 
latter shows the advantage 
that can be gained by using 
very fine gauge machines, 
thus enabling a very close 
imitation of the real lace to 
be made by securing a very 
open and clear riseau or net, 
such as would be made on a 
coarse machine, and at the same time to keep the pattern fine and 
solid and standing out well from the net, as is the case with the 
real lace, which cannot be done by using a coarse gauge machine. 
In this example the machine used is a 16 point (that is 32 carriages 
to the inch), and the ground is made half gauge, that is 8 point, 




Fig. 51 . — Border of Machine-made 
Lace in the style of 17th-century 
Pillow Guipure Lace. 



made lace. In another branch of lace-making by machinery, 
mechanical ingenuity, combined with chemical treatment, has 




Fig. 52. — Border of Machine-made Lace in imitation of 17th- 
century Pillow Lace. 

and the weaving is made the full gauge of the machine, that is 
16 point. Fig. 56 gives other examples of hand- and machine- 
made Valenciennes lace. The machine-made lace (b) imitating 
the real (a) is made on a 14-point machine (that is 28 carriages 
to the inch), the ground being 7 point and the pattern being full 

gauge or 14 point. Although 
the principle in these examples 
of machine work is exactly 
the same, in so far that they 
use half gauge net and full 
gauge clothing to produce the 
contrast as mentioned above, 
the fabrication of these two 
examples is quite different, 
that in fig. 55 being an example 
of tight bobbins or weft, and 
slack warp threads as shown 
in fig. 47. Whereas the ex- 
ample in fig. 56 is made with 
slack bobbins or weft threads 
and tight warp threads as in 
fig. 48. In fig. 57 is a piece of 
hand-made lace of stoutthread, 
very similar to much Cluny 
lace made in the Auvergne and to the Buckinghamshire "Maltese" 
lace. Close to it are specimens of lace (figs. 58 and 59) made by. 
the new patent circular lace machine of Messrs Birkin of Notting- 
ham. This machine although very slow in production actually 
reproduces the real lace, at a cost slightly below that of the hand- 




Fig. 53. — Machine-made Trim- 
ming Border in imitation of Irish 
Crochet Lace. 




Fig. 54. — A Piece of Hand-made Pillow Lace, Belgian (Ypres), 
20th century. (The machine imitation is given in fig. 55.) 

led to surprising results (figs. 53 and 50). Swiss, German and 
other manufacturers use machines in which a principle of the 
sewing-machine is involved. A fine silken tissue is thereby 





Fig. 56. — Small Borders 
(a) Hand-made and (b) 
Machine-made Lace Valen- 

ciennes. (Nottingham, 20th 

Fig. 55. — Machine-made Lace in century.) 
imitation of the Hand-made Speci- 
men of fig. 54. (Nottingham, 20th 
century.) 

enriched with an elaborately raised cotton or thread embroidery. 
The whole fabric is then treated with chemical mordants which, 
whilst dissolving the silky web, do not attack the cotton or 





Fig. 57. — Speci- Fig. 58. — Specimen of Machine-made Lace in 
men of Hand-made which the twisting and plaiting of the threads 
Pillow Lace. are identical with those of the hand-made speci- 

men of fig. 57. (Nottingham, 20th century.) 

thread embroidery. A relief embroidery possessing the appear- 
ance of hand-made raised needlepoint lace is thus produced. 



LACE 




Fig. 59. — Specimens of Machine-made Torchon Lace, in the same manner as such lace is made on the pillow by hand. (Nottingham 

20th century.) ' 



Figs. 60 and 61 give some idea of the high quality to which this 
admirable counterfeit has been brought. 

Collections of hand-made lace chiefly exist in museums and 
technical institutions, as for instance the Victoria and Albert 




Fig. 60. — Machine-made Lace of Modern Design. 



Museum in London, the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, and 
museums at Lyons, Nuremberg, Berlin, Turin and elsewhere. 




Fig. 6 1. —Machine-made Lace in imitation of 17th-century 
Needlepoint Lace, " Gros point de Venise." 

In such places the opportunity is presented of tracing in chrono- 
logical sequence the stages of pattern and texture development. 
Literature.— ?The literature of the art of lace-making is considerable. 
The series of 16th- and 17th-century lace pattern-books, of which the 
more important are perhaps those by F. Vinciolo (Paris, 1587), 
Cesare Vecellio (Venice, 1592), and Isabetta Catanea Parasole 
(Venice, 1600), not to mention several kindred works of earlier and 
later date published in Germany and the Netherlands, supplies a 
large field For exploration. Signor Ongania of Venice published a 
limited number of facsimiles of the majority of such works. M. Alvin 
of Brussels issued a brochure in 1863 upon these patterns, and in the 
same year the marquis Girolamo d'Adda contributed two biblio- 
graphical essays upon the same subject to the Gazette des Beaux-Arts 
(vol. xv. p. 342 seq., and vol. xvii. p. 421 seq.). In 1864 Cavaliere 
A. Merli wrote a pamphlet (with illustrations) entitled Orieine ed 
uso delle trine afilo di rete; Mons F. de Fertiault compiled a brief and 
rather fanciful Histoire de la dentelle in 1843, in which he reproduced 
statements to be found in Diderot's Encyclopedic, subsequently 
quoted by Roland de la Platiere. The first Report of the Department 



of Practical Art (1853) contains a " Report on Cotton Print Works 
and Lace-Making " by Octavius Hudson, and in the first Report of 
the Department of Science and Art are some " Observations on Lace. 
Reports upon the International Exhibitions of 1851 (London) and 
1867 (Paris), by M. Aubry, Mrs Palliser and others contain informa- 
tion concerning lace-making. The most important work first issued 
upon the history of lace-making is that by Mrs Bury Palliser (History 
of Lace, 1869). In this work the history is treated rather from an 
antiquarian than a technical point of view; and wardrobe accounts, 
inventories, state papers, fashionable journals, diaries, plays, poems, 
have been laid under contribution with surprising diligence. A new 
edition published in 1902 presents the work as entirely revised, re- 
written and enlarged under the editorship of M. Jourdain and Alice 
Dryden. In 1875 the Arundel Society brought out Ancient Needle- 
point and Pillow Lace, a folio volume ofjpermanently printed photo- 
graphs taken from some of the finest specimens of ancient lace 
collected for the International Exhibition of 1874. These were 
accompanied by a brief history of lace, written from the technical 
aspect of the art, by Alan S. Cole. At the same time appeared a 
bulky imperial 4to volume by Seguin, entitled La Dentelle, illustrated 
with wood-cuts and fifty photo-typographical plates. Seguin divides 
his work into four sections. The first is devoted to a sketch of the 
origin of laces; the second deals with pillow laces, bibliography of 
lace and a review of sumptuary edicts; the third relates to needle- 
made lace ; and the fourth contains an account of places where lace 
has been and is made, remarks upon commerce in lace, and upon the 
industry of lace makers. Without sufficient conclusive evidence 
Seguin accords to France the palm for having excelled in producing 
practically all the richer sorts of laces, notwithstanding that both 
before and since the publication of his otherwise valuable work, many 
types of them have been identified as being Italian in origin. De- 
scriptive catalogues are issued of the lace collections at South 
Kensington Museum, at the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, and at 
the Industrial Museum, Nuremberg. In 1881 a series of four Cantor 
Lectures on the art of lace-making were delivered before the Society 
of Arts by Alan S. Cole. 

A Technical History of the Manufacture of Venetian Laces, by 
G. M. Urbani de Gheltof, with plates, was translated by Lady 
Layard, and published at Venice by Signor Ongania. The History of 
Machine-wrought Hosiery and Lace Manufacture (London, 1867), by 
Felkin, has already been referred to. There is also a technological 
essay upon lace made by machinery, with diagrams of lace stitches 
and patterns (Technologische Studien im sachsischen Erzgebirge, 
Leipzig, 1878), by Hugo Fischer. In 1886 the Libraire Renouard, 
Paris, published a History of Point d'Alencon, written by Madame 
G. Despierres, which gives a close and interesting account of the 
industry, together with a list, compiled from local records, of makers 
and dealers from 1602 onwards. — Embroidery and Lace: their manu- 
facture and history from the remotest antiquity to the present day, by 
Ernest Lefebure, lace-maker and administrator of the Ecole des Arte 
Decoratifs, translated and enlarged with notes by Alan S. Cole, wai 
published in London in 1888. It is a well-illustrated handbook for 
amateurs, collectors and general readers. — Irish laces made from 
modern designs are illustrated in a Renascence of the Irish Art of Lace- 
making, published in 1888 (London).— Anciennes Dentelles beiges 
formant la collection de feue madame Augusta Baronne Liedts et 
donnees au Musee de Grunthuis a Bruges, published at Antwerp in 
1889, consists of a folio volume containing upwards of 181 photo- 
types — many full size— of fine specimens of lace. The ascriptions of 
country and date of origin are occasionally inaccurate, on account 
of a too obvious desire to credit Bruges with being the birthplace of 
all sorts of lace-work, much of which shown in this work is distinctly 
Italian in style. — The Encyclopaedia of Needlework, by Therese de 
Dillmont-Dornach (Alsace, 1891), is a detailed guide to several kinds 
of embroidery, knitting, crochet, tatting, netting and most of the 
essential stitches for needlepoint lace. It is well illustrated with 
wood-cuts and process blocks. — An exhaustive history of Russian 
lace-making is given in La Dentelle russe, by Madame Sophie 
Davidoff, published at Leipzig, 1895. Russian lace is principally 
pillow-work with rather heavy thread, and upwards of eighty 
specimens are reproduced by photo-lithography in this book. 

A short account of the best-known varieties of Point and Pillow 
Lace, by A. M. S. (London, 1899), is illustrated with typical specimens 
of Italian, Flemish, French and English laces, as well as with magni- 
fied details of lace, enabling any one to identify the plaits, the twists 
and loops of threads in the actual making of the fabric. — V Industrie 



4 8 



LACE-BARK TREE—LA CHAISE-DIEU 



des tulles et dentelles mecaniques dans le Pas de Calais, 1815-1900, 
by Henri H6non (Paris, 1900), is an important volume of over 600 
pages of letterpress, interspersed with abundant process blocks of 
the several kinds of machine nets and laces made at Calais since 1815. 
It opens with a short account of the Arras hand-made laces, the pro- 
duction of which is now almost extinct. The book was sold for the 
benefit of a public subscription towards the erection of a statue in 
Calais to Jacquard, the inventor of the apparatus by means of which 
all figured textile fabrics are manufactured. It is of some interest to 
note that machine net and lace-making at Calais owe their origin to 
Englishmen, amongst whom " le sieur R. Webster arrive^ a St Pierre- 
les-Calais en Decembre, 1816, venant d'Angleterre, est l'un des 
premiers qui ont etabli dans la communaute une fabrique de tulles/' 
&c. Lace-making in the Midlands: Past and Present, by C. C. 
Channer and M. E. Roberts (London, 1900) upon the lace-making 
industry in Buckinghamshire, Bedforshire and Northamptonshire 
contains many illustrations of laces made in these counties from the 
17th century to the present time. Musee retrospectif. Dentelles a 
V exposition universelle internationale de 1900 & Paris. Rapport de 
Mons. E. Lefebvre contains several good illustrations, especially of 
important specimens of Point de France of the 17th and 1 8th 
centuries. Le Point de France et les autres dentelliers au X VII' et au 
XVIII' siecles, by Madame Laurence deLaprade (Paris, 1905), brings 
together much hitherto scattered information throwing light upon 
operations in many localities in France where the industry has been 
carried on for considerable periods. The book is well and usefully 
illustrated. 

See also Irische Spitzen (30 half-tone plates), with a short historical 
introduction by Alan S. Cole (Stuttgart, 1902); Pillow Lace, a 
practical handbook by Elizabeth Mincoff and Margaret S. Marriage 
(London, 1907); The Art of Bobbin Lace, a practical text-book of 
workmanship, &c, by Louisa Tebbs (London, 1907) ; Antiche trine 
italiane, by Elisa Ricci (Bergamo, 1908), well illustrated; Seven 
Centuries of Lace, by Mrs John Hungerford Pollen (London and New 
York, 1908), very fully illustrated. (A. S. C.) 

LACE-BARK TREE, a native of Jamaica, known botanically 
as Lagetta lintearia, from its native name lagetto. The inner 
bark consists of numerous concentric layers of interlacing fibres 
resembling in appearance lace. Collars and other articles of 
apparel have been made of the fibre, which is also used in the 
manufacture of whips, &c. The tree belongs to the natural order 
Thymelaeaceae, and is grown in hothouses in Britain. 

LACEDAEMON, in historical times an alternative name of 
Laconia (q.v.). Homer uses only the former, and in some 
passages seems to denote by it the Achaean citadel, the Therapnae 
of later times, in contrast to the lower town Sparta (G. Gilbert, 
Studien zur altspartanischen Geschichte, Gottingen, 1872, p. 34 
foil.) . It is described by the epithets icolXr] (hollow) and Ktirkeeoa 
(spacious or hollow), and is probably connected etymologically 
with \aKKos, lacus, any hollow place. Lacedaemon is now the 
name of a separate department, which had in 1907 a population 
of 87,106. 

LACEPEDE, BERNARD GERMAIN ETIENNE DE LA VILLE, 
Comte de (1756-1825), French naturalist, was born at Agen in 
Guienne on the 26th of December 1756. His education was 
carefully conducted by his father, and the early perusal of 
Buffon's Natural History awakened his interest in that branch 
of study, which absorbed his chief attention. His leisure he 
devoted to music, in which, besides becoming a good performer 
on the piano and organ, he acquired considerable mastery of 
composition, two of his operas (which were never published) 
meeting with the high approval of Gluck; in 1781-1785 he also 
brought out in two volumes his Poelique de la musique. Mean- 
time he wrote two treaties, Essai sur I' electricite (1781) and 
Physique genirale et particuliere (1 782-1 784), which gained him 
the friendship of Buffon, who in 1785 appointed him sub- 
demonstrator in the Jardin du Roi, and proposed to him to become 
the continuator of his Histoire naturelle. This continuation 
was published under the titles Histoire des quadrupedes ovipares 
el des serpents (2 vols., 1788-1789) and Histoire naturelle des 
reptiles (1789). After the Revolution Lacepede became a 
member of the legislative assembly, but during the Reign of 
Terror he left Paris, his life having become endangered by his 
disapproval of the massacres. When the Jafdin du Roi was 
reorganized as the Jardin des Plantes, Lacepede was appointed 
to the chair allocated to the study of reptiles and fishes. In 
1798 he published the first volume of Histoire naturelle des 
potssons, the fifth volume appearing in 1803; and in 1804 



appeared his Histoire des cetacSs. From this period till his death 
the part he took in politics prevented him making any further 
contribution of importance to science. In 1799 he became a 
senator, in 1801 president of the senate, in 1803 grand chancellor 
of the legion of honour, in 1804 minister of state, and at the 
Restoration in 1819 he was created a peer of France. He died at 
Epinay on the 6th of October 1825. During the latter part of 
his life he wrote Histoire gtn&rale physique et civile de V Europe, 
published posthumously in 18 vols., 1826. 

A collected edition of his works on natural history was published 
in 1826. 

LACEWING-FLY, the name given to neuropterous insects of 
the families Hemerobiidae and Chrysopidae, related to the ant- 
lions, scorpion-flies, &c, with long filiform antennae, longish 
bodies and two pairs of large similar richly veined wings. The 
larvae are short grubs beset with hair-tufts and tubercles. They 
feed upon Aphidae or " green fly " and cover themselves with the 
emptied skins of their prey. Lacewing-flies of the genus Chrysopa 
are commonly called golden-eye flies. 

LA CHAISE, FRANCOIS DE (1624-1709), father confessor of 
Louis XIV., was born at the chateau of Aix in Forey on the 
25th of August 1624, being the son of Georges d'Aix, seigneur 
de la Chaise, and of Renee de Rochefort. On his mother's side 
he was a grandnephew of Pere Coton, the confessor of Henry IV. 
He became a novice of the Society of Jesus before completing 
his studies at the university of Lyons, where, after taking the 
final vows, he lectured on philosophy to students attracted by * 
his fame from all parts of France. Through the influence of 
Camille de Villeroy, archbishop of Lyons, Pere de la Chaise was 
nominated in 1674 confessor of Louis XIV., who intrusted him 
during the lifetime of Harlay de Champvallon, archbishop of 
Paris, with the administration of the ecclesiastical patronage of 
the crown. The confessor united his influence with that of 
Madame de Maintenon to induce the king to abandon his liaison 
with Madame de Montespan. More than once at Easter he is 
said to have had a convenient illness which dispensed him from 
granting absolution to Louis XIV. With the fall of Madame 
de Montespan and the ascendancy of Madame de Maintenon 
his influence vastly increased. The marriage between Louis 
XIV. and Madame de Maintenon was celebrated in his presence 
at Versailles, but there is no reason for supposing that the 
subsequent coolness between him and Madame de Maintenon 
arose from his insistence on secrecy in this matter. During the 
long strife over the temporalities of the Gallican Church between 
Louis XIV. and Innocent XL Pere de la Chaise supported the 
royal prerogative, though he used his influence at Rome to 
conciliate the papal authorities. He must be held largely 
responsible for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but not 
for the brutal measures applied against the Protestants. He 
exercised a moderating influence on Louis XIV. 's zeal against 
the Jansenists, and Saint-Simon, who was opposed to him in 
most matters, does full justice to his humane and honourable 
character. Pere de la Chaise had a lasting and unalterable 
affection for Fenelon, which remained unchanged by the papal 
condemnation of the Maximes. In spite of failing faculties he 
continued his duties as confessor to Louis XIV. to the end of 
his long life. He died on the 20th of January 1709. The 
cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise in Paris stands on property acquired 
by the Jesuits in 1826, and not, as is often stated, on property 
personally granted to him. 

See R. Chantelauze, Le Pere de la Chaize. £tudes d'histoire re- 
ligieuse (Paris and Lyons, 1859). 

LA CHAISE-DIEU, a town of central France, in the depart- 
ment of Haute Loire, 29 m. N.N.W. of Le Puy by rail. Pop. 
(1906) 1203. The town, which is situated among fir and pine 
woods, 3500 ft. above the sea, preserves remains of its ramparts 
and some houses of the 14th and 15th centuries, but owes its 
celebrity to a church, which, after the cathedral of Clermont- 
Ferrand, is the most remarkable Gothic building in Auvergne. 
The west facade, approached by a flight of steps, is flanked by 
two massive towers. The nave and aisles are of equal height 
and are separated from the choir by a stone rood screen. The 



LA CHALOTAIS— LACHES 



49 



choir, terminating in an apse with radiating chapel, contains the 
fine tomb and statue of Clement VI., carved stalls and some 
admirable Flemish tapestries of the early 16th century. There 
is a ruined cloister on the south side. The church, which dates 
from the 14th century, was built at the expense of Pope Clement 
VI., and belonged to a powerful Benedictine abbey founded in 
1043. There are spacious monastic buildings of the 18th century. 
The abbey was formerly defended by fortifications, the chief 
survival of which is a lofty rectangular keep to the south of the 
choir. Trade in timber and the making of lace chiefly occupy the 
inhabitants of the town. 

LA CHALOTAIS, LOUIS REN£ DE CARADEUC DE (1701- 
1785), French jurist, was born at Rennes, on the 6th of March 
1701. He was for 60 years procureur general at the parliament 
of Brittany. He was an ardent opponent of the Jesuits; 
drew up in 1761 for the parliament a memoir on the constitu- 
tions of the Order, which did much to secure its suppression 
in France; and in 1763 published a remarkable " Essay on 
National Education," in which he proposed a programme of 
scientific studies as a substitute for those taught by the Jesuits. 
The same year began the conflict between the Estates of Brittany 
and the governor of the province, the due d'Aiguillon (q.v.). 
The Estates refused to vote the extraordinary imposts demanded 
by the governor in the name of the king. La Chalotais was the 
personal enemy of d'Aiguillon, who had served him an ill turn 
with the king, and when the parliament of Brittany sided with 
the Estates, he took the lead in its opposition. The parliament 
forbade by decrees the levy of imposts to which the Estates 
had not consented. The king annulling these decrees, all the 
members of the parliament but twelve resigned (October 1764 
to May 1765). The government considered La Chalotais one 
of the authors of this affair. At this time the secretary of state 
who administered the affairs of the province, Louis Philypeaux, 
due de la Vrilliere, comte de Saint-Florentin (1705-1777), received 
two anonymous and abusive letters. La Chalotais was suspected 
of having written them, and three experts in handwriting 
declared that they were by him. The government therefore 
arrested him, his son and four other members of the parliament. 
The arrest made a great sensation. There was much talk of 
" despotism." Voltaire stated that the procureur general, in 
his prison of Saint Malo, was reduced, for lack of ink, to write 
his defence with a toothpick dipped in vinegar — which was 
apparently pure legend; but public opinion all over France was 
strongly aroused against the government. On the 16th of 
November 1765 a commission of judges was named to take charge 
of the trial. La Chalotais maintained that the trial was illegal; 
being procureur general he claimed the right to be judged by 
the parliament of Rennes, or failing this by the parliament of 
Bordeaux, according to the custom of the province. The judges 
did not dare to pronounce a condemnation on the evidence of 
experts in handwriting, and at the end of a year, things remained 
where they were at the first. Louis XV. then decided on a 
sovereign act, and brought the affair before his council, which 
without further formality decided to send the accused into exile. 
That expedient but increased the popular agitation; philosophes, 
members of the parliament, patriot Bretons and Jansenists 
all declared that La Chalotais was the victim of the personal 
hatred of the due d'Aiguillon and of the Jesuits. The govern- 
ment at last gave way, and consented to recall the members of 
the parliament of Brittany who had resigned. This parliament, 
when it met again, after the formal accusation of the due 
d'Aiguillon, demanded the recall of La Chalotais. This was 
accorded in 1775, and La Chalotais was allowed to transmit 
his office to his son. In this affair public opinion showed itself 
stronger than the absolutism of the king. The opposition to 
the royal power gained largely through it, and it may be regarded 
as one of the preludes to the revolution of 1789. La Chalotais, 
who was personally a violent, haughty and unsympathetic 
character, died at Rennes on the 12th of July 1785. 

See, besides the Comptes-Rendus des Constitutions des Jesuites and 
the Essai d' education nationale, the Memoires de la Chalotais (3 vols., 
1766-1767). Two works containing detailed bibliographies are 



Marion, La Bretagne et le due d'Aiguillon (Paris, 1893), and B. 
Pocquet, Le Due d'Aiguillon et La Chalotais (Paris, 1901). See also 
a controversy between these two authors in the Bulletin critique for 
1902. 

LA CHARITE, a town of central France in the department 
of Nievre, on the right bank of the Loire, 17 m. N.N.W. of Nevers 
on the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee railway. Pop. (1906) 3990. 
La Charite possesses the remains of a fine Romanesque basilica, 
the church of Sainte-Croix, dating from the nth and early 12th 
centuries. The plan consists of a nave, rebuilt at the end of 
the 17th century, transept and choir with ambulatory and side 
chapels. Surmounting the transept is an octagonal tower of 
one story, and a square Romanesque tower of much beauty 
flanks the main portal. There are ruins of the ramparts, which 
date from the 14th century. The manufacture of hosiery, boots 
and shoes, files and iron goods, lime and cement and woollen 
and other fabrics are among the industries; trade is chiefly in 
wood and iron. 

La Charite owes its celebrity to its priory, which was founded in 
the 8th century and reorganized as a dependency of the abbey of 
Cluny in 1052. It became the parent of many priories and 
monasteries, some of them in England and Italy. The possession of 
the town was hotly contested during the wars of religion of the 
16th century, at the end of which its fortifications were dismantled. 

LA CHAUSSEE, PIERRE CLAUDE NIVELLE DE (1692- 
1754), French dramatist, was born in Paris in 1692. In 1731 
he published an Epttre a Clio, a didactic poem in defence of 
Leriget de la Faye in his dispute with Antoine Houdart de la 
Motte, who had maintained that verse was useless in tragedy. 
La Chaussee was forty years old before he produced his first 
play, La Fausse Antipathie (1734). His second play, Le Prejugi 
a la mode (1735) turns on the fear of incurring ridicule felt by 
a man in love with his own wife, a prejudice dispelled in France, 
according to La Harpe, by La Chaussee's comedy. L'Ecole 
des amis (1737) followed, and, after an unsuccessful attempt 
at tragedy in Maximinien, he returned to comedy in Melanide 
(1741). In Melanide the type known as comedie larmoyante 
is fully developed. Comedy was no longer to provoke laughter, 
but tears. The innovation consisted in destroying the sharp 
distinction then existing between tragedy and comedy in French 
literature. Indications of this change had been already offered 
in the work of Marivaux, and La Chaussee's plays led naturally 
to the domestic drama of Diderot and of Sedaine. The new 
method found bitter enemies. Alexis Piron nicknames the 
author " le Reverend Pere Chaussee," and ridiculed him in one 
of his most famous epigrams. Voltaire maintained that the 
comedie larmoyante was a proof of the inability of the author 
to produce either of the recognized kinds of drama, though he 
himself produced a play of similar character in L' Enfant prodigue. 
The hostility of the critics did not prevent the public from shed- 
ding tears nightly over the sorrows of La Chaussee's heroine. 
L'Ecole des meres (1744) and La Gouvernante (1747) form, with 
those already mentioned, the best of his work. The strict 
moral aims pursued by La Chaussee in his plays seem hardly 
consistent with his private preferences. He frequented the 
same gay society as did the comte de Caylus and contributed 
to the Recueils de ces messieurs. La Chaussee died on the 14th 
of May 1754. Villemain said of his style that he wrote prosaic 
verses with purity, while Voltaire, usually an adverse critic of 
his work, said he was " un des premiers apres ceux qui ont du 
genie." 

For the comedie larmoyante see G. Lanson, Nivelle de la Chaussie 
et la comedie larmoyante (1887). 

LACHES (from Anglo-French lachesse, negligence, from 
lasche, modern Idche, unloosed, slack), a term for slackness 
or negligence, used particularly in law to signify negligence 
on the part of a person in doing that which he is by law bound 
to do, or unreasonable lapse of time in asserting a right, seeking 
relief, or claiming a privilege. Laches is frequently a bar to 
a remedy which might have been had. if prosecuted in proper 
time. Statutes of limitation specify the time within which 
various classes of actions may be brought. Apart from statutes 
of limitation courts of equity will often refuse relief to those 



5° 



LACHINE— LA CLOCHE 



who have allowed unreasonable time to elapse in seeking it, 
on the principle vigilantibus ac non dorntientibus jura sub- 
veniunt. 

LACHINE, an incorporated town in Jacques Cartier county, 
Quebec, Canada, 8 m. W. of Montreal, on Lake St Louis, an 
expansion of the St Lawrence river, and at the upper end of 
the Lachine canal. Pop. (1901) 5561. It is a station on the 
Grand Trunk railway and a port of call for steamers plying 
between Montreal and the Great Lakes. It is a favourite summer 
resort for the people of Montreal. It was named in 1669 in 
mockery of its then owner, Robert Cavelier de la Salle (1643- 
1687), who dreamed of a westward passage to China. In 1689 
it was the scene of a terrible massacre of the French by the 
Iroquois. 

LACHISH. a town of great importance in S. Palestine, often 
mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna tablets. It was destroyed 
by Joshua for joining the league against the Gibeonites (Joshua 
x 31-33) and assigned to the tribe of Judah (xv. 39). Rehoboam 
fortified it (2 Chron. xi. 9). King Amaziah having fled hither, 
was here murdered by conspirators (2 Kings xiv. 19). 
Sennacherib here conducted a campaign (2 Kings xviii. 13) 
during which Hezekiah endeavoured to make terms with him: 
the campaign is commemorated by bas-reliefs found in Nineveh, 
now in the British Museum (see G. Smith's History oj Sennacherib, 
p. 69) . It was one of the last cities that resisted Nebuchadnezzar 
(Jer. xxxiv. 7). The meaning of Micah's denunciation (i. 13) 
of the city is unknown. The Onomasticon places it 7 m. from 
Eleutheropolis on the S. road, which agrees with the generally 
received identification, Tell el-Hesi, an important mound 
excavated for the Palestine Exploration Fund by Petrie and 
Bliss, 1890-1893. The name is preserved in a small Roman 
site in the neighbourhood, Umm Lakis, which probably repre- 
sents a later dwelling-place of the descendants of the ancient 
inhabitants of the city. 

See W. M. Flinders Petrie, Tell el-Hesy, and F.J. Bliss, A Mound 
of many Cities, both published by the Palestine Exploration Fund. 
' (R A. S, M.) 

LACHMANN, KARL KONRAD FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

(1793-1851), German philologist and critic, was born at Bruns- 
wick on the 4th of March 1793. He studied at Leipzig and 
Gottingen, devoting himself mainly to philological studies. 
In 181 s he joined the Prussian army as a volunteer chasseur and 
accompanied his detachment to Paris, but did not encounter the 
enemy. In 1816 he became an assistant master in the Friedrich 
Werder gymnasium at Berlin, and a privat-docent at the university. 
The same summer he became one of the principal masters in 
the Friedrichs-Gymnasium of Konigsberg, where he assisted 
his colleague, the Germanist Friedrich Karl K6pke (1785-1863) 
with his edition of Rudolf von Ems' Barlaam und Josaphat 
(18 18), and also assisted his friend in a contemplated edition 
of the works of Walther von der Vogelweide. In January 1818 
he became professor extraordinarius of classical philology in 
the university of Konigsberg, and at the same time began to 
lecture on Old German grammar and the Middle High German 
poets. He devoted himself during the following seven years 
to an extraordinarily minute study of those subjects, and in 
1824 obtained leave of absence in order that he might search 
the libraries of middle and south Germany for further materials. 
In 1825 Lachmann was nominated extraordinary professor 
of classical and German philology in the university of Berlin 
(ordinary professor 1827); and in 1 830 he was admitted a member 
of the Academy of Sciences. The remainder of his laborious 
and fruitful life as an author and a teacher was uneventful. 
He died on the 13th of March 1851. 

Lachmann, who was the translator of the first volume of P. E. 
Muller's Sagabibhothek des skandmamschen AUerlums (1816), is a 
figure of considerable importance in the history of German philology 
(see Rudolf von Raumer ; Geschichte der gcrmanischen Philologie, 1870) 
7„ u:- " vj-.i-,;i;«-i*-,'^r»cc^VtT-;ff- " Tlhpv die iirsforunolir.he Gestalt de 



advance in that branch of investigation. The rigidly scientific char- 
acter of his method becomes increasingly apparent in the Auswahl 
aus den hochdeutschen Dichtern des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts (1820), 
the edition of Hartmann's Iwein (1827), in those of Walther 



In hi? " Habilitationsschrift " Uber die urspriingliche Gestalt des 
Gedichts der Ntbelunge Not (1816), and still more in his review of 
Hagen's Ntbelungen and Benecke's Bonerius, contributed in 1817 to 
the Jenaische Liter atuneitung he had already laid down the rules of 
textual criticism and elucidated the phonetic and metrical principles 
of Middle High German in a manner which marked a distinct 



von der Vogelweide (1827) and Wolfram von Eschenbach (1833), in 
the papers " fjber das Hildebrandslied," " Uber althochdeutsche 
Betommg und Verskunst," " fiber den Eingang des Parzivals," and 
" Uber drei Bruchstilcke niederrheinischer Gedichte " published in 
the Abhandlungen of the Berlin Academy, and in Der Nibelunge Not 
und die Klage (1826, nth ed., 1892), which was followed by a critical 
commentary in 1836. Lachmann's Betrachtungen uber Homer's 
Ilias, first published in the A~bhandlungen of the Berlin Academy in 
1837 and 1 841, in which he sought to show that the Iliad consists of 
sixteen independent " lays " variously enlarged and interpolated, 
have had considerable influence on modern Homeric criticism 
(see Homer), although his views are no longer accepted. His 
smaller edition of the New Testament appeared in 1 83 1 , 3rd ed. 1 846 ; 
the larger, in two volumes, in 1842-1850. The plan of Lachmann's 
edition, explained by himself in the Stud. u. Krit. of 1830, is a modi- 
fication of the unaccomplished project of Bentley. It seeks to 
restore the most ancient reading current in Eastern MSS., using the 
consent of the Latin authorities (Old Latin and Greek Western 
Uncials) as the main proof of antiquity of a reading where the oldest 
Eastern authorities differ. Besides Propertius (1816), Lachmann 
edited Catullus (1829); Tibullus (1829); Genesius (1834); Teren- 
tianus Maurus (1836) ; Babrius (1845) ; Avianus (1845) ■ Gaius (1841- 
1842); the Agrimensores Romani (1848-1852); Lucilius (edited 
after his death by Vahlen, 1876); and Lucretius (1850). The last, 
which was the main occupation of the closing years of his life, from 
1845, was perhaps his greatest achievement, and has been character- 
ized by Munro as " a work which will be a landmark for scholars as 
long as the Latin language continues to be studied." Lachmann also 
translated Shakespeare's sonnets (1820) and Macbeth (1829). 

See M. Hertz, Karl Lachmann, eine Biographic (1851), where a full 
list of Lachmann's works is given; F. Leo, Rede zur Sacularfeier 
K. Lachmanns (1893); J. Grimm, biography in Kleine Schrtften; 
W. Scherer in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, xvii., and J. E. Sandys, 
Hist, of Classical Scholarship, iii. (1908), pp. 127-131. 

LACINIUM, PROMUNTURIUM (mod. Capo delle Colonne), 
7 m S.E. of Crotona (mod. Cotrone); the easternmost point 
of Bruttii (mod. Calabria). On the cape still stands a single 
column of the temple erected to Hera Lacinia, which is said to 
have been fairly complete in the 16th century, but to have been 
destroyed to build the episcopal palace at Cotrone. It is a 
Doric column with capital, about 27 ft. in height. Remains of 
marble roof-tiles have been seen on the spot (Livy xlii. 3) and 
architectural fragments were excavated in 1886-1887 by the 
Archaeological Institute of America. The sculptures found 
were mostly buried again, but a few fragments, some decorative 
terra-cottas and a dedicatory inscription to Hera of the 6th 
century B.C., in private possession at Cotrone, are described 
by F. von Duhn in Notizie degli scavi, 1897, 343 seq. The date 
of the erection of the temple may be given as 480-440 B.C.; 
it is not recorded by any ancient writer. 

See R. Koldewey and O. Puchstein, Die griechischen Tempel in 
Unteritalien und Sicilien (Berlin 1899, 41). 

LA CIOTAT, a coast town of south-eastern France in the 
department of Bouches-du-Rhone, on the west shore of the Bay 
of La Ciotat, 26 m. S.E. of Marseilles by rail. Pop. (1906) 
10,562. The port is easily accessible and well sheltered. The 
large shipbuilding yards and repairing docks of the Messageries 
Maritimes Company give employment to between 2000 and 
3000 workmen. Fishing and an active coasting trade are 
carried on; the town is frequented for sea-bathing. La Ciotat 
was in ancient times the port of the neighbouring town of 
Citharista (now the village of Ceyreste). 

LA CLOCHE, JAMES DE ["Prince James Stuart "] (1644 ?- 
1669), a character who was brought into the history of England 
by Lord Acton in 1862 {Home and Foreign Review, i. 146- 
174: "The Secret History of Charles II."). From informa- 
tion discovered by Father Boero in the archives of the Jesuits 
in Rome, Lord Acton averred that Charles II., when a lad at 
Jersey, had a natural son, James. The evidence follows. On 
the 2nd of April 1668, as the register of the Jesuit House of 
Novices at Rome attests, " there entered Jacobus de la Cloche;" 
His baggage was exiguous, his attire was clerical. He is described 
as " from the island of Jersey, under the king of England, aged 
24." He possessed two documents in French, purporting to 
have been written by Charles II. at Whitehall, on the 25th of 



LA CONDAMINE— LACONIA 



5i 



September 1665, and on the 7th of February 1667. In both 
Charles acknowledges James to be his natural son, he styles 
him " James de la Cloche de Bourg du Jersey," and avers that 
to recognize him publicly " would imperil the peace of the 
kingdoms " — why is not apparent. A third certificate of birth, 
in Latin, undated, was from Christina of Sweden, who declares 
that James, previously a Protestant, has been received into the 
church of Rome at Hamburg (where in 1667-1668 she was 
residing) on the 29th of July 1667. The next paper purports 
to be a letter from Charles II. of August 3/13 to Oliva, general 
of the Jesuits. The king writes, in French, that he has long 
wished to be secretly received into the church. He therefore 
desires that James, his son by a young lady " of the highest 
quality," and born to him when he was about sixteen, should be 
ordained a priest, come to England and receive him. Charles 
alludes to previous attempts of his own to be secretly admitted 
(1662). James must be sent secretly to London at once, and 
Oliva must say nothing to Christina of Sweden (then meditating 
a journey to Rome), and must never write to Charles except 
when James carries the letter. Charles next writes on August 
29/September 9. He is most anxious that Christina should not 
meet James; if she knows Charles's design of changing his 
creed she will not keep it secret, and Charles will infallibly 
lose his life. With this letter there is another, written when the 
first had been sealed. Charles insists that James must not be 
accompanied, as novices were, when travelling, by a Jesuit 
socius or guardian. Charles's wife and mother have just heard 
that this is the rule, but the rule must be broken. James, who 
is to travel as " Henri de Rohan," must not come by way of 
France. Oliva will supply him with funds. On the back of 
this letter Oliva has written the draft of his brief reply to Charles 
(from Leghorn, October 14, 1668). He merely says that the 
bearer, a French gentleman (James spoke only French), will 
inform the king that his orders have been executed. Besides 
these two letters is one from Charles to James, of date August 
4/14. It is addressed to " Le Prince Stuart," though none of 
Charles's bastards was allowed to bear the Stuart name. James 
is told that he may desert the clerical profession if he pleases. 
In that case " you may claim higher titles from us than the 
duke of Monmouth." (There was no higher title save prince 
of Wales!) If Charles and his brother, the duke of York, die 
childless, " the kingdoms belong to you, and parliament cannot 
legally oppose you, unless as, at present, they can only elect 
Protestant kings." This letter ought to have opened the eyes 
of Lord Acton and other historians who accept the myth of 
James de la Cloche. Charles knew that the crown of England 
was not elective, that there was no Exclusion Act, and that there 
were legal heirs if he and his brother died without issue. The 
last letter of Charles is dated November 18/28, and purports 
to have been brought from England to Oliva by James de la 
Cloche on his return to Rome. It reveals the fact that Oliva, 
despite Charles's orders, did send James by way of France, 
with a socius or guardian whom he was to pick up in France 
on his return to England. Charles says that James is to com- 
municate certain matters to Oliva, and come back at once. 
Oliva is to give James all the money he needs, and Charles 
will later make an ample donation to the Jesuits. He acknow- 
ledges a debt to Oliva of £800, to be paid in six months. The 
reader will remark that the king has never paid a penny to 
James or to Oliva, and that Oliva has never communicated 
directly with Charles. The truth is that all of Charles's letters 
are forgeries. This is certain because in all he writes frequently 
as if his mother, Henrietta Maria, were in London, and constantly 
in company with him. Now she had left England for France 
in 1665, and to England she never returned. As the letters — 
including that to " Prince Stuart "■ — are all forged, it is clear 
that de la Cloche was an impostor. His aim had been to get 
money from Oliva, and to pretend to travel to England, meaning 
to enjoy himself. He did not quite succeed, for Oliva sent a 
socius with him into France. His precautions to avoid a meeting 
with Christina of Sweden were necessary. She knew no more 
of him than did Charles, and would have exposed him. 



The name of James de la Cloche appears no more in documents. 
He reached Rome in December 1668, and in January a person 
calling himself " Prince James Stuart " appears in Naples, 
accompanied by a socius styling himself a French knight of 
Malta. Both are on their way to England, but Prince James 
falls ill and stays in Naples, while his companion departs. The 
knight of Malta may be a Jesuit. In Naples, Prince James 
marries a girl of no position, and is arrested on suspicion of being 
a coiner. To his confessors (he had two in succession) he says 
that he is a son of Charles II. Our sources are the despatches 
of Kent, the English agent at Naples, and the Lettere, vol. iii., 
of Vincenzo Armanni (1674), who had his information from one 
of the confessors of the " Prince." The viceroy of Naples 
communicated with Charles II., who disowned the impostor; 
Prince James, however, was released, and died at Naples in 
August 1669, leaving a wild will, in which he claims for his son, 
still unborn, the " apanage " of Monmouth or W r ales, " which 
it is usual to bestow on natural sons of the king." The son lived 
till about 1750, a penniless pretender, and writer of begging 
letters. 

It is needless to pursue Lord Acton's conjectures about later 
mysterious appearances of James de la Cloche at the court of 
Charles, or to discuss the legend that his mother was a lady of 
Jersey — or a sister of Charles! The Jersey myths may be found 
in The Man of the Mask (1908), by Monsignor Barnes, who argued 
that James was the man in the iron mask (see Iron Mask). 
Later Monsignor Barnes, who had observed that the letter of 
Charles to Prince James Stuart is a forgery, noticed the impossi- 
bility that Charles, in 1668, should constantly write of his mother 
as resident in London, which she left for ever in 1665. 

Who de la Cloche really was it is impossible to discover, but 
he was a bold and successful swindler, who took in, not only the 
general of the Jesuits, but Lord Acton and a generation of 
guileless historians. (A. L.) 

LA CONDAMINE, CHARLES MARIE DE (1701-1774), French 
geographer and mathematician, was born at Paris on the 28th 
of January 170-1. He was trained for the military profession, 
but turned his attention to science and geographical exploration. 
After taking part in a scientific expedition in the Levant (1731), 
he became a member with Louis Godin and Pierre Bouguer of 
the expedition sent to Peru in 1735 to determine the length of a 
degree of the meridian in the neighbourhood of the equator. 
His associations with his principals were unhappy; the expedi- 
tion was beset by many difficulties, and finally La Condamine 
separated from the rest and made his way from Quito down the 
Amazon, ultimately reaching Cayenne. His was the first 
scientific exploration of the Amazon. He returned to Paris 
in 1744 and published the results of his measurements and travels 
with a map of the Amazon in Mem. de I'academie des sciences, 
1745 (English translation 1745-1747). On a visit to Rome La 
Condamine made careful measurements of the ancient buildings 
with a view to a precise determination of the length of the Roman 
foot. The journal of his voyage to South America was published 
in Paris in 1751. He also wrote in favour of inoculation, and on 
various other subjects, mainly connected with his work in South 
America. He died at Paris on the 4th of February 1774. 

LACONIA (Gr. Aclkuvlkti) , the ancient name of the south- 
eastern district of the Peloponnese, of which Sparta was the 
capital. It has an area of some 1,048,000 acres, slightly greater 
than that of Somersetshire, and consists of three well-marked 
zones running N. and S. The valley of the Eurotas, which 
occupies the centre, is bounded W. by the chain of Taygetus 
(mod. Pentedaktylon, 7900 ft.), which starts from the Arcadian 
mountains on the N., and at its southern extremity forms the 
promontory of Taenarum (Cape Matapan). The eastern portion 
of Laconia consists of a far more broken range of hill country, 
rising in Mt. Parnon to a height of 6365 ft. and terminating in 
the headland of Malea. The range of Taygetus is well watered 
and was in ancient times covered with forests which afforded 
excellent hunting to the Spartans, while it had also large iron 
mines and quarries of an inferior bluish marble, as well as of the 
famous rosso antico of Taenarum. Far poorer are the slopes of 



52 



LACONIA— LACONICUM 



Parnon, consisting for the most part of barren limestone uplands 
scantily watered. The Eurotas valley, however, is fertile, and 
produces at the present day maize, olives, oranges and mulberries 
in great abundance. Laconia has no rivers of importance except 
the Eurotas and its largest tributary the Oenus (mod. Kelefina). 
The coast, expecially on the east, is rugged and dangerous. 
Laconia has few good harbours, nor are there any islands lying 
off its shores with the exception of Cythera (Cerigo), S. of Cape 
Malea. The most important towns, besides Sparta and Gythium, 
were Bryseae, Amyclae and Pharis in the Eurotas plain, Pellana 
and Belbina on the upper Eurotas, Sellasia on the Oenus, Caryae 
on the Arcadian frontier, Prasiae, Zarax and Epidaurus Limera 
on the east coast, Geronthrae on the slopes of Parnon, Boeae, 
Asopus, Helos, Las and Teuthrone on the Laconian Gulf, and 
Hippola, Messa and Oetylus on the Messenian Gulf. 

The earliest inhabitants of Laconia, according to tradition, 
were the autochthonous Leleges (q.v.). Minyan immigrants then 
settled at various places on the coast and even appear to have 
penetrated into the interior and to have founded Amyclae. 
Phoenician traders, too, visited the shores of the Laconian Gulf, 
and there are indications of trade at a very early period between 
Laconia and Crete, e.g. a number of blocks of green Laconian 
porphyry from the quarries at Croceae have been found in the 
palace of Minos at Cnossus. In the Homeric poems Laconia 
appears as the realm of an Achaean prince, Menelaus, whose 
capital was perhaps Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas, 
S.E. of Sparta; the Achaean conquerors, however, probably 
contented themselves with a suzerainty over Laconia and part 
of Messenia (q.v.) and were too few to occupy the whole land. 
The Achaean kingdom fell before the incoming Dorians, and 
throughout the classical period the history of Laconia is that 
of its capital Sparta (q.v.). In 195 B.C. the Laconian coast towns 
were freed from Spartan rule by the Roman general T. Quinctius 
Flamininus, and became members of the Achaean League. When 
this was dissolved in 146 B.C., they remained independent under 
the title of the " Confederation of the Lacedaemonians " or 
"of the Free-Laconians " (kolvov rwv AaKeSai/jioviiav or 'EX«i>0epo- 
\aK03vo>v) , the supreme officer of which was a ar partly 6s (general) 
assisted by a rajuias (treasurer). Augustus seems to have 
reorganized the league in some way, for Pausanias (iii. 21, 6) 
speaks of him as its founder. Of the twenty-four cities which 
originally composed the league, only eighteen remained as 
members by the reign of Hadrian (see Achaean League). In 
a.d. 395 a Gothic horde under Alaric devastated Laconia, and 
subsequently it was overrun by large bands of Slavic immigrants. 
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles 
between Slavs, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the 
chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra 
near Sparta, Geraki (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, " the 
Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near 
Gythium. A prominent part in the War of Independence was 
played by the Maniates or Mainotes, the inhabitants of the 
rugged peninsula formed by the southern part of Taygetus. They 
had all along maintained a virtual independence of the Turks 
and until quite recently retained their medieval customs, living 
in fortified towers and practising the vendetta or blood-feud. 

The district has been divided into two departments (nomes), 
Lacedaemon and Laconia, with their capitals at Sparta and 
Gythium respectively. Pop. of Laconia (1907) 61,522. 

Archaeology. — Until 1904 archaeological research in Laconia 
was carried on only sporadically. Besides the excavations under- 
taken at Sparta, Gythium and Vaphio (q.v.), the most important 
were those at the Apollo sanctuary of Amyclae carried out by 
C. Tsountas in 1890 ('Ecfnifj.. &pxcuo\. 1892, 1 ff.) and in 1904 by 
A. Furtwangler. At Kampos, on the western side of Taygetus, 
a small domed tomb of the " Mycenean " age was excavated in 
1890 and yielded two leaden statuettes of great interest, while 
at Arkina a similar tomb of poor construction was unearthed 
in the previous year. Important inscriptions were found at 
Geronthrae (Geraki), notably five long fragments of the Edictum 
Diocletiani, and elsewhere. In 1904 the British Archaeological 
school at Athens undertook a systematic investigation of the 



ancient and medieval remains in Laconia. The results, of which 
the most important are summarized in the article Sparta, are 
published in the British School Annual, x. ff. The acropolis of 
Geronthrae, a hero-shrine at Angelona in the south-eastern 
highlands, and the sanctuary of Ino-Pasiphae at Thalamae have 
also been investigated. 

Bibliography.— Besides the Greek histories and many of the 
works cited under Sparta, see W. M. Leake, Travels in the Morea 
(London, 1830), cc. iv.-vui., xxii., xxiii. ; E. Curtius, PeloPonnesos 
Gotna, 1852) u. 203 ff.; C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland 
(Leipzig, 1868), 11. 102 ff.; Strabo viii. 5; Pausanias iii. and the 
commentary in J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece 
(London, 1898), vol. iii. ; W. G. Clark, Peloponnesus (London, 1858), 
\ 5 , 5 V - ',£• ?• Bobla Y e . Recherches geographiques sur les mines de la 
Morte (Pans, 1835), 65 ff. ; L. Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes (Berlin 
1 841), ,158 ff.; W Vischer, Erinnerungen u. Eindriicke aus Griechen- 
land (Basel, 1857) 360 ff.; J. B. G. M. Bory de Saint-Vincent, 
Relation du voyage de I expedition scientifique de Moree (Paris, 1836), 
cc. 9, 10; G. A. Blouet, Expedition scientifique de Moree ' (Paris! 
1831-1838), 11. 58 ff. ; A. Philippson, Der Peloponnes (Berlin, 1892) 
155 ff. ; Annual of British School at Athens, 1907-8. 

Inscriptions: Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique: Inscriptions 
Nos. 160-290; Inscriptions Graecae, v.; Corpus Inscriptionum 
Graecarum .(Berlin, 1828), Nos. 1237-1510; Collitz-Bechtel, Samm- 
lung der griech. Dialektmschriften, iii. 2 (Gottingen, 1898), Nos 4400- 
4613. Coins: Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum- 
Peloponnesus (London, 1887), xlvi. ff., 121 ff . ; B. V. Head, Historic, 
Numorum (Oxford, 1887), 363 ff. Cults: S. Wide, Lakonische Kulte 
(Leipzig ,1893). Ancient roads: W. Loring, "Some Ancient Routes 
in the Peloponnese " in Journal of Hellenic Studies, xv. 25 ff 

(M. N. T.) 

LACONIA, a city and the county-seat of Belknap county, 
New Hampshire, U.S.A., on both sides of the Winnepesaukee 
river, 28 m. N.N.E. of Concord. Pop. (1900) 8042 (1770 
foreign-born) ; (1910) 10,183. Laconia is served by two divisions 
of the Boston & Maine railway, which has a very handsome 
granite passenger station (1892) and repair shops here. It is 
pleasantly situated in the lake district of central New Hampshire, 
and in the summer season Lake Winnisquam on the S. and w! 
and Lake Winnepesaukee on the N.E. attract many visitors. 
The city covers an area of 24-65 sq. m. (5-47 sq. m. annexed 
since 1890). Within the city limits, and about 6 m. from its 
centre, are the grounds of the Winnepesaukee Camp-Meeting 
Association, and the camping place for the annual reunions 
of the New Hampshire Veterans of the Civil War, both at The 
Weirs, the northernmost point in the territory claimed by colonial 
Massachusetts; about 2 m. from the centre of Laconia is 
Lakeport (pop. 1900, 2137), which, like The Weirs, is a summer 
resort and a ward in the city of Laconia. Among the public 
institutions are the State School for Feeble-minded Children, 
a cottage hospital and the Laconia Public Library, lodged in 
the Gale Memorial Library building (1903). Another fine 
building is the Congregational Church (1906). The New Hamp- 
shire State Fish Hatchery is in Laconia. Water-power is 
furnished by the river. In 1905 Laconia ranked first among the 
cities of the state in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods, 
and the value of these products for the year was 48-4% of the 
total value of the city's factory product; among its other 
manufactures are yarn, knitting machines, needles, sashes and 
blinds, axles, paper boxes, boats, gas and gasolene engines, and 
freight, passenger and electric cars. The total value of the 
factory products increased from $2,152,379 in 1900 to $3,096,878 
in 1905, or 43-9%. The portion of the city N. of the river, 
formerly known as Meredith Bridge, was set apart from the town- 
ship of Meredith and incorporated as a township under the name 
of Laconia in 1855; a section S. of the river was taken from 
the township of Gilford in 1874; and Lakeport was added in 
1893, when Laconia was chartered as a city. The same Laconia 
was first applied in New England to the region granted in 1629 
to Mason and Gorges (see Mason, John). 

LACONICUM (i.e. Spartan, sc. balneum, bath), the dry sweating 
room of the Roman thermae, contiguous to the caldarium or hot 
room. The name was given to it as being the only form of warm 
bath that the Spartans admitted. The laconicum was usually 
a circular room with niches in the axes of the diagonals and was 
covered by a conical roof with a circular opening at the top, 



LACORDAIRE— LACRETELLE 



53 



according to Vitruvius (v. 10), "from which a brazen shield is 
suspended by chains, capable of being so lowered and raised 
as to regulate the temperature." The walls of the laconicum 
were plastered with marble stucco and polished, and the conical 
roof covered . with plaster and painted blue with gold stars. 
Sometimes, as in the old baths at Pompeii, the laconicum was 
provided in an apse at one end of the caldarium, but as a rule 
it was a separate room raised to a higher temperature and had 
no bath in it. In addition to the hypocaust under the floor the 
wall was lined with flue tiles. The largest laconicum, about 
75 ft. in diameter, was that built by Agrippa in his thermae on 
the south side of the Pantheon, and is referred to by Cassius 
(liii. 23), who states that, in addition to other works, " he con- 
structed the hot bath chamber which he called the Laconicum 
Gymnasium." All traces of this building are lost; but in the 
additions made to the thermae of Agrippa by Septimius Severus 
another laconicum was built farther south, portions of which 
still exist in the so-called Arco di Giambella. 

LACORDAIRE, JEAN BAPTISTE HENRI (1802-1861), French 
ecclesiastic and orator, was born at Recey-sur-Ource, Cdte d'Or, 
on the 1 2th of March 1802. He was the second of a family of 
four, the eldest of whom, Jean Theodore (1801-1870), travelled 
a great deal in his youth, and was afterwards professor of com- 
parative anatomy at Liege. For several years Lacordaire studied 
at Dijon, showing a marked talent for rhetoric; this led him 
to the pursuit of law, and in the local debates of the advocates 
he attained a high celebrity. At Paris he thought of going on 
the stage, but was induced to finish his legal training and began 
to practise as an advocate (1817-1824). Meanwhile Lamennais 
had published his Essai sur V Indifference, — a passionate plea 
for Christianity and in particular for Roman Catholicism as 
necessary for the social progress of mankind. Lacordaire read, 
and his ardent and believing nature, weary of the theological 
negations of the Encyclopaedists, was convinced. In 1823 
he became a theological student at the seminary of Saint 
Sulpice; four years later he was ordained and became almoner 
of the college Henri IV. He was called from it to co-operate 
with Lamennais in the editorship of L'Avenir, a journal estab- 
lished to advocate the union of the democratic principle with 
ultramontanism. Lacordaire strove to show that Catholicism 
was not bound up with the idea of dynasty, and definitely allied 
it with a well-defined liberty, equality and fraternity. But the 
new propagandism was denounced from Rome in an encyclical. 
In the meantime Lacordaire and Montalembert, believing that, 
under the charter of 1830, they were entitled to liberty of 
instruction, opened an independent free school. It was closed in 
two days, and the teachers fined before the court of peers. 
These reverses Lacordaire accepted with quiet dignity; but 
they brought his relationship with Lamennais to a close. He now 
began the course of Christian conferences at the College Stanislas, 
which attracted the art and intellect of Paris; thence he went 
to Notre Dame, and for two years his sermons were the delight 
of the capital. His presence was dignified, his voice capable of 
indefinite modulation, and his gestures animated and attractive. 
He still preached the gospel of the people's sovereignty in civil 
life and the pope's supremacy in religion, but brought to his 
propagandism the full resources of a mind familiar with philo- 
sophy, history and literature, and indeed led the reaction against 
Voltairean scepticism. He was asked to edit the Univers, and 
to take a chair in the university of Louvain, but he declined both 
appointments, and in 1838 set out for Rome, revolving a great 
scheme for christianizing France by restoring the old order of 
St Dominic. At Rome he donned the habit of the preaching 
friar and joined the monastery of Minerva. His Mimoire pour 
le retablissement en France de I'ordre des freres pricheurs was then 
prepared and dedicated to his country; at the same time he 
collected the materials for the life of St Dominic. When he 
returned to France in 1841 he resumed his preaching at Notre 
Dame, but he had small success in re-establishing the order of 
which he ever afterwards called himself monk. His funeral 
orations are the most notable in their kind of any delivered 
during his time, those devoted to Marshal Drouet and Daniel 



O'Connell being especially marked by point and clearness. He 
next thought that his presence in the National Assembly would 
be of use to his cause; but being rebuked by his ecclesiastical 
superiors for declaring himself a republican, he resigned his seat 
ten days after his election. In 1850 he went back to Rome and 
was made provincial of the order, and for four years laboured 
to make the Dominicans a religious power. In 1854 he retired 
to Sorreze to become director of a private lyceum, and remained 
there until he died on the 22nd of November 1861. He had been 
elected to the Academy in the preceding year. 

The best edition of Lacordaire's works is the (Euvres completes 
(6 vols., Paris, 1 872-1 873), published by C. Poussielgue, which con- 
tains, besides the Conferences, the exquisitely written, but uncritical, 
Vie de Saint Dominique and the beautiful Lettres a unjeune homme sur 
la vie chritienne. For a complete list of his published correspondence 
see L. Petit de Julleville's Histoire de la langue et de la litterature 
francaise, vii. 598. 

The authoritative biography is by Ch. Foisset (2 vols., Paris, 1870). 
The religious aspect of his character is best shown in Pere B. Cho- 
carne's Vie du Pere Lacordaire (2 vols. , Paris, 1 866 — English translation 
by A. Th. Drane, London, 1868) ; see also Count C. F. R. de Montal- 
embert's Un Moine au XIX lme siecle (Paris, 1862 — English transla- 
tion by F. Aylward, London, 1867). There are lives by Mrs H. L. 
Lear (London, 1882) ; by A. Ricard (1 vol. of L'Ecole menaisienne, 
Paris, 1883); by Comte O. d'Haussonville (1 vol., Les Grands 
Scrivains Frangais series, Paris, 1897) ; by Gabriel Ledos (Paris, 
1901); by Dora Greenwell (1867); and by the due de Broglie 
(Paris, 1889). The Correspondance inedite du Pere Lacordaire, edited 
by H. Villard (Paris, 1870), may also be consulted. See also Saint- 
Beuve in Causeries de Lundi. Several of Lacordaire's Conferences have 
been translated into English, among these being, Jesus Christ (1869) ; 
God (1870); God and Man (1872); Life (1875). For a theological 
study of the Conferences de Notre Dame, see an article by Bishop 
J. C. Hedley in Dublin Review (October 1870). 

LACQUER, or Lacker, a general term for coloured and 
frequently opaque varnishes applied to certain metallic objects 
and to wood. The term is derived from the resin lac, which 
substance is the basis of lacquers properly so called. Technically, 
among Western nations, lacquering is restricted to the coating 
of polished metals or metallic surfaces, such as brass, pewter and 
tin, with prepared varnishes which will give them a golden, 
bronze-like or other lustre as desired. Throughout the East 
Indies the lacquering of wooden surfaces is universally practised, 
large articles of household furniture, as well as small boxes, trays, 
toys and papier-mache objects, being decorated with bright- 
coloured and variegated lacquer. The lacquer used in the East 
is, in general, variously coloured sealing-wax, applied, smoothed 
and polished in a heated condition; and by various devices 
intricate marbled, streaked and mottled designs are produced. 
Quite distinct from these, and from all other forms of lacquer, 
is the lacquer work of Japan, for which see Japan, § Art. 

LACRETELLE, PIERRE LOUIS DE (1751-1824), French 
politician and writer, was born at Metz on the 9th of October 
1 751. He practised as a barrister in Paris; and under the 
Revolution was elected as a depute suppliant in the Constituent 
Assembly, and later as deputy in the Legislative Assembly. 
He belonged to the moderate party known as the " Feuillants," 
but after the 10th of August 1792 he ceased to take part in 
public life. In 1803 he became a member of the Institute, 
taking the place of La Harpe. Under the Restoration he was 
one of the chief editors of the Minerve francaise; he wrote also 
an essay, Sur le 18 Brumaire (1799), some Fragments politiques 
et littiraires (1817), and a treatise Des partis politiques et des 
factions de la pretendue aristocrat ie d'aujourd'hui (181 9). t 

His younger brother, Jean Charles Dominique de Lacre- 
telle, called Lacretelle le jeune (1 766-1855), historian and 
journalist, was also born at Metz on the 3rd of September 1 766. 
He was called to Paris by his brother in 1787, and during the 
Revolution belonged, like him, to the party of the Feuillants. 
He was for some time secretary to the due de la Rochefoucauld- 
Liancourt, the celebrated philanthropist, and afterwards joined 
the staff of the Journal de Paris, then managed by Suard, and 
where he had as colleagues Andr6 Chenier and Antoine Roucher. 
He made no attempt to hide his monarchist sympathies, and 
this, together with the way in which he reported the trial and 
I death of Louis XVI., brought him in peril of his life; to avoid this 



54 



LACROIX, A. F. A.— LACROSSE 



danger he enlisted in the army, but after Thermidor he returned 
to Paris and to his newspaper work. He was involved in the 
royalist movement of the 13th Vendemiaire, and condemned to 
deportation after the 18th Fructidor; but, thanks to powerful 
influence, he was left " forgotten " in prison till after the 18th Bru- 
maire, when he was set at liberty by Fouche. Under the Empire 
he was appointed a professor of history in the Faculty des lettres 
of Paris (1809), and elected as a member of the Academie fran- 
chise (1811). In 1827 he was prime mover in the protest made by 
the French Academy against the minister Peyronnet's law on the 
press, which led to the failure of that measure, but this step cost 
him, as it did Villemain, his post as censeur royal. Under Louis 
Philippe he devoted himself entirely to his teaching and literary 
work. In 1848 he retired to Macon; but there, as in Paris, he 
was the centre of a brilliant circle, for he was a wonderful causeur, 
and an equally good listener, and had many interesting ex- 
periences to recall. He died on the 26th of March 1855. 
His son Pierre Henri (1815-1899) was a humorous writer and 
politician of purely contemporary interest. 

J. C. Lacretelle's chief work is a series of histories of the 18th 
century, the Revolution and its sequel: Precis historique de la 
Revolution francaise, appended to the history of Rabaud St Etienne, 
and partly written in the prison of La Force (5 vols., 1801-1806); 
Histoire de France pendant le XVIII' Steele (6 vols., 1808); Histoire 
de I'Assemblee Constituante (2 vols., 1821); L'Assemblee Legislative 
(1822); La Convention Nationale (3 vols., 1824-1825); Histoire de 
France depuis la restauration (1 829-1 835); Histoire du consulat et 
de I' empire (4 vols., 1846). The author was a moderate and fair- 
minded man, but possessed neither great powers of style, nor striking 
historical insight, nor the special historian's power of writing minute 
accuracy of detail with breadth of view. Carlyle's sarcastic remark 
on Lacretelle's history of the Revolution, that it " exists, but does 
hot profit much," is partly true of all his books. He had been an eye- 
witness of and an actor in the events which he describes, but his 
testimony must be accepted with caution. 

LACROIX, ANTOINE FRANCOIS ALFRED (1863- ), 

French mineralogist and geologist, was born at Macon, Saone et 
Loire, on the 4th of February 1863. He took the degree of 
D. es Sc. in Paris, 1889. In 1893 he was appointed professor of 
mineralogy at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, and in 1896 director 
of the mineralogical laboratory in the Hcole des Hautes Etudes. 
He paid especial attention to minerals connected with volcanic 
phenomena and igneous rocks, to the effects of metamorphism, 
and to mineral veins, in various parts of the world, notably in 
the Pyrenees. In his numerous contributions to scientific 
journals he dealt with the mineralogy and petrology of Mada- 
gascar, and published an elaborate and exhaustive volume 
on the eruptions in Martinique, La Montagne Pelee el ses Erup- 
tions (1904). He also issued an important work entitled Miner a- 
logie de la France et de ses Colonies (1 893-1 898), and other works 
in conjunction with A. Michel Levy. He was elected member 
of the Academie des sciences in 1904. 

LACROIX, PAUL (1806-1884), French author and journalist, 
was born in Paris on the 27th of April 1806, the son of a novelist. 
He is best known under his pseudonym of P. L. Jacob, bibliophile, 
or " Bibliophile Jacob," suggested by the constant interest he 
took in public libraries and books generally. Lacroix was an 
extremely prolific and varied writer. Over twenty historical 
romances alone came from his pen, and he also wrote a variety 
of serious historical works, including a history of Napoleon III., 
and the life and times of the Tsar Nicholas I. of Russia. He 
was the joint author with Ferdinand Sere of a five-volume work, 
Le Moyen Age et La Renaissance (1847), a standard work on the 
manners, customs and dress of those times, the chief merit of 
which lies in the great number of illustrations it contains. He 
also wrote many monographs on phases of the history of culture. 
Over the signature Pierre Dufour was published an exhaustive 
Histoire de la Prostitution (1851-1852), which has always been 
attributed to Lacroix. His works on bibliography were also 
extremely numerous. In 1885 he was appointed librarian of the 
Arsenal Library, Paris. He died in Paris on the 16th of October 
1884. 

LACROMA (Serbo-Croatian Lokrum), a small island in the 
Adriatic Sea, forming part of the Austrian kingdom of Dalmatia, 



and lying less than half a mile south of Ragusa. Though barely 
i\ m. in length, Lacroma is remarkable for the beauty of its sub- 
tropical vegetation. It was a favourite resort of the archduke 
Maximilian, afterwards emperor of Mexico (1832-1867), who 
restored the chateau and park ; and of the Austrian crown prince 
Rudolph (1857-1889). It contains an nth-century Benedictine 
monastery; and the remains of a church, said by a very doubtful 
local tradition to have been founded by Richard I. of England 
(n 57-1 199), form part of the imperial chateau. 

See Lacroma, an illustrated descriptive work by the crown princess 
Stephanie (afterwards Countess Lonyay ) (Vienna, 1892). 

LA CROSSE, a city and the county-seat of La Crosse county, 
Wisconsin, U.S.A., about 180 m. W.N.W. of Milwaukee, and 
about 1 20 m. S.E. of St Paul, Minnesota, on the E. bank of the 
Mississippi river, at the mouth of the Black and of the La Crosse 
rivers. Pop. (1900) 28,895; (1910 census) 30,417. Of the 
total population in 1900, 7222 were foreign-born, 3130 being 
German and 2023 Norwegian, and 17,555 were of foreign- 
parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 7853 of German 
parentage, 4422 of Norwegian parentage, and 1062 of Bohemian 
parentage. La Crosse is served by the Chicago & North Western, 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, the La Crosse & South Eastern, and the Green Bay & 
Western railways, and by river steamboat lines on the Mississippi. 
The river is crossed here by a railway bridge (CM. & St P.) and 
wagon bridge. The city is situated on a prairie, extending back 
from the river about 2\ m. to bluffs, from which fine views may 
be obtained. Among the city's buildings and institutions are the 
Federal Building (1886-1887), the County Court House (1902- 
1903), the Public Library (with more than 20,000 volumes), 
the City Hall (1891), the High School Building (1905-1906), the 
St Francis, La Crosse and Lutheran hospitals, a Young Men's 
Christian Association Building, a Young Women's Christian 
Association Building, a U.S. Weather Station (1907), and a 
U.S. Fish Station (1905). La Crosse is the seat of a state Normal 
School (1909). Among the city's parks are Pettibone (an island 
in the Mississippi), Riverside, Burns, Fair Ground and Myrick. 
The city is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop. La Crosse is 
an important lumber and grain market, and is the principal 
wholesale distributing centre for a large territory in S.W. Wis- 
consin, N. Iowa and Minnesota. Proximity to both pine and 
hardwood forests early made it one of the most important 
lumber manufacturing places in the North-west; but this 
industry has now been displaced by other manufactures. The 
city has grain elevators, flour mills (the value of flour and grist 
mill products in 1905 was $2,166,116), and breweries (product 
value in 1905, $1,440,659). Other important manufactures are 
agricultural implements ($542,425 in 1905), lumber and planing 
mill products, leather, woollen, knit and rubber goods, tobacco, 
cigars and cigarettes, carriages, foundry and machine-shop 
products, copper and iron products, cooperage, pearl buttons, 
brooms and brushes. The total value of the factory product 
in 1905 was $8,139,432, as against $7,676,581 in 1900. The 
city owns and operates its water-works system, the wagon 
bridge (1890-1891) across the Mississippi, and a toll road (25 m. 
long) to the village of La Crescent, Minn. 

Father Hennepin and du Lhut visited or passed the site of 
La Crosse as early as 1680, but it is possible that adventurous 
coureurs-des-bois preceded them. The first permanent settlement 
was made in 1841, and La Crosse was made the county-seat in 
1855 and was chartered as a city in 1856. 

LACROSSE, the national ball game of Canada. It derives its 
name from the resemblance of its chief implement used, the 
curved netted stick, to a bishop's crozier. It was borrowed 
from the Indian tribes of North America. In the old days, 
according to Catlin, the warriors of two tribes in their war-paint 
would form the sides, often 800 or 1000 strong. The goals were 
placed from 500 yds. to 5 m. apart with practically no side 
boundaries. A solemn dance preceded the game, after which the 
ball was tossed into the air and the two sides rushed to catch 
it on " crosses," similar to those now in use. The medicine-men 
acted as umpires, and the squaws urged on the men by beating 



LA CRUZ— LACTANTIUS FIRMIANUS 



55 



them with switches. The game attracted much attention from 
the early French settlers in Canada. In 1763, after Canada 
had become British, the game was used by the aborigines to 
carry out an ingenious piece of treachery. On the 4th of June, 
when the garrison of Fort Michilimackinac (now Mackinac) was 
celebrating the king's birthday, it was invited by the Ottawas, 
under their chief Pontiac, to witness a game of " baggataway " 
(lacrosse). The players gradually worked their way close to the 
gates, when, throwing aside their crosses and seizing their 
tomahawks which the squaws suddenly produced from under 
their blankets, they rushed into the fort and massacred all the 
inmates except a few Frenchmen. 

The game found favour among the British settlers, but it was 
not until 1867, the year in which Canada became a Dominion, 
that G. W. Beers, a prominent player, suggested that Lacrosse 
should be recognized as the national game, and the National 
Lacrosse Association of Canada was formed. From that time 
the game has flourished vigorously in Canada and to a less 
extent in the United States. In 1868 an English Lacrosse 
Association was formed, but, although a team of Indians visited 
the United Kingdom in 1867, it was not until sometime later 
that the game became at all popular in Great Britain. Its 
progress was much encouraged by visits of teams representing 
the Toronto Lacrosse Club in 1888 and 1902, the methods of the 
Canadians and their wonderful " short-passing " exciting much 
admiration. In 1907 the Capitals of Ottawa visited England, 
playing six matches, all of which were won by the Canadians. 
The match North v. South has been played annually in England 
since 1882. A county championship was inaugurated in 1905. 
A North of England League, embracing ten clubs, began playing 
league matches in 1897; and a match between the universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge has been played annually since 1903. 
A match between England and Ireland was played annually from 
1881 to 1904. 

Implements of the Game. — The ball is made of indiarubber sponge, 
weighs between 4J and 4J oz., and measures 8 to 8J in. in circumfer- 
ence. The " crosse " is formed of a light staff of hickory wood, the 
top being bent to form a kind of hook, from the tip of which a thong 
is drawn and made fast to the shaft about 2 ft. from the other end. 
The oval triangle thus formed is covered with a network of gut or 
rawhide, loose enough to hold the ball but not to form a bag. At no 




The Crosse. 



part must the crosse measure more than 12 in. in breadth, and no 
metal must be used in its manufacture. It may be of any length to 
suit the player. The goals are set up not less than 100 nor more than 
150 yds. apart, the goal-posts being 6 ft. high and the same distance 
apart. They are set up in the middle of the " goal-crease," a space 
of 12 ft. square marked with chalk. A net extends from the top rail 
and sides of the posts back to a point 6 ft. behind the middle of the 
line between the posts. Boundaries are agreed upon by the captains. 
Shoes may have indiarubber soles, but must be without spikes. 

The Game. — The object of the game is to send the ball, by means of 
the crosse, through the enemy's goal-posts as many times as possible 
during the two periods of play, precisely as in football and hockey. 
There are twelve players on each side. In every position save that 
of goal there are two men, one of each side, whose duties are to 
" mark " and neutralize each other's efforts. The game is opened by 
the act of " facing," in which the two centres, each with his left 
shoulder towards his opponents' goal, hold their crosses, wood down- 
wards, on the ground, the ball being placed between them. When 
the signal is given the centres draw their crosses sharply inwards in 
order to gain possession of the ball. The ball may be kicked or 
struck with the crosse, as at hockey, but the goal-keeper alone may 
handle it, and then only to block and not to throw it. Although the 
ball may be thrown with the crosse for a long distance — 220 yds. is 
about the limit — long throws are seldom tried, it being generally 
more advantageous for a player to run with the ball resting on the 
crosse, until he can pass it to a member of his side who proceeds with 
the attack, either by running, passing to another, or trying to throw 
the ball through the opponents' goal. The crosse, usually held in 
both hands, is made to retain the ball by an ingenious rocking motion 
only acquired by practice. As there is no " off-side " in Lacrosse, a 



player may pass the ball to the front, side or rear. No charging is 
allowed, but one player may interfere with another by standing 
directly in front of him (" body-check "), though without holding, 
tripping or striking with the crosse. No one may interfere with a 
player who is not in possession of the ball. Fouls are penalized either 
by the suspension of the offender until a goal has been scored or until 
the end of the game; or by allowing the side offended against a 
" free position." When a " free position " is awarded each player 
must stand in the position where he is, excepting the goal-keeper 
who may get back to his goal, and any opponent who may be nearer 
the player getting the ball than 5 yds.; this player must retire to 
that distance from the one who has been given the " free position," 
who then proceeds with the game as he likes when the referee says 
" play." This penalty may not be carried out nearer than 10 yds. 
from the goal. If the ball crosses a boundary the referee calls 
" stand," and all players stop where they are, the ball being then 
" faced " not less than 4 yds. within the boundary line by the two 
nearest players. 

See the official publications of the English Lacrosse Union; and 
Lacrosse by W. C. Schmeisser, in Spalding's " Athletic Library." 
Also Manners, Customs and Condition of the North American Indians, 
by George Catlin. 

LA CRUZ, RAMON DK (1 731-1794), Spanish dramatist, was 
born at Madrid on the 28th of March 1731. He was a clerk in the 
ministry of finance, and is the author of three hundred sainetes, 
little farcical sketches of city life, written to be played between 
the acts of a longer play. He published a selection in ten volumes 
(Madrid, 1786-1791), and died on the 5th of March 1794. The 
best of his pieces, such as Las Tertulias de Madrid, are delightful 
specimens of satiric observation. 

See E. Cotardo y Mori, Don Ramon de la Cruz y sus obras (Madrid, 
1899); C. Cambronero, Sainttes inedites existentes en la Biblioteca 
Municipal de Madrid (Madrid, 1900). 

LACRYMATORY (from Lat. lacrima, a tear), a class of small 
vessels of terra-cotta, or, more frequently, of glass, found in 
Roman and late Greek tombs, and supposed to have been 
bottles into which mourners dropped their tears. They contained 
unguents, and to the use of unguents at funeral ceremonies the 
finding of so many of these vessels in tombs is due. They are 
shaped like a spindle, or a flask with a long small neck and a body 
in the form of a bulb. 

LACTANTIUS FIRMIANUS (c. 260-c. 340), also called Lucius 
Caelius (or Caecilius) Lactantius Firmianus, was a Christian 
writer who from the beauty of his style has been called the 
" Christian Cicero." His history is very obscure. He was born 
of heathen parents in Africa about 260, and became a pupil of 
Arnobius, whom he far excelled in style though his knowledge 
of the Scriptures was equally slight. About 290 he went to 
Nicomedia in Bithynia while Diocletian was emperor, to teach 
rhetoric, but found little work to do in that Greek-speaking 
city. In middle age he became a convert to Christianity, and 
about 306 he went to Gaul (Treves) on the invitation of Constan- 
tine the Great, and became tutor to his eldest son, Crispus. He 
probably died about 340. 

Lactantius' chief work, Divinarum Instilulionum Libri Septent, 
is an " apology " for and an introduction to Christianity, 
written in exquisite Latin, but displaying such ignorance as to 
have incurred the charge of favouring the Arian and Manichaean 
heresies. It seems to have been begun in Nicomedia about 
304 and finished in Gaul before 311. Two long eulogistic 
addresses and most of the brief apostrophes to the emperor are 
from a later hand, which has added some dualistic touches. 
The seven books of the institutions have separate titles given to 
them either by the author or by a later editor. The first, De 
Falsa Religione, and the second, De Origine Erroris, attack the 
polytheism of heathendom, show the unity of the God of creation 
and providence, and try to explain how men have been corrupted 
by demons. The third book, De Falsa Sapientia, describes 
and criticizes the various systems of prevalent philosophy. 
The fourth book, De Vera Sapientia et Religione, insists upon the 
inseparable union of true wisdom and true religion, and maintains 
that this union is made real in the person of Christ. The fifth 
book, De Justitia, maintains that true righteousness is not to be 
found apart from Christianity, and that it springs from piety which 
consists in the knowledge of God. The sixth book, De Vera 
Cultu, describes the true worship of God, which is righteousness, 



56 



LACTIC ACID— LACUZON 



and consists chiefly in the exercise of Christian love towards 
God and man. The seventh book, De Vita Beata, discusses, 
among a variety of subjects, the chief good, immortality, the 
second advent and the resurrection. Jerome states that 
Lactantius wrote an epitome of these Institutions, and such a 
work, which may well be authentic, was discovered in MS. in the 
royal library at Turin in 1711 by C. M. Pfaff. 

Besides the Institutions Lactantius wrote several treatises: 
(1) De Ira Dei, addressed to one Donatus and directed against 
the Epicurean philosophy. (2) De Opificio Dei sive de Formatione 
Hominis, his earliest work, and one which reveals very little 
Christian influence. He exhorts a former pupil, Demetrianus, 
not to be led astray by wealth from virtue; and he demonstrates 
the providence of God from the adaptability and beauty of the 
human body. (3) A celebrated incendiary treatise, De Mortibus 
Persecutorum, which describes God's judgments on the persecutors 
of his church from Nero to Diocletian, and has served as a model 
for numberless writings. De Mort. Persecut. is not in the earlier 
editions of Lactantius; it was discovered and printed by Baluze 
in 1679. Many critics ascribe it to an unknown Lucius Caecilius; 
there are certainly serious differences of grammar, style and 
temper between it and the writings already mentioned. It was 
probably composed in Nicomedia, c. 315. Jerome speaks of 
Lactantius as a poet, and several poems have been attributed 
to him:— De Ave Phoenice (which Harnack thinks makes use of 

1 Clement), De Passione Domini and De Resurrectione (Domini) 
or De Pascha ad Felicem Episcopum. The first of these may 
belong to Lactantius's heathen days^the second is a product of 
the Renaissance (c. 1500), the third was written by Venantius 
Fortunatus in the 6th century. 

Editions: O. F. Fritzsche in E. G. Gersdorf's Bibl. pair. eccl. x., xi. 
(Leipzig, 1842-1844); Migne, Pair. Lat. vi.,vii. ; S. Brandt and G. 
Laubmann in the Vienna Corpus Script. Eccles. Lat. xix., xxvii. 1 and 

2 (1890-93-97). 'Translation: W. Fletcher in Ante-Nicene Fathers, 
vii. Literature: the German histories of early Christian literature, 
by A. Harnack, O. Bardenhewer, A. Ebert, A. Ehrhard, G. Kruger's 
Early Chr. Lit. p. 307 and Hauck-Herzog's Realencyk. vol. xi., give 
guides to the copious literature on the subject. 

LACTIC ACID (hydroxypropionic acid), C 3 H 6 3 . Two lactic 
acids are known, differing from each other in the position 
occupied by the hydroxyl group in the molecule; they are 
known respectively as a-hydroxypropionic acid (fermentation or 
inactivelactic acid) , CH 3 - CH(OH) • C0 2 H, and/3-hydroxypropionic 
acid (hydracrylic acid), (q.v.), CH 2 (OH)-CH 2 -C0 2 H. Although 
on structural grounds there should be only two hydroxypropionic 
acids, as a matter of fact four lactic acids are known. The third 
isomer (sarcolactic acid) is found in meat extract (J. v. Liebig), 
and may be prepared by the action of Penicillium glaucum on 
a solution of ordinary ammonium lactate. It is identical with 
a-hydroxypropionic acid in almost every respect, except with 
regard to its physical properties. The fourth isomer, formed 
by the action of Bacillus laevo-lacti on cane-sugar, resembles 
sarcolactic acid in every respect, except in its action on polarized 
light (see Stereoisomerism). 

Fermentation, or ethylidene lactic acid, was isolated by K. W. Scheele 
(Trans. Stockholm Acad. 1780) from sour milk (Lat. lac,lactis, milk, 
whence the name). About twenty-four years later Bouillon Lag- 
range, and independently A. F. de Fourcroy and L. N. Vauquelin, 
maintained that Scheele's new acid was nothing but impure acetic 
acid. This notion was combated by J. Berzelius, and finally refuted 
(in 1832) by J. v. Liebig and E. Mitscherlich, who, by the elementary 
analyses of lactates, proved the existence of this acid as a distinct 
compound. It may be prepared by the lactic fermentation of 
starches, sugars, gums, &c, the sugar being dissolved in water and 
acidified by a small quantity of tartaric acid and then fermented by 
the addition of sour milk, with a little putrid cheese. Zinc carbonate 
is added to the mixture (to neutralize the acid formed), which is kept 
warm for some days and well stirred. On boiling and filtering the 
product, zinc lactate crystallizes out of the solution. The acid may 
also be synthesized by the decomposition of alanine (a-aminopro- 
pionic acid) by nitrous acid (K. Strecker, Ann., 1850, 75, p. 27); by 
the oxidation of propylene glycol (A. Wurtz) ; by boiling a-chlor- 
propionic acid with caustic alkalis, or with silver oxide and water; by 
the reduction of pyruvic acid with sodium amalgam; or from 
acetaldehyde by the cyanhydrin reaction (J. Wislicenus, Ann., 1863, 
128, p. 13) 

CHs-CHO > CH 3 -CH(OH)-CN J> CH 8 -CH(OH)-COuH. 



It forms a colourless syrup, of specific gravity i'2485 (i5°/4°)i a "d 
decomposes on distillation under ordinary atmospheric pressure; 
but at very low pressures (about 1 mm.) it distils at about 85° C, and 
then sets to a crystalline solid, which melts at about 18° C. It 
possesses the properties both of an acid and of an alcohol. When 
heated with dilute sulphuric acid to 130° C, under pressure, it is 
resolved into formic acid and acetaldehyde. Chromic acid oxidizes 
it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate 
oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture 
of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon 
dioxide. Hydrobromic acid converts it into a-brompropionic acid, 
and hydriodic acid into propionic acid. 

Lactide, O^CO-CHfCHa) ^ >0 ' a cr y stalune soud > of melting-point 
124° C, is one of the products obtained by the distillation of lactic 
acid. 

LACTONES, the cyclic esters of hydroxy acids, resulting from 
the internal elimination of water between the hydroxyl and 
carboxyl groups, this reaction taking place when the hydroxy 
acid is liberated from its salts by a mineral acid. The a and /3- 
hydroxy acids do not form lactones, the tendency for lactone 
formation appearing first with the 7-hydroxy acids, thus 7- 
hydroxybu tyric acid, CH 2 0H -CH 2 -CH 2 -C0 2 H, yields 7-butyro- 

lactone, CH 2 -CH2'CH 2 -CO-0. These compounds may also be 
prepared by the distillation of the 7-halogen fatty acids, or by 
the action of alkaline carbonates on these acids, or from 167- or 
75-unsaturated acids by digestion with hydrobromic acid or 
dilute sulphuric acid. The lactones are mostly liquids which 
are readily soluble in alcohol, ether and water. On boiling 
with water, they are partially reconverted into the hydroxy acids. 
They are easily saponified by the caustic alkalis. 

On the behaviour of lactones with ammonia, see H. Meyer, 
Monatshefte, 1899, 20, p. 717; and with phenylhydrazine and 
hydrazine hydrate, see R. Meyer, Ber., 1893, 26, p. 1273; L. Gatter- 
mann, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 1 133, E. Fischer, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1889. 

■y-Butyrolactone is a liquid which boils at 206 C. It is miscible 
with wat er in all proportions and is volatile in steam, y-valero- 

lactone, CH 3 -CH-CH 2 -CH 2 'CO-0, is a liquid which boilsat 207-208 
C. ^-lactones are also known, and may be prepared by distilling 
the S-chlor acids. 

LA CUEVA, JUAN DE (isso?-i6o9?), Spanish dramatist 
and poet, was born at Seville, and towards 1579 began writing 
for the stage. His plays, fourteen in number, were published 
in 1588, and are the earliest manifestations of the dramatic 
methods developed by Lope de Vega. Abandoning the Senecan 
model hitherto universal in Spain, Cueva took for his themes 
matters of national legend, historic tradition, recent victories 
and the actualities of contemporary life: this amalgam of epical 
and realistic elements, and the introduction of a great variety 
of metres, prepared the way for the Spanish romantic drama 
ofthei7th century. A peculiar interest attaches to El Infamador, 
a play in which the character of Leucino anticipates the classic 
type of Don Juan. As an initiative force, Cueva is a figure 
of great historical importance; his epic poem, La Conquista 
de Betica (1603), shows his weakness as an artist. The last 
work to which his name is attached is the Ejemplar poetico 
(1609), and he is believed to have died shortly after its 
publication. 

See the editions of Saco de Roma and El Infamador, by E. de Ochoa, 
in the Tesoro del teatro espanol (Paris, 1838), vol. i. pp. 251-285; 
and of Ejemplar poetico, by J. J. Lopez de Sedano, in the Parnaso 
espanol, vol. viii. pp. 1-68; also E. Walberg, " Juan de la Cueva et 
son Ejemplar poetico " in the Acta Universitatis Lundensis (Lund, 
1904), vol. xxix. ; " Poemes inedits de Juan de la Cueva (Viaje de 
Sannio,) " edited by F. A. Wulff, in the Acta Universitatis Lundensis 
(Lund, 1886-1887), vol. xxiii. ; F. A. Wulff, " De la rimas de Juan 
de la Cueva, Primera Parte " in the Homenaje a Menendez y Pelayo 
(Madrid, 1899), vol. ii. pp. 143-148. (J. F.-K.) 

LACUNAR, the Latin name in architecture for a panelled 
or coffered ceiling or soffit. The word is derived from lacuna, 
a cavity or hollow, a blank, hiatus or gap. The panels or coffers 
of a ceiling are by Vitruvius called lacunaria. 

LACUZON (O. Fr. la cuzon, disturbance), the name given 
to the Franc-Comtois leader Claude Prost (1607-1681), who 
was born at Longchaumois (department of Jura) on the 17 th 
of June 1607. He gained his first military experience when 
the French invaded Burgundy in 1636, harrying the French 



LACY, COUNT— LADAKH AND BALTISTAN 



57 



troops from the castles of Montaigu and St Laurent-la-Roche, 
and devastating the frontier districts of Bresse and Bugey with 
fire and sword (1640-1642). In the first invasion of Franche- 
Comte by Louis XIV. in 1668 Lacuzon was unable to make any 
effective resistance, but he played an important part in Louis's 
second invasion. In 1673 he defended Salins for some time; 
after the capitulation of the town he took refuge in Italy. He 
died at Milan on the 21st of December 1681. 

LACY, FRANZ MORITZ, Count (1725-1801), Austrian field 
marshal, was born at St Petersburg on the 21st of October 
1725. His father, Peter, Count Lacy, was a distinguished 
Russian soldier, who belonged to an Irish family, and had 
followed the fortunes of the exiled James II. Franz Moritz was 
educated in Germany for a military career, and entered the 
Austrian service. He served in Italy, Bohemia, Silesia and the 
Netherlands during the War of the Austrian Succession, was 
twice wounded, and by the end of the war was a lieut. -colonel. 
At the age of twenty-five he became full colonel and chief of an 
infantry regiment. In 1756 with the opening of the Seven 
Years' War he was again on active service, and in the first 
battle (Lobositz) he distinguished himself so much that he was 
at once promoted major-general. He received his third wound 
on this occasion and his fourth at the battle of Prague in 1757. 
Later in 1757 Lacy bore a conspicuous part in the great victory 
of Breslau, and at Leuthen, where he received his fifth wound, 
he covered the retreat of the defeated army. Soon after this 
began his association with Field-Marshal Daun, the new 
generalissimo of the empress's forces, and these two commanders, 
powerfully assisted later by the genius of Loudon, made head 
against Frederick the Great for the remainder of the war. A 
general staff was created, and Lacy, a lieutenant field-marshal 
at thirty-two, was made chief of staff (quartermaster-general) 
to Daun. That their cautiousness often degenerated into timidity 
may be admitted — Leuthen and many other bitter defeats had 
taught the Austrians to respect their great opponent — but they 
showed at any rate that, having resolved to wear out the enemy 
by Fabian methods, they were strong enough to persist in their 
resolve to the end. Thus for some years the life of Lacy, as of 
Daun and Loudon, is the story of the war against Prussia (see 
Seven Years' War). After Hochkirch (October 15, 1758) 
Lacy received the grand cross of the Maria Theresa order. In 
1759 both Daun and Lacy fell into disfavour for failing to win 
victories, and Lacy owed his promotion to Feldzeugmeister only 
to the fact that Loudon had just received this rank for the 
brilliant conduct of his detachment at Kunersdorf. His responsi- 
bilities told heavily on Lacy in the ensuing campaigns, and his 
capacity for supreme command was doubted even by Daun, 
who refused to give him the command when he himself was 
wounded at the battle of Torgau. 

After the peace of Hubertusburg a new sphere of activity 
was opened, in which Lacy's special gifts had the greatest scope. 
Maria Theresa having placed her son, the emperor Joseph II., 
at the head of Austrian military affairs, Lacy was made a field- 
marshal, and given the task of reforming and administering 
the army (1766). He framed new regulations for each arm, a 
new code of military law, a good supply system. As the result 
of his work the Austrian army was more numerous, far better 
equipped, and cheaper than it had ever been before. Joseph 
soon became very intimate with his military adviser, but this did 
not prevent his mother, after she became estranged from the 
young emperor, from giving Lacy her full confidence. His 
activities were not confined to the army. He was in sympathy 
with Joseph's innovations, and was regarded by Maria Theresa 
as a prime mover in the scheme for the partition of Poland. 
But his self-imposed work broke down Lacy's health, and in 
1773, in spite of the remonstrances of Maria Theresa and of the 
emperor, he laid down all his offices and went to southern France. 
On returning he was still unable to resume office, though as 
an unofficial adviser in political and military matters he was 
far from idle. In the brief and uneventful War of the Bavarian 
Succession, Lacy and Loudon were the chief Austrian commanders 
against the king of Prussia, and when Joseph II. at Maria 



Theresa's death, became the sovereign of the Austrian dominions 
as well as emperor, Lacy remained his most trusted friend. 
More serious than the War of the Bavarian Succession was the 
Turkish war which presently broke out. Lacy was now old and 
worn out, and his tenure of command therein was not marked 
by any greater measure of success than in the case of the other 
Austrian generals. His active career was at an end, although 
he continued his effective interest in the affairs of the state 
and the army throughout the reign of Joseph's successor, 
Leopold I. His last years were spent in retirement at his 
castle of Neuwaldegg near Vienna. He died at Vienna on the 
24th of November 1801. 

See memoir by A. v. Arneth in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie 
(Leipzig, 1883). 

LACY, HARRIETTE DEBORAH (1807-1874), English actress, 
was born in London, the daughter of a tradesman named Taylor. 
Her first appearance on the stage was at Bath in 1827 as Julia 
in The Rivals, and she was immediately given leading parts 
there in both comedy and tragedy. Her first London appearance 
was in 1830 as Nina, in Dimond's Carnival of Naples. Her 
Rosalind, Aspatia (to Macready's Melantius) in The Bridal, and 
Lady Teazle to the Charles Surface of Walter Lacy (1 809-1 898) — 
to whom she was married in 1839 — confirmed her position and 
popularity. She was the original Helen in The Hunchback 
(1832), and also created Nell Gwynne in Jerrold's play of that 
name, and the heroine in his Housekeeper. She was considered 
the first Ophelia of her day. She retired in 1848. 

LACY, MICHAEL ROPHINO (1795-1867), Irish musician, 
son of a merchant, was born at Bilbao and appeared there in 
public as a violinist in 1801. He was sent to study in Paris 
under Kreutzer, and soon began a successful career, being known 
as " Le Petit Espagnol." He played in London for some years 
after 1805, and then became an actor, but in 1818 resumed the 
musical profession, and in 1820 became leader of the ballet at 
the King's theatre, London. He composed or adapted from 
other composers a number of operas and an oratorio, The 
Israelites in Egypt. He died in London on the 20th of 
September 1867. 

LACYDES OF CYRENE, Greek philosopher, was head of the 
Academy at Athens in succession to Arcesilaus about 241 B.C. 
Though some regard him as the founder of the New Academy, 
the testimony of antiquity is that he adhered in general to the 
theory of Arcesilaus, and, therefore, that he belonged to the 
Middle Academy. He lectured in a garden called the Lacydeum, 
which was presented to him by Attalus I. of Pergamum, and for 
twenty-six years maintained the traditions of the Academy. 
He is said to have written treatises, but nothing survives. 
Before his death he voluntarily resigned his position to his pupils, 
Euander and Telecles. Apart from a number of anecdotes 
distinguished rather for sarcastic humour than for probability, 
Lacydes exists for us as a man of refined character, a hard worker 
and an accomplished orator. According to Athenaeus (x. 438) 
and Diogenes Laertius (iv. 60) he died from excessive drinking, 
but the story is discredited by the eulogy of Eusebius (Praep. 
Ev. xiv. 7), that he was in all things moderate. 

See Cicero, Acad. ii. 6; and Aelian, V.H.' ii. 41; also articles 
Academy, Arcesilaus, Carneades. 

LADAKH AND BALTISTAN, a province of Kashmir, India. 
The name Ladak, commonly but less correctly spelt Ladakh, 
and sometimes Ladag, belongs primarily to the broad valley of 
the upper Indus in West Tibet, but includes several surrounding 
districts in political connexion with it; the present limits are 
between 75 40' and 8o° 30' E., and between 32° 25' and 36 N. 
It is bounded N. by the Kuenlun range and the slopes of the 
Karakoram, N.W. and W. by the dependency of Baltistan or 
Little Tibet, S. W. by Kashmir proper, S. by British Himalayan 
territory, and E. by the Tibetan provinces of Ngari and Rudok. 
The whole region lies very high, the valleys of Rupshu in the 
south-east being 15,000 ft., and the Indus neat Leh 11,000 ft., 
while the average height of the surrounding ranges is 19,000 ft. 
The proportion of arable and even possible pasture land to barren 
rock and gravel is very small. Pop., including Baltistan (1901) 



58 



LADAKH AND BALTISTAN 



165,992, of whom 30,2i6inLadakh proper are Buddhists, whereas 
the Baltis have adopted the Shiah form of Islam. 

The natural features of the country may be best explained by 
reference to two native terms, under one or other of which every 
part is included; viz. changtang, i.e. " northern, or high plain," 
where the amount of level ground is considerable, and rong, 
i.e. " deep valley," where the contrary condition prevails. 
The former predominates in the east, diminishing gradually 
westwards. There, although the vast alluvial deposits which 
once filled the valley to a remarkably uniform height of about 
15,000 ft. have left their traces on the mountain sides, they have 
undergone immense denudation, and their debris now forms 
secondary deposits, flat bottoms or shelving slopes, the only 
spots available for cultivation or pasture. These masses of 
alluvium are often either metamorphosed to a subcrystalline 
rock still showing the composition of the strata, or simply con- 
solidated by lime. 

Grand scenery is exceptional, for the valleys are confined, 
and from the higher points the view is generally of a confused 
mass of brown or yellow hills, absolutely barren, and of no great 
apparent height. The parallelism characteristic of the Himalayan 
ranges continues here, the direction being north-west and south- 
east. A central range divides the Indus valley, here 4 to 8 m. 
wide, from that of its north branch the Shyok, which with its 
fertile tributary valley of Nubra is again bounded on the north 
by the Karakorajn. This central ridge is mostly syenitic gneiss, 
and north-east from it are found, successively, Silurian slates, 
Carboniferous shales and Triassic limestones, the gneiss recurring 
at the Turkestan frontier. The Indus lies along the line which 
separates the crystalline rocks from the Eocene sandstones and 
shales of the lower range of hills on the left bank, the lofty 
mountains behind them consisting of parallel bands of rocks 
from Silurian to Cretaceous. 

Several lakes in the east districts at about 14,000 ft. have been 
of much greater extent, and connected with the river systems of 
the country, but they are now mostly without outlet, saline, 
and in process of desiccation. 

Leh is the capital of Ladakh, and the road to Leh from Srinagar 
lies up the lovely Sind valley to the sources of the river at the 
Zoji La Pass (11,300 ft.) in the Zaskar range. This is the range 
which, skirting the southern edge of the upland plains of Deosai 
in Baltistan, divides them from the valley of Kashmir, and then 
continues to Nanga Parbat (26,620 ft.) and beyond that mountain 
stretches to the north of Swat and Bajour. To the south-east it 
is an unbroken chain till it merges into the line of snowy peaks 
seen from Simla and the plains of India — the range which reaches 
past Chini to the famous peaks of Gangotri, Nandadevi and 
Nampa. It is the most central and conspicuous range in the 
Himalaya. The Zoji La, which curves from the head of the Sind 
valley on to the bleak uplands of Dras (where lies the road to the 
trough of the Indus and Leh), is, in spite of its altitude, a pass 
on which little snow lies; but for local accumulations, it would 
be open all the year round. It affords a typical instance of that 
cutting-back process by which a river-head may erode a channel 
through a watershed into the plateau behind, there being no steep 
fall towards the Indus on the northern side of the range. From 
the Zoji La the road continues by easy gradients, following the 
line of the Dras drainage, to the Indus, when it turns up the 
valley to Leh. From Leh there are many routes into Tibet, 
the best known being that from the Indus valley to the Tibetan 
plateau, by the Chang La, to Lake Pangkong and Rudok (14,000 
ft.). Rudok occupies a forward position on the western Tibetan 
border analogous to that of Leh in Kashmir. The chief trade 
route to Lhasa from Leh, however, follows the line offered by 
the valleys of the Indus and the Brahmaputra (or Tsanpo), 
crossing the divide between these rivers north of Lake Mana- 
sarowar. 

The observatory at Leh is the most elevated observatory 
in Asia. " The- atmosphere of the Indus valley is remarkably 
clear and transparent, and the heat of the sun is very great. 
There is generally a difference of more than 6o° between the read- 
ing of the exposed sun thermometer in vacuo and the air tempera- 



ture in the shade, and this difference has occasionally exceeded 
90° .... The mean annual temperature at Leh is 40°, that of 
the coldest months (January and February) only 18 and 19 , 
but it rises rapidly from February to July, in which month it 
reaches 62° with a mean diurnal maximum of 80° both in that 
month and August, and an average difference of 29° or 30 
between the early morning and afternoon. The mean highest 
temperature of the year is 90°, varying between 84 and 93 
in the twelve years previous to 1893. On the other hand, in 
the winter the minimum thermometer falls occasionally below 
o°, and in 1878 reached as low as 17° below zero. The extreme 
range of recorded temperature is therefore not less than no°. 
The air is as dry as-Quetta, and rather more uniformly so. . . . 
The amount of rain and snow is insignificant. The average 
rain (and snow) fall is only 2-7 in. in the year." 1 The winds are 
generally light, and depend on the local direction of the valleys. 
At Leh, which stands at the entrance of the valley leading to 
the Kardang Pass, the most common directions are between 
south and west in the daytime and summer, and from north- 
east in the night, especially in the later months of the year. 
In January and February the air is generally calm, and April 
and May are the most windy months of the year. 

Vegetation is confined to valleys and sheltered spots, where a 
stunted growth of tamarisk and Myricaria, Hippophae and Elaeagnus, 
furze, and the roots of burtsi, a salsolaceous plant, supply the traveller 
with much-needed firewood. The trees are the pencil cedar (Juniperus 
excelsa), the poplar and willow (both extensively planted, the latter 
sometimes wild), apple, mulberry, apricot and walnut. Irrigation is 
skilfully managed, the principal products being wheat, a beardless 
variety of barley called grim, millet, buckwheat, pease, beans and 
turnips. Lucerne and prangos (an umbelliferous plant) are used as 
fodder. 

Among domestic animals are the famous shawl goat, two kinds of 
sheep, of which the larger (huniya) is used for carrying burdens, and 
is a principal source of wealth, the yak and the dso, a valuable 
hybrid between the yak and common cow Among wild animals are 
the kiang' or wild ass, ibex, several kinds of wild sheep, antelope 
(Pantholops), marmot, hare and other Tibetan fauna. 

The present value of the trade between British India and Tibet 
passing through Ladakh is inconsiderable Ladakh, however, is im- 
proving in its trade prospects apart from Tibet. It is curious that 
both Ladakh and Tibet import a considerable amount of treasure, 
for on the borders of western Tibet and within a radius of 100 
or 200 m. of Leh there centres a gold-mining industry which 
apparently only requires scientific development to render it enorm- 
ously productive. Here the surface soil has been for many centuries 
washed for gold by bands of Tibetan miners, who never work deeper 
than 20 to 50 ft., and whose methods of washing are of the crudest 
description. They work in winter, chiefly because of the binding 
power of frost on the friable soil, suffering great hardships and ob- 
taining but a poor return for their labour. But the remoteness of 
Ladakh and its extreme altitude still continue to bar the way to 
substantial progress, though its central position naturally entitles 
it to be a great trade mart. 

The adjoining territory of Baltistan forms the west extremity of 
Tibet, whose natural limits here are the Indus from its abrupt south- 
ward bend in 74 45' E., and the mountains to the north and west, 
separating a comparatively peaceful Tibetan population from the 
fiercer Aryan tribes beyond. Mahommedan writers about the 16th 
century speak of Baltistan as " Little Tibet," and of Ladakh as 
" Great Tibet," thus ignoring the really Great Tibet altogether. 
The Balti call Gilgit " a Tibet," and DrLeitner says that the Chilasi 
call themselves Bot or Tibetans; but, although these districts may 
have been overrun by the Tibetans, or have received rulers of that 
race, the ethnological frontier coincides with the geographical one 
given. Baltistan is a mass of lofty mountains, the prevailing forma- 
tion being gneiss. In the north is the Baltoro glacier, the largest out 
of the arctic regions, 35 m. long, contained between two ridges whose 
highest peaks to the south are 25,000 and to the north 28,265 ft. 
The Indus, as in Lower Ladakh, runs in a narrow gorge, widening for 
nearly 20 m. after receiving the Shyok. The capital, Skardu, a scattered 
collection of houses, stands here, perched on a rock 7250 ft. above the 
sea. The house roofs are flat, occupied only in part hy a second 
story, the remaining space being devoted to drying apricots, the 
chief staple of the main valley, which supports little cultivation. 
But the rapid slope westwards is seen generally in the vegetation. 
Birch, plane, spruce and Pinus excelsa appear; the fruits are finer, 
including pomegranate, pear, peach, vine and melon, and where 
irrigation is available, as in the North Shigar, and at the deltas of the 
tributary valleys, the crops are more luxuriant and varied. 

History. — The earliest notice of Ladakh is by the Chinese 
pilgrim Fa-hien, a.d. 400, who, travelling in search of a purer 
1 H. F. Blandford, Climate and Weather of India (London, 1889). 



LADD— LADISLAUS IV. 



59 



faith, found Buddhism flourishing there, the only novelty to 
him being the prayer-cylinder, the efficacy of which he declares 
is incredible. Ladakh formed part of the Tibetan empire until 
its disruption in the 10th century, and since then has continued 
ecclesiastically' subject, and sometimes tributary, to Lhasa. 
Its inaccessibility saved it from any Mussulman invasion until 
1 53 1, when Sultan Said of Kashgar marched an army across 
the Karakoram, one division fighting its way into Kashmir 
and wintering there. Next year they invaded eastern Tibet, 
where nearly all perished from the effects of the climate. 

Early in the 17th century Ladakh was invaded by its Mahom- 
medan neighbours of Baltistan, who plundered and destroyed the 
temples and monasteries; and again, in 1685-1688, by the Sokpa, 
who were expelled only by the aid of the lieutenant of Aurangzeb 
in Kashmir, Ladakh thereafter becoming tributary. The gyalpo 
or king then made a nominal profession of Islam, and allowed 
a mosque to be founded at Leh, and the Kashmiris have ever 
since addressed his successors by a Mahommedan title. When 
the Sikhs took Kashmir, Ladakh, dreading their approach, offered 
allegiance to Great Britain. It was, however, conquered and 
annexed in 1834-1841 by Gulab Singh of Jammu — the unwar- 
like Ladakhis, even with nature fighting on their side, and against 
indifferent generalship, being no match for the Dogra troops. 
These next turned their arms successfully against the Baltis 
(who in the 18th century were subject to the Mogul), and were 
then tempted to revive the claims of Ladakh to the Chinese 
provinces of Rudok and Ngari. This, however, brought down 
an army from Lhasa, and after a three days' fight the Indian 
force was almost annihilated — chiefly indeed by frostbite and 
other sufferings, for the battle was fought in mid- winter, 15,000 
ft. above the sea. The Chinese then marched on Leh, but were 
soon driven out again, and peace was finally made on the basis 
of the old frontier. The widespread prestige of China is illustrated 
by the fact that tribute, though disguised as a present, is paid 
to her, for Ladakh, by the maharaja of Kashmir. 

The principal works to be consulted are F. Drew, The Jummoo and 
Kashmir Territories; Cunningham, Ladak; Major J. Biddulph, The 
Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh; Ramsay, Western Tibet; Godwin- 
Austen, " The Mountain Systems of the Himalaya," vol. vi., Proc. 
R.G.S. (1884); W. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir (1895); H. F. 
Blandford, The Climate and Weather of India (1889). (T. H. H.*) 

LADD, GEORGE TRUMBULL (1842- ), American philos- 

opher, was born in Painesville, Lake county, Ohio, on the 
19th of January 1842. He graduated at Western Reserve 
College in 1864 and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1869; 
preached in Edinburg, Ohio, in 1869-1871, and in the Spring 
Street Congregational Church of Milwaukee in 1871-1879; 
and was professor of philosophy at Bowdoin College in 1879- 
1 88 1 , and Clark professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy 
at Yale from 1881 till 1901, when he took charge of the graduate 
department of philosophy and psychology; he became professor 
emeritus in 1905. In 1879-1882 he lectured on theology at 
Andover Theological Seminary, and in 1883 at Harvard, where 
in 1895-1896 he conducted a graduate seminary in ethics. He 
lectured in Japan in 1892, 1899 (when he also visited the uni- 
versities of India) and 1906-1907. He was much influenced by 
Lotze, whose Outlines of Philosophy he translated (6 vols., 1877), 
and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of experi- 
mental psychology into America, the Yale psychological 
laboratory being founded by him. 

Publications. — The Principles of Church Polity (1882); The 
Doctrine of Sacred Scripture (1884) ;What is the Bible? (1888); Essays 
on the Higher Education (1899), defending the " old " (Yale) system 
against the Harvard or " new " education, as praised by George H. 
Palmer; Elements of Physiological Psychology (1889, rewritten as Out- 
lines of Physiological Psychology, in 1890) ; Primer of Psychology 
(1894) : Psychology, Descriptive and Explanatory (1894); and Outlines 
of Descriptive Psychology (1898); in a "system of philosophy," 
Philosophy of the Mind (1891); Philosophy of Knowledge (1897); A 
Theory of Reality (1 899) ; Philosophy of Conduct (1902) ; and Philosophy 
of Religion (2 vols., 1905); In Korea with Marquis Ito (1908); and 
Knowledge, Life and Reality (1909). 

LADDER, (O. Eng. klaeder; of Teutonic origin, cf. Dutch leer, 
Ger. Leiter; the ultimate origin is in the root seen in " lean," 
Gr. /cXt^a£), a set of steps or " rungs " between two supports 



to enable one to get up and down; usually made of wood and 
sometimes of metal or rope. Ladders are generally movable, 
and differ from a staircase also in having only treads and no 
" risers." The term " Jacob's ladder," taken from the dream 
of Jacob in the Bible, is applied to a rope ladder with wooden 
steps used at sea to go aloft, and to a common garden plant of 
the genus Polemonium on account of the ladder-like formation 
of the leaves. The flower known in England as Solomon's 
seal is in some countries called the " ladder of heaven." 

LADING (from " to lade," 0. Eng. hladan, to put cargo on 
board; cf. " load "), BILL OF, the document given as receipt 
by the master of a merchant vessel to the consignor of goods, 
as a guarantee for their safe delivery to the consignee. (See 
Affreightment.) 

LADISLAUS [I.], Saint (1040-1095), king of Hungary, the 
son of Bela I-., king of Hungary, and the Polish princess Richeza, 
was born in Poland, whither his father had sought refuge, 
but was recalled by his elder brother Andrew I. to Hungary 
(1047) and brought up there. He succeeded to the throne 
on the death of his uncle Geza in 1077, as the eldest member of 
the royal family, and speedily won for himself a reputation 
scarcely inferior to that of Stephen I., by nationalizing Christianity 
and laying the foundations of Hungary's political greatness. 
Instinctively recognizing that Germany was the natural enemy 
of the Magyars, Ladislaus formed a close alliance with the pope 
and all the other enemies of the emperor Henry IV., including the 
anti-emperor Rudolph of Swabia and his chief supporter Welf, 
duke of Bavaria, whose daughter Adelaide he married. She 
bore him one son and three daughters, one of whom, Piriska, 
married the Byzantine emperor John Comnenus. The collapse 
of the German emperor in his struggle with the pope left Ladislaus 
free to extend his dominions towards the south, and colonize 
and Christianize the wildernesses of Transylvania and the lower 
Danube. Hungary was still semi-savage, and her native barba- 
rians were being perpetually recruited from the hordes of Peche- 
negs, Rumanians and other races which swept over her during 
the nth century. Ladislaus himself had fought valiantly in 
his youth against the Pechenegs, and to defend the land against 
the Rumanians, who now occupied Moldavia and Wallachia 
as far as the Alt, he built the fortresses of Turnu-Severin and 
Gyula Fehervar. He also planted in Transylvania the Szeklers, 
the supposed remnant of the ancient Magyars from beyond the 
Dnieper, and founded the bishoprics of Nagy-Varad, or Gross- 
Wardein, and of Agram, as fresh foci of Catholicism in south 
Hungary and the hitherto uncultivated districts between the 
Drave and the Save. He subsequently conquered Croatia, 
though here his authority was questioned by the pope, the 
Venetian republic and the Greek emperor. Ladislaus died 
suddenly in 1095 when about to take part in the first Crusade. 
No other Hungarian king was so generally beloved. The whole 
nation mourned for him for three years, and regarded him as a 
saint long before his canonization. A whole cycle of legends 
is associated with his name. 

See J. Babik, Life of St Ladislaus (Hung.) (Eger, 1892); Gyorgy 
Pray, Dissertatio de St Ladislao (Pressburg, 1774); Antal Ganoczy, 
Diss. hist. crit. de St Ladislao (Vienna, 1775). ^4 (R. N. B.) 

LADISLAUS IV., The Rumanian (1262-1290), king of Hungary, 
was the son of Stephen V., whom he succeeded in 1272. From 
his tenth year, when he was kidnapped from his father's court 
by the rebellious vassals, till his assassination eighteen years 
later, his whole life, with one bright interval of military glory 
was unrelieved tragedy. His minority, 1272-1277, was an 
alternation of palace revolutions and civil wars, in the course 
of which his brave Rumanian mother Elizabeth barely contrived 
to keep the upper hand. In this terrible school Ladislaus matured 
precociously. At fifteen he was a man, resolute, spirited, enter- 
prising, with the germs of many talents and virtues, but rough, 
reckless and very imperfectly educated. He was married 
betimes to Elizabeth of Anjou, who had been brought up at the 
Hungarian court. The marriage was a purely political one, 
arranged by his father and a section of the Hungarian magnates 
to counterpoise hostile German and Czech influences. During 



6o 



LADISLAUS V.— LADO ENCLAVE 



the earlier part of his reign, Ladislaus obsequiously followed the 
direction of the Neapolitan court in foreign affairs. In Hungary 
itself a large party was in favour of the Germans, but the civil 
wars which raged between the two factions from 1276 to 1278 
did not prevent Ladislaus, at the head of 20,000 Magyars and 
Rumanians, from co-operating with Rudolph of Habsburg in the 
great battle of Durnkriit (August 26th, 1278), which destroyed, 
once for all, the empire of the Pfemyslidae. A month later 
a papal legate arrived in Hungary to inquire into the conduct 
of the king, who was accused by his neighbours, and many of 
his own subjects, of adopting the ways of his Rumanian kinsfolk 
and thereby undermining Christianity. Ladislaus was not really 
a pagan, or he would not have devoted his share of the spoil of 
Durnkriit to the building of the Franciscan church at Pressburg, 
nor would he have venerated as he did his aunt St Margaret. 
Political enmity was largely responsible for the movement against 
him, yet the result of a very careful investigation (1279-1281) 
by Philip, bishop of Fermo, more than justified many of the 
accusations brought against Ladislaus. He clearly preferred 
the society of the semi-heathen Rumanians to that of the 
Christians; wore, and made his court wear, Rumanian dress; 
surrounded himself with Rumanian concubines, and neglected 
and ill-used his ill-favoured Neapolitan consort. He was finally 
compelled to take up arms against his Rumanian friends, whom 
he routed at Hodmezo (May 1282) with fearful loss; but, 
previously to this, he had arrested the legate, whom he subse- 
quently attempted to starve into submission, and his conduct 
generally was regarded as so unsatisfactory that, after repeated 
warnings, the Holy See resolved to supersede him by his Angevin 
kinsfolk, whom he had also alienated, and on the 8th of August 
1288 Pope Nicholas IV. proclaimed a crusade against him. For 
the next two years all Hungary was convulsed by a horrible civil 
war, during which the unhappy young king, who fought for his 
heritage to the last with desperate valour, was driven from one 
end of his kingdom to the other like a hunted beast. On the 
25th of December 1289 he issued a manifesto to the lesser gentry, 
a large portion of whom sided with him, urging them to continue 
the struggle against the magnates and their foreign supporters; 
but on the 10th of July 1290 he was murdered in his camp 
at Rorosszeg by the Rumanians, who never forgave him for 
deserting them. 

See Karoly Szab6, Ladislaus the Cumanian (Hung.), (Budapest, 
1886) ; and Acsady, History of the Hungarian Realm, i. 2 (Budapest, 
1903). The latter is, however, too favourable to Ladislaus. 

(R. N. B.) 

LADISLAUS V. (1440-1457), king of Hungary and Bohemia, 
the only son of Albert, king of Hungary, and Elizabeth, daughter 
of the emperor Sigismund, was born at Romarom on the 22nd 
of February 1440, four months after his father's death, and was 
hence called Ladislaus Posthumus. The estates of Hungary 
had already elected Wladislaus III. of Poland their king, but 
Ladislaus's mother caused the holy crown to be stolen from its 
guardians at Visegrad, and compelled the primate to crown the 
infant king at Szekesfejervar on the 15th of May 1440; where- 
upon, for safety's sake, she placed the child beneath the guardian- 
ship of his uncle the emperor Frederick III. On the death of 
Wladislaus III. (Nov. 10th, 1444), Ladislaus V. was elected 
king by the Hungarian estates, though not without considerable 
opposition, and a deputation was sent to Vienna to induce the 
emperor to surrender the child and the holy crown; but it was 
not till 1452 that Frederick was compelled to relinquish both. 
The child was then transferred to the pernicious guardianship 
of his maternal grandfather Ulrich Cillei, who corrupted him 
soul and body and inspired him with a jealous hatred of the 
Hunyadis. On the 28th of October 1453 he was crowned king 
of Bohemia, and henceforth spent most of his time at Prague 
and Vienna. He remained supinely indifferent to the Turkish 
peril; at the instigation of Cillei did his best to hinder the 
defensive preparations of the great Hunyadi, and fled from the 
country on the tidings of the siege of Belgrade. On the death 
of Hunyadi he made Cillei governor of Hungary at the diet of 
Futtak (October 1456), and when that traitor paid with his life 



for his murderous attempt on Laszlo Hunyadi at Belgrade, 
Ladislaus procured the decapitation of young Hunyadi (16th of 
March 1457), after a mock trial which raised such a storm in 
Hungary that the king fled to Prague, where he died suddenly 
(Nov. 23rd, 1457), while making preparations for his marriage 
with Magdalena, daughter of Charles VII. of France. He is 
supposed to have been poisoned by his political opponents in 
Bohemia. 

See F. Palacky, Zeugenverhdr ilber den Tod Konig Ladislaus von 
Ungarn u. Bbhmen (Prague, 1856); Ignacz Acsady, History of the 
Hungarian State (Hung.), vol. i. (Budapest, 1903). 

LA DIXMERIE, NICOLAS BRICAIRE DE (c. 1 730-1 791), 
French man of letters, was born at Lamothe (Haute-Marne). 
While still young he removed to Paris, where the rest of his 
life was spent in literary activity. He died on the 26th of 
November 1791. His numerous works include Contes philo- 
sophiques et moraux (1765), Les Deux Ages du gout et du genie 
sous Louis XI V. et sj)us Louis X V. (1 769) , a parallel and contrast, 
in which the decision is given in favour of the latter; L'Espagne 
litteraire (1774); Eloge de Voltaire (1779) and Eloge de Montaigne 
(1781). 

LADO ENCLAVE, a region of the upper Nile formerly ad- 
ministered by the Congo Free State, but since 19 10 a province 
of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. It has an area of about 15,000 
sq. m., and a population estimated at 250,000 and consisting 
of Bari, Madi, Ruku and other Nilotic Negroes. The enclave is 
bounded S.E. by the north-west shores of Albert Nyanza — as 
far south as the port of Mahagi — E. by the western bank of the 
Nile (Bahr-el-Jebel) to the point where the river is intersected 
by 5° 30' N., which parallel forms its northern frontier from the 
Nile westward to 30 E. This meridian forms the west frontier 
to 4° N., the frontier thence being the Nile-Congo watershed to 
the point nearest to Mahagi and from that point direct to Albert 
Nyanza. 

The country is a moderately elevated plateau sloping north- 
ward from the higher ground marking the Congo-Nile watershed. 
The plains are mostly covered with bush, with stretches of forest 
in the northern districts. Traversing the plateau are two 
parallel mountainous chains having a general north to south 
direction. One chain, the Ruku Mountains (average height 
2000 ft.), approaches close to the Nile and presents, as seen from 
the river, several apparently isolated peaks. At other places 
these mountains form precipices which stretch in a continuous 
line like a huge wall. From Dufile in 3 34' N. to below the 
Bedden Rapids in 4 40' N. the bed of the Nile is much obstructed 
and the river throughout this reach is unnavigable (see Nile) . 
Below the Bedden Rapids rises the conical hill of Rejaf, and 
north of that point the Nile valley becomes flat. Ranges of hill, 
however, are visible farther westwards, and a little north of 5° N. 
is Jebel Lado, a conspicuous mountain 2500 ft. high and some 
12 m. distant from the Nile. It has given its name to the district, 
being the first hill seen from the Nile in the ascent of some 
1000 m. from Rhartum. On the river at Rejaf, at Lado, and at 
Riro, 28 m. N. of Lado, are government stations and trading 
establishments. The western chain of hills has loftier peaks 
than those of Ruku, Jebel Loka being about 3000 ft. high. 
This western chain forms a secondary watershed separating 
the basin of the Yei, a large river, some 400 m. in length, which 
runs almost due north to join the Nile, from the other streams 
of the enclave, which have an easterly or north-easterly direction 
and join the Nile, after comparatively short courses. 

The northern part of the district was first visited by Europeans 
in 1841-1842, when the Nile was ascended by an expedition 
despatched by Mehemet Ali to the foot of the rapids at Bedden. 
The neighbouring posts of Gondokoro, on the east bank of the 
Nile, and Lado, soon became stations of the Rhartum ivory 
and slave traders. After the discovery of Albert Nyanza by 
Sir Samuel Baker in 1864, the whole country was overrun by 
Arabs, Levantines, Turks and others, whose chief occupation was 
slave raiding. The region was claimed as part of the Egyptian 
Sudan, but it was not until the arrival of Sir Samuel Baker at 
Gondokoro in 1870 as governor of the equatorial provinces, 



LADOGA— LADY 



61 



that any effective control of the slave traders was attempted. 
Baker was succeeded by General C. G. Gordon, who established 
a separate administration for the Bahr-el-Ghazal. In 1878 
Emin Pasha became governor of the Equatorial Province, a 
term henceforth confined to the region adjoining the main 
Nile above the Sobat confluence, and the region south of the 
Bahr-el-Ghazal province. (The whole of the Lado Enclave 
thus formed part of Emin's old province.) Emin made his 
headquarters at Lado, whence he was driven in 1885 by the 
Mahdists. He then removed to Wadelai, a station farther south, 
but in 1889 the pasha, to whose aid H. M. Stanley had conducted 
an expedition from the Congo, evacuated the country and with 
Stanley made his way to the east coast. While the Mahdists 
remained in possession at Rejaf, Great Britain in virtue of her 
position in Uganda claimed the upper Nile region as within the 
British sphere; a claim admitted by Germany in 1890. In 
February 1894 the union jack was hoisted at Wadelai, while in 
May of the same year Great Britain granted to Leopold II., as 
sovereign of the Congo State, a lease of large areas lying west of 
the upper Nile inclusive of the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Fashoda. 
Pressed however by France, Leopold II. agreed to occupy only 
that part of the leased area east of 30° E. and south of 5° 30' N., 
and in this manner the actual limits of the Lado Enclave, as it 
was thereafter called, were fixed. Congo State forces had 
penetrated to the Nile valley as early as 1891, but it was not 
until 1897, when on the 17th of February Commandant Chaltin 
inflicted a decisive defeat on the Mahdists at Rejaf, that their 
occupation of the Lado Enclave was assured. After the with- 
drawal of the French from Fashoda, Leopold II. revived (1899) 
his claim to the whole of the area, leased to him in 1894. In 
this claim he was unsuccessful, and the lease, by a new agreement 
made with Great Britain in 1906, was annulled (see Africa, § 5). 
The king however retained the enclave, with the stipulation 
that six months after the termination of his reign it should be 
handed over to the Anglo-Sudanese government (see Treaty 
Series, No. 4, 1906). 

See Le Mouvement geographique (Brussels) passim, and especially 
articles in the 1910 issues. 

LADOGA (formerly Nevo), a lake of northern Russia, between 
59 56' and 61° 46' N., and 29 53' and 32 50' E., surrounded 
by the governments of St Petersburg and Olonets, and of Viborg 
in Finland. It has the form of a quadrilateral, elongated from 
N.W. to S.E. Its eastern and southern shores are flat and 
marshy, the north-western craggy and fringed by numerous 
small rocky islands, the largest of which are Valamo and Konne- 
vitz, together having an area of 14 sq. m. Ladoga is 7000 sq. m. 
in area, that is, thirty-one times as large as the Lake of Geneva; 
but, its depth being less, it contains only nineteen times as much 
water as the Swiss lake. The greatest depth, 730 ft., is in a 
trough in the north-western part, the average depth not exceeding 
250 to 350 ft. The level of Lake Ladoga is 55 ft. above the 
Gulf of Finland, but it rises and falls about 7 ft., according to 
atmospheric conditions, a phenomenon very similar to the 
seiches of the Lake of Geneva being observed in connexion with 
this. 

The western and eastern shores consist of boulder clay, as well as a 
narrow strip on the southern shore, south of which runs a ridge of 
crags of Silurian sandstones. The hills of the north-western shore 
afford a variety of granites and crystalline slates of the Laurentian 
system, whilst Valamo island is made up of a rock which Russian 
geologists describe as orthoclastic hypersthenite. The granite and 
marble of Serdobol, and the sandstone of Putilovo, are much used 
for buildings at St Petersburg; copper and tin from the Pitkaranta 
mine are exported. 

No fewer than seventy rivers enter Ladoga, pouring into it the 
waters of numberless smaller lakes which lie at higher levels round it. 
The Volkhov, which conveys the waters of Lake Ilmen, is the largest; 
Lake Onega discharges its waters by the Svir; and the Saima 
system of lakes of eastern Finland contributes the Vuoxen and 
Taipale rivers; the Syas brings the waters from the smaller lakes 
and marshes of the Valdai plateau. Ladoga discharges its surplus 
water by means of the Neva, which flows from its south-western 
corner into the Gulf of Finland, rolling down its broad channel 
104,000 cubic ft. of water per second. 

The water of Ladoga is very pure and cold; in May the surface 
temperature does not exceed 36 Fahr., and even in August it reaches 



only 50 and 53 , the average yearly temperature of the air at 
Valamo being 36-8°. The lake begins to freeze in October, but it is 
only about the end of December that it is frozen in its deeper parts ; 
and it remains ice-bound until the end of March, though broad ice- 
fields continue to float in the middle of the lake until broken up by 
gales. Only a small part of the Ladoga ice is discharged by the Neva ; 
but it is enough to produce in the middle of June a return of cold 
in the northern capital. The thickness of the ice does not exceed 
3 or 4 ft.; but during the alternations of cold and warm weather, 
with strong gales, in winter, stacks of ice, 70 and 80 ft. high, are 
raised on the shores and on the icefields. The water is in continuous 
rotatory motion, being carried along the western shore from north 
to south, and along the eastern from south to north. The vegetation 
on the shores is poor; immense forests, which formerly covered them, 
are now mostly destroyed. But the fauna of the lake is somewhat 
rich ; a species of seal which inhabits its waters, as well as several 
species of arctic crustaceans, recall its former connexion with the 
Arctic Ocean. The sweet water Diatomaceae which are found in 
great variety in the ooze of the deepest parts of the lake also have an 
arctic character. 

Fishing is very extensively carried on. Navigation, which is 
practicable for only one hundred and eighty days in the year, is rather 
difficult owing to fogs and gales, which are often accompanied, even 
in April and September, with snow-storms. The prevailing winds 
blow from N.W. and S.W. ; N.E. winds cause the water to rise in the 
south-western part, sometimes 3 to 5 ft. Steamers ply regularly in 
two directions from St Petersburg — to the monasteries of Konnevitz 
and Valamo, and to the mouth of the Svir, whence they go up that 
river to Lake Onega and Petrozavodsk; and small vessels transport 
timber, firewood, planks, iron, kaolin, granite, marble, fish, hay and 
various small wares from the northern shore to Schliisselburg, and 
thence to St Petersburg. Navigation on the lake being too danger- 
ous for small craft, canals with an aggregate length of 104 m. were 
dug in 1718-1731, and others in 1861-1886 having an aggregate 
length of 101 m. along its southern shore, uniting with the Neva at 
Schliisselburg the mouths of the rivers Volkhov, Syas and Svir, all 
links in the elaborate system of canals which connect the upper 
Volga with the Gulf of Finland. 

The population (35,000) on the shores of the lake is sparse, and the 
towns — Schliisselburg (5285 inhabitants in 1897); New Ladoga 
(4144); Kexholm (1325) and Serdobol — are small. The monasteries 
of Valamo, founded in 992, on the island of the same name, and 
Konnevskiy, on Konnevitz island, founded in 1393, are visited every 
year by many thousands of pilgrims. (P. A. K. ; J. T. Be.) 

LADY (0. Eng. hlaefdige, Mid. Eng. Idfdi, lavedi; the first part 
of the word is hid}, loaf, bread, as in the corresponding hldford, 
lord ; the second part is usually taken to be from the root dig-, 
to knead, seen also in " dough "; the sense development from 
bread-kneader, bread-maker, to the ordinary meaning, though 
not clearly to be traced historically, may be illustrated by that 
of " lord "), a term of which the main applications are two, 
(1) as the correlative of " lord " (q.v.) in certain of the usages 
of that word, (2) as the correlative of " gentleman " (q.v.). 
The primary meaning of mistress of a household is, if not obsolete, 
in present usage only a vulgarism. The special use of the word 
as a title of the Virgin Mary, usually " Our Lady," represents 
the Lat. Domina Nostra. In Lady Day and Lady Chapel the 
word is properly a genitive, representing the 0. Eng. hlaejdigan. 
As a title of nobility the uses of " lady " are mainly paralleled by 
those of " lord." It is thus a less formal alternative to the full 
title giving the specific rank, of marchioness, countess, vis- 
countess or baroness, whether as the title of the husband's 
rank by right or courtesy, or as the lady's title in her own right. 
In the case of the younger sons of a duke or marquess, who by 
courtesy have lord prefixed to their Christian and family name, 
the wife is known by the husband's Christian and family name 
with Lady prefixed, e.g. Lady John B.; the daughters of dukes, 
marquesses and earls are by courtesy Ladies; here that title 
is prefixed to the Christian and family name of the lady, e.g. Lady 
Mary B., and this is preserved if the lady marry a commoner, 
e.g. Mr and Lady Mary C. " Lady " is also the customary 
title of the wife of a baronet or knight; the proper title, now 
only used in legal documents or on sepulchral monuments, is 
" dame " (q.v.); in the latter case the usage is to prefix Dame 
to the Christian name of the wife followed by the surname of the 
husband, thus Dame Eleanor B., but in the former, Lady with 
the surname of the husband only, Sir A. and Lady B. During 
the 15th and 16th centuries "princesses" or daughters of the 
blood royal were usually known by their Christian names with 
"the Lady " prefixed, e.g. the Lady Elizabeth. 



62 



LADYBANK— LAELIUS 



While " lord " has retained its original application as a title 
of nobility or rank without extension, an example which has been 
followed in Spanish usage by " don," " lady " has been extended 
in meaning. to be the feminine correlative of "gentleman" 
throughout its sense developments, and in this is paralleled by 
Dame in German, madame in French, donna in Spanish, &c. 
It is the general word for any woman of a certain social position 
(see Gentleman). 

LADYBANK, a police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, si m - 
S.W. of Cupar by the North British railway, 5 m. from the left 
bank of the Eden. Pop. (1901) 1340. Besides having a station 
on the main line to Dundee, it is also connected with Perth and 
Kinross and is a railway junction of some importance and 
possesses a locomotive depot. It is an industrial centre, linen 
weaving, coal mining and malting being the principal industries. 
Kettle, a village 1 m. S., has prehistoric barrows and a fort. 
At Collessie, 2§ m. N. by W., a standing stone, a mound and 
traces of ancient camps exist, while urns and coins have been 
found. Between the parishes of Collessie and Monimail the 
boundary line takes the form of a crescent known as the Bow 
of Fife. Monimail contains the Mount, the residence of Sir 
David Lindsay the poet (1490-1555). Its lofty site is now 
marked by a clump of trees. Here, too, is the Doric pillar, 
100 ft. high, raised to the memory of John Hope, 4th earl of 
Hopetoun. Melville House, the seat of the earls of Leven, lies 
amidst beautiful woods. 

LADYBRAND, a town of the Orange Free State, 80 m. E. of 
Bloemfontein by rail. Another railway connects it with Natal 
via Harrismith. Pop. (1904) 3862, of whom 2334 were whites. 
The town is pleasantly situated at the foot of a flat-topped hill 
(the Platberg), about 4 m. W. of the Caledon river, which 
separates the province from Basutoland. Ladybrand is the 
centre of a rich arable district, has a large wheat market and is 
also a health resort, the climate, owing to the proximity of the 
Maluti Mountains, being bracing even during the summer 
months (November-March). Coal and petroleum are found in 
the neighbourhood. It is named after the wife of Sir. J. H. Brand, 
president of the Orange Free State. 

LADY-CHAPEL, the chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
and attached to churches of large size. Generally the chapel was 
built eastward of the high altar and formed a projection from the 
main building, as in Winchester, Salisbury, Exeter, Wells, St 
Albans, Chichester, Peterborough and Norwich cathedrals, — in 
the two latter cases now destroyed. The earliest Lady-chapel 
built was that in the Saxon cathedral of Canterbury; this was 
transfered in the rebuilding by Archbishop Lanfranc to the 
west end of the nave, and again shifted in 1450 to the chapel on 
the east side of the north transept. The Lady-chapel at Ely 
cathedral is a distinct building attached to the north transept; 
at Rochester the Lady-chapel is west of the south transept. 
Probably the largest Lady-chapel was that built by Henry III. 
in 1220 at Westminster Abbey, which was 30 ft. wide, much in 
excess of any foreign example, and extended to the end of the 
site now occupied by Henry VII. 's chapel. Among other 
notable English examples of Lady-chapels are those at Ottery- 
St-Mary, Thetford, Bury St Edmund's, Wimborne, Christ- 
church, Hampshire; in Compton Church, Surrey, and Compton 
Martin, Somersetshire, and Darenth, Kent, it was built over the 
chancel. At Croyland Abbey there were two Lady-chapels. 
Lady-chapels exist in most of the French cathedrals and churches, 
where they form part of the chevet; in Belgium they were not 
introduced before the 14th century; in some cases they are 
of the same size as the other chapels of the chevet, but in others, 
probably rebuilt at a later period, they became much more 
important features, and in Italy and Spain during the Renais- 
sance period constitute some of its best examples. 

LADY DAY, originally the name for all the days in the church 
calendar marking any event in the Virgin Mary's life, but now 
restricted to the feast of the Annunciation, held on the 25th of 
March in each year. Lady Day was in medieval and later times 
the beginning of the legal year in England. In 1752 this was 
altered to the 1st of January, but the 25th of March remains one 



of the Quarter Days; though in some parts old Lady Day, 
on the 6th of April, is still the date for rent paying. See 
Annunciation. 

LADYSMITH, a town of Natal, 189 m. N.W. of Durban by 
rail, on the left bank of the Klip tributary of the Tugela. Pop. 
(1904) 5568, of whom 2269 were whites. It lies 3284 ft. above 
the sea and is encircled by hills, while the Drakensberg are some 
30 m. distant to the N.W. Ladysmith is the trading centre of 
northern Natal, and is the chief railway junction in the province, 
the main line from the south dividing here. One line crosses Van 
Reenen's pass into the Orange Free State, the other runs north- 
wards to the Transvaal. There are extensive railway workshops. 
Among the public buildings are the Anglican church and the 
town hall. The church contains tablets with the names of 3200 
men who perished in the defence and relief of the town in the 
South African War (see below), while the clock tower of the 
town hall, partially destroyed by a Boer shell, is kept in its 
damaged condition. 

Ladysmith, founded in 1851, is named after Juana, Lady 
Smith, wife of Sir Harry Smith, then governor of Cape Colony. 
It stands near the site of the camp of the Dutch farmers who in 
1848 assembled for the purpose of trekking across the Drakens- 
berg. Here they were visited by Sir Harry Smith, who induced 
the majority of the farmers to remain in Natal. The growth of 
the town, at first slow, increased with the opening of the railway 
from Durban in 1886 and the subsequent extension of the line 
to Johannesburg. 

In the first and most critical stage of the South African War 
of 1899-1902 (see Transvaal) Ladysmith was the centre of the 
struggle. During the British concentration on the town there 
were fought the actions of Talana (or Dundee) on the 20th, 
Elandslaagte on the 21st and Rietfontein on the 24th of October 
1899. On the 30th of October the British sustained a serious 
defeat in the general action of Lombard's Kop or Farquhar's 
Farm, and Sir George White decided to hold the town, which had 
been fortified, against investment and siege until he was relieved 
directly or indirectly by Sir Redvers Buller's advance. The 
greater portion of Buller's available troops were despatched to 
Natal in November, with a view to the direct relief of Ladysmith, 
which meantime the Boers had closely invested. His first attempt 
was repelled on the 15th of December in the battle of Colenso, 
his second on the 24th of January 1900 by the successful Boer 
counterstroke against Spion Kop, and his third was abandoned 
without serious fighting (Vaalkranz, Feb. 5). But two or 
three days after Vaalkranz, almost simultaneously with Lord 
Roberts's advance on Bloemfontein Sir Redvers Buller resumed 
the offensive in the hills to the east of Colenso, which he gradually 
cleared of the enemy, and although he was checked after reaching 
the Tugela below Colenso (Feb. 24) he was finally successful 
in carrying the Boer positions (Pieter's Hill) on the 27th and 
relieving Ladysmith, which during these long and anxious 
months (Nov. i-Feb. 28) had suffered very severely from want 
of food, and on one occasion (Caesar's Camp, Jan. 6, 1900) had 
only with heavy losses and great difficulty repelled a powerful 
Boer assault. The garrison displayed its unbroken resolution 
on the last day of the investment by setting on foot a mobile 
column, composed of all men who were not too enfeebled to 
march out, in order to harass the Boer retreat. This expedition 
was however countermanded by Buller. 

LAELIUS, the name of a Roman plebeian family, probably 
settled at Tibur (Tivoli). The chief members were: — 

Gaius Laelius, general and statesman, was a friend of the 
elder Scipio, whom he accompanied on his Spanish campaign 
(210-206 B.C.). In Scipio's consulship (205), Laelius went with 
him to Sicily, whence he conducted an expedition to Africa. 
In 203 he defeated the Massaesylian prince Syphax, who, 
breaking his alliance with Scipio, had joined the Carthaginians, 
and at Zama (202) rendered considerable service in command of 
the cavalry. In 197 he was plebeian aedile and in 1 96 praetor of 
Sicily. As consul in 190 he was employed in organizing the 
recently conquered territory in Cisalpine Gaul. Placentia and 
Cremona were repeopled, and a new colony founded at Bononia. 



LAENAS— LAETUS 



63 



He is last heard of in 170 as ambassador to Transalpine Gaul. 
Though little is known of his personal qualities, his intimacy 
with Scipio is proof that he must have been a man of some 
importance. Silius Italicus {Punica, xv. 450) describes him as 
a man of great endowments, an eloquent orator and a brave 
soldier. 

See Index to Liyy; Polybius x. 3. 9, 39, xi. 32, xiv. 4. 8, xv. 9. 
12, 14; Appian, Hisp. 25-29; Cicero, Philippica, xi. 7. 

His son, Gaius Laelius, is known chiefly as the friend of the 
younger Scipio, and as one of the speakers in Cicero's De senectute, 
De amicitia (or Laelius) and De Republica. He was surnamed 
Sapiens (" the wise "), either from his scholarly tastes or because, 
when tribune, he " prudently " withdrew his proposal (151 B.C.) 
for the relief of the farmers by distributions of land, when he 
saw that it was likely to bring about disturbances. In the third 
Punic War (147) he accompanied Scipio to Africa, and dis- 
tinguished himself at the capture of the Cothon, the military 
harbour of Carthage. In 145 he carried on operations with 
moderate success against Viriathus in Spain; in 140 he was 
elected consul. During the Gracchan period, as a staunch 
supporter of Scipio and the aristocracy, Laelius became obnoxious 
to the democrats. He was associated with P. Popillius Laenas 
in the prosecution of those who had supported Tiberius Gracchus, 
and in 131 opposed the bill brought forward by C. Papirius Carbo 
to render legal the election of a tribune to a second year of office. 
The attempts of his enemies, however, failed to shake his reputa- 
tion. He was a highly accomplished man and belonged to the 
so-called " Scipionic circle." He studied philosophy under the 
Stoics Diogenes Babylonius and Panaetius of Rhodes; he was 
a poet, and the plays of Terence, by reason of their elegance of 
diction, were sometimes attributed to him. With Scipio he was 
mainly instrumental in introducing the study of the Greek 
language and literature into Rome. He was a gifted orator, 
though his refined eloquence was perhaps less suited to the 
forum than to the senate. He delivered speeches De Collegiis 
(145) against the proposal of the tribune C. Licinius Crassus to 
deprive the priestly colleges of their right of co-optation and to 
transfer the power of election to the people; Pro Publicanis 
(139), on behalf of the farmers of the revenue; against the 
proposal of Carbo noticed above; Pro Se, a speech in his own 
defence, delivered in answer to Carbo and Gracchus; funeral 
orations, amongst them two on his friend Scipio. Much informa- 
tion is given concerning him in Cicero, who compares him to 
Socrates. 

See Index to Cicero; Plutarch, Tib. Gracchus, 8; Appian, 
Punica, 126; Horace, Sat. ii. 1. 72; Quintilian, Instit. xii. 10. 10; 
Suetonius, Vita Terentii; Terence, Adelphi, Prol. 15, with the 
commentators. 

LAENAS, the name of a plebeian family in ancient Rome, 
notorious for cruelty and arrogance. The two most famous of 
the name 1 are: — 

Gaius Popillius Laenas, consul in 172 b.c. He was sent 
to Greece in 174 to allay the general disaffection, but met with 
little success. He took part in the war against Perseus, king 
of Macedonia (Livy xliii. 17, 22). When Antiochus Epiphanes, 
king of Syria, invaded Egypt, Laenas was sent to arrest his 
progress. Meeting him near Alexandria, he handed him the 
decree of the senate, demanding the evacuation of Egypt. 
Antiochus having asked time for consideration, Laenas drew a 
circle round him with his staff, and told him he must give an 
answer before he stepped out of it. Antiochus thereupon 
submitted (Livy xlv. 12; Polybius xxix. 11; Cicero, Philippica, 
viii. 8; Veil. Pat. i. 10). 

Publius Popillius Laenas, son of the preceding. When 
consul in 132 B.C. he incurred the hatred of the democrats 
by his harsh measures as head of a special commission appointed 
to take measures against the accomplices of Tiberius Gracchus. 
In 123 Gaius Gracchus brought in a bill prohibiting all such 
commissions, and declared that, in accordance with the old 
laws of appeal, a magistrate who pronounced sentence of death 
1 The name is said by Cicero to be derived from laena, the sacer- 
dotal cloak carried by Marcus Popillius (consul 359) when he went 
to the forum to quell a popular rising. 



against a citizen, without the people's assent, should be guilty 
of high treason. It is not known whether the bill contained a 
retrospective clause against Laenas, but he left Rome and 
sentence of banishment from Italy was pronounced against him. 
After the restoration of the aristocracy the enactments against 
him were cancelled, and he was recalled (121). 

See Cicero, Brutus, 25. 34, and De domo sua, 31; Veil. Pat. ii. 7; 
Plutarch, C. Gracchus, 4. 

LAER (or Laar), PIETER VAN (1613-c. 1675), Dutch painter, 
was born at Laaren in Holland. The influence of a long stay 
in Rome begun at an early age is seen in his landscape and back- 
grounds, but in his subjects he remained true to the Dutch 
tradition, choosing generally lively scenes from peasant life^ as 
markets, feasts, bowling scenes, farriers' shops, robbers, hunting 
scenes and peasants with cattle. From this taste, or from his 
personal deformity, he was nicknamed Bamboccio by the 
Italians. On his return to Holland about 1639, ne lived chiefly 
at Amsterdam and Haarlem, in which latter city he died in 1674 
or 1675. His pictures are marked by skilful composition and 
good drawing; he was especially careful in perspective. His 
colouring, according to Crowe, is " generally of a warm, brownish 
tone, sometimes very clear, but oftener heavy, and his execution 
broad and spirited." Certain etched plates are also attributed 
to him. 

LAESTRYGONES, a mythical race of giants and cannibals. 
According to the Odyssey (x. 80) they dwelt in the farthest north, 
where the nights were so short that the shepherd who was 
driving out his flock met another driving it in. This feature of 
the tale contains some hint of the long nightless summer in the 
Arctic regions, which perhaps reached the Greeks through the 
merchants who fetched amber from the Baltic coasts. Odysseus 
in his wanderings arrived at the coast inhabited by the Laestry- 
gones, and escaped with only one ship, the rest being sunk by 
the giants with masses of rock. Their chief city was Telepylus, 
founded by a former king Lamus, their ruler at that time being 
Antiphates. This is a purely fanciful name, but Lamus takes 
us into a religious world where we can trace the origin of the 
legend, and observe the god of an older religion becoming the 
subject of fairy tales (see Lamia) in a later period. 

The later Greeks placed the country of the Laestrygones in Sicily, 
to the south of Aetna, near Leontini; but Horace {Odes, iii. 16. 34) 
and other Latin authors speak of them as living in southern Latium, 
near Formiae, which was supposed to have been founded by Lamus. 

LAETUS, JULIUS POMPONIUS [Giulio Pomponio Leto], 
(142 5-1498), Italian humanist, was born at Salerno. He studied 
at Rome under Laurentius Valla, whom he succeeded (1457) 
as professor of eloquence in the Gymnasium Romanum. About 
this time he founded an academy, the members of which adopted 
Greek and Latin names, met on the Quirinal to discuss classical 
questions and celebrated the birthday of Romulus. Its constitu- 
tion resembled that of an ancient priestly college, and Laetus 
was styled pontifex maximus. The pope (Paul II.) viewed these 
proceedings with suspicion, as savouring of paganism, heresy 
and republicanism. In 1468 twenty of the academicians were 
arrested during the carnival; Laetus, who had taken refuge 
in Venice, was sent back to Rome, imprisoned and put to the 
torture, but refused to plead guilty to the charges of infidelity 
and immorality. For want of evidence, he was acquitted 
and allowed to resume his professorial duties; but it was for- 
bidden to utter the name of the academy even in jest. Sixtus 
IV. permitted the resumption of its meetings, which continued 
to be held till the sack of Rome (1527) by Constable Bourbon 
during the papacy of Clement VII. Laetus continued to teach 
in Rome until his death on the 9th of June 1498. As a teacher, 
Laetus, who has been called the first head of a philological 
school, was extraordinarily successful; in his own words, like 
Socrates and Christ, he expected to live on in the person of his 
pupils, amongst whom were many of the most famous scholars 
of the period. His works, written in pure and simple Latin, 
were published in a collected form {Opera Pomponii Laeti 
varia, 1521). They contain treatises on the Roman magistrates, 
priests and lawyers, and a compendium of Roman history from 



64 



LAEVIUS- 



-LA FAYETTE, G. M. DE 



the death of the younger Gordian to the time of Justin III. 
Laetus also wrote commentaries on classical authors, and pro- 
moted the publication of the editio princeps of Virgil at Rome 
in 1469. 

See The Life of Leto by Sabellicus (Strassburg, 1510) ; G. Voigt, 
Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Alterthums, ii. ; F. Gregorovius, 
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, vii. (1894), p. 576, for an 
account of the academy; Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship 
(1908), ii. 92. 

LAEVIUS ( ? c. 80 B.C.), a Latin poet of whom practically 
nothing is known. The earliest reference to him is perhaps in 
Suetonius {De grammaticis, 3), though it is not certain that the 
Laevius Milissus there referred to is the same person. Definite 
references do not occur before the 2nd century (Fronto, Ep. ad 
M. Caes. i. 3; Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. ii. 24, xii. 10, xix. 9 ; 
Apuleius, De magia, 30; Porphyrion, Ad Horat. carm. iii. 1,2). 
Some sixty miscellaneous lines are preserved (see Bahrens, 
Fragm. poet. rom. pp. 287-293), from which it is difficult to see 
how ancient critics could have regarded him as the master of 
Ovid or Catullus. Gellius and Ausonius state that he composed 
an Erotopaegnia, and in other sources he is credited with Adonis, 
Alcestis, Centauri, Helena, Ino, Protesilaudamia, Sirenocirca, 
Phoenix, which may, however, be only the parts of the Eroto- 
paegnia. They were not serious poems, but light and often 
licentious skits on the heroic myths. 

See O. Ribbeck, Geschichte der romischen Dichtung, i.; H. de la 
Ville de Mirmont, Htude biographique et litteraire surle poete Laevius 
(Paris, 1900), with critical ed. of the fragments, and remarks on 
vocabulary and syntax; A. Weichert, Poetarum latinorum reliquiae 
(Leipzig, 1830); M. Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Litteratur 
(2nd ed.), pt*. i. p. 163; W. Teuffel, Hist, of Roman Literature (Eng. 
tr.), § 150, 4; a convenient summary in F.PIessis, La Poesie latine 
(1909), pp. 139-142- 

LAEVULINIC ACID ((3-acetopropionic acid), C 5 H 8 3 or 
CH 3 COCH 2 CH 2 -C0 2 H, a ketonic acid prepared from laevulose, 
inulin, starch, &c, by boiling them with dilute hydrochloric or 
sulphuric acids. It may be synthesized by condensing sodium 
acetoacetate with monochloracetic ester, the acetosuccinic ester 
produced being then hydrolysed with dilute hydrochloric acid 
(M. Conrad, Ann., 1877, 188, p. 222). 

CH s -CO-CH-Na CH 3 -CO-CH-CH 2 -C0 2 R 

1 -> I -^CH 3 COCH 2 -CH 2 -C0 2 OH. 

C0 2 R C0 2 R 

It may also be prepared by heating the anhydride of -y-methyloxy- 
glutaric acid with concentrated sulphuric acid, and by oxidation 
of methyl heptenone and of geraniol. It crystallizes in plates, 
which melt at 32-5-33° C. and boil at 148-149 (15 mm.) (A. 
Michael, Jour. prak. Chem., 1891 [2], 44, p. 114). It is readily 
soluble in alcohol, ether and water. The acid, when distilled 
slowly, is decomposed and yields a and ^-angelica lactones. 
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, it yields 
^-valeric acid; and with iodine and caustic soda solution it 
gives iodoform, even in the cold. With hydroxylamine it yields 
an oxime, which by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid 
rearranges itself to N-methylsuccinimide [CH 2 CO] 2 N-CH 3 . 

LA FARGE, JOHN (1835-1910), American artist, was born 
in New York, on the 31st of March 1835, of French parentage. 
He received instruction in drawing from his grandfather, 
Binsse de St Victor, a painter of miniatures; studied law and 
architecture; entered the atelier of Thomas Couture in Paris, 
where he remained a short time, giving especial attention to the 
study and copying of old masters at the Louvre; and began 
by making illustrations to the poets (1859). An intimacy with 
the artist William M. Hunt had a strong influence on him, 
the two working together at Newport, Rhode Island. La Farge 
painted landscape, still life and figure alike in the early sixties. 
But from 1866 on he was for some time incapacitated for work, 
and when he regained strength he did some decorative work 
for Trinity church, Boston, in 1876, and turned his attention 
to stained glass, becoming president of the Society of Mural 
Painters. Some of his important commissions include windows 
for St Thomas's church (1877), St Peter's church, the Paulist 
church, the Brick church (1882), the churches of the Incarnation 
(1885) and the Ascension (1887), New York; Trinity church, 



Buffalo, and the " Battle Window " in Memorial Hall at 
Harvard; ceilings and windows for the house of Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, windows for the houses of W. H. Vanderbilt 
and D. 0. Mills, and panels for the house of Whitelaw Reid, 
New York; panels for the Congressional Library, Washington; 
Bowdoin College, the Capitol at St Paul, Minn., besides designs 
for many stained glass windows. He was also a prolific painter 
in oil and water colour, the latter seen notably in some water- 
colour sketches, the result of a voyage in the South Seas, shown 
in 1895. His influence on American art was powerfully exhibited 
in such men as Augustus St Gaudens, Wilton Lockwood, Francis 
Lathrop and John Humphreys Johnston. He became president 
of the Society of American Artists, a member of the National 
Academy of Design in 1869; an officer of the Legion of Honour 
of France; and received many medals and decorations. He 
published Considerations on Painting (New York, 1895), 
HokHsai: A Talk about Hoksuai (New York, 1897), and An 
Artist's Letters from Japan (New York, 1897). 

See Cecilia Waern, John La Farge, Artist and Writer (London, 1896, 
No. 26 of The Portfolio). 

LA FARINA, GIUSEPPE (1815-1863), Italian author and 
politician, was born at Messina. On account of the part he took 
in the insurrection of 1837 he had to leave Sicily, but returning 
in 1839 he conducted various newspapers of liberal tendencies, 
until his efforts were completely interdicted, when he removed 
to Florence. In 1840 he had published Messina ed i suoi monu- 
menti, and after his removal to Florence he brought out La 
Germania coi suoi monumenti (1842), V Italia coi suoi monu- 
menti (1842), La Svizzera storica ed artistica (1842-1843), 
La China, 4 vols. (1843-1847), and Storia d' Italia, 7 vols. 
(1846-1854). In 1847 he established at Florence a democratic 
journal, L' Alba, in the interests of Italian freedom and unity, 
but on the outbreak of the revolution in Sicily in 1848 he returned 
thither and was elected deputy and member of the committee 
of war. In August of that, year he was appointed minister of 
public instruction and later of war and marine. After vigorously 
conducting a campaign against the Bourbon troops, he was 
forced into exile, and repaired to France in 1849. In 1850 he 
published his Storia documentata della Rivoluzione Siciliana 
del 1848-1849, and in 1851-1852 his Storia d' Italia dal 1815 
al 184.8, in 6 vols. He returned to Italy in 1854 and settled at 
Turin, and in 1856 he founded the Piccolo Corriere d' Italia, an 
organ which had great influence in propagating the political 
sentiments of the Societa Nazionale Italiana, of which he ulti- 
mately was chosen president. With Daniele Manin (q.v.), one 
of the founders of that society, he advocated the unity of Italy 
under Victor Emmanuel even before Cavour, with whom at 
one time he had daily interviews, and organized the emigration 
of volunteers from all parts of Italy into the Piedmontese army. 
He also negotiated an interview between Cavour and Garibaldi, 
with the result that the latter was appointed commander of 
the Cacciatori delle Alpi in the war of 1859. Later he supported 
Garibaldi's expedition to Sicily, where he himself went soon 
after the occupation of Palermo, but he failed to bring about 
the immediate annexation of the island to Piedmont as Cavour 
wished. In i860 he was chosen a member of the first Italian 
parliament and was subsequently made councillor of state. 
He died on the 5th of September 1863. 

See A. Franchi, Epistolario di Giuseppe La Farina (2 vols., 1869) 
and L. Carpi, // Risorgimento Italiano, vol. i. (Milan, 1884). 

LA FAYETTE, GILBERT MOTIER DE (1380-1462), marshal 
of France, was brought up at the court of Louis II., 3rd duke 
of Bourbon. He served under Marshal Boucicaut in Italy, and 
on his return to France after the evacuation of Genoa in 1409 
became seneschal of the Bourbonnais. In the English wars he 
was with John I., 4th duke of Bourbon, at the capture of Soubise 
in 14 13, and of Compiegne in 141 5. The duke then made him 
lieutenant-general in Languedoc and Guienne. He failed to 
defend Caen and Falaise in the interest of the dauphin (after- 
wards Charles VII.) against Henry V. in 1417 and 1418, but in 
the latter year he held Lyons for some time against Jean sans 
Peur, duke of Burgundy. A series of successes over the English 



LA FAYETTE, LOUISE DE— LA FAYETTE, MARQUIS DE 65 



and Burgundians on the Loire was rewarded in 1420 with the 
government of Dauphiny and the office of marshal of France. 
La Fayette commanded the Franco-Scottish troops at the battle 
of Bauge (1422), though he did not, as has been sometimes stated, 
slay Thomas, duke of Clarence, with his own hand. In 1424 
he was taken prisoner by the English at Verneuil, but was 
released shortly afterwards, and fought with Joan of Arc at 
Orleans and Patay in 1429. The marshal had become a member 
of the grand council of Charles VII., and with the exception of a 
short disgrace about 1430, due to the ill-will of Georges de la 
Tremouille, he retained the royal favour all his life. He took 
an active part in the army reform initiated by Charles VII., and 
the establishment of military posts for the suppression of brigand- 
age. His last campaign was against the English in Normandy 
in 1449. He died on the 23rd of February 1462. His line was 
continued by Gilbert IV. de La Fayette, son of his second 
marriage with Jeanne de Joyeuse. 

LA FAYETTE, LOUISE DE (c. 1616-1665), was one of the 
fourteen children of John, comte de La Fayette, and Marguerite 
de Bourbon-Busset. Louise became maid of honour to Anne of 
Austria, and Richelieu sought to attract the attention of Louis 
XIII. to her in the hope that she might counterbalance the 
influence exercised over him by Marie de Hautefort. The affair 
did not turn out as the minister wished. The king did indeed 
make her the confidante of his affairs and of his resentment 
against the cardinal, but she, far from repeating his confidences 
to the minister, set herself to encourage the king in his resistance 
to Richelieu's dominion. She refused, nevertheless, to become 
Louis's mistress, and after taking leave "of the king in Anne of 
Austria's presence retired to the convent of the Filles de Sainte- 
Marie in 1637. Here she was repeatedly visited by Louis, with 
whom she maintained a correspondence. Richelieu intercepted 
the letters, and by omissions and falsifications succeeded in 
destroying their mutual confidence. The cessation of their 
intercourse was regretted by the queen, who had been reconciled 
with her husband through the influence of Louise. At the time 
of her death in January 1665 Mile de La Fayette was superior 
of a convent of her order which she had founded at Chaillot. 

See Memoires de Madame de Motteville; Victor Cousin, Madame de 
Hautefort (Paris, 1868); LAbbe Sorin, Louise-Angele de La Fayette 
(Paris, 1893). 

LA FAYETTE, MARIE JOSEPH PAUL YVES ROCH GILBERT 
DU MOTIER, Marquis de (i 757-1834), was born at the chateau 
of Chavaniac in Auvergne, France, on the 6th of September 1757. 
His father 1 was killed at Minden in 1759, and his mother and his 
grandfather died in 1770, and thus at the age of thirteen he was 
left an orphan with a princely fortune. He married at sixteen 
Marie Adrienne Francoise de Noailles (d. 1807), daughter of the 
due d'Ayen and granddaughter of the due de Noailles, then one 
of the most influential families in the kingdom. La Fayette 
chose to follow the career of his father, and entered the Guards. 

La Fayette was nineteen and a captain of dragoons when the 
English colonies in America proclaimed their independence. 
" At the first news of this quarrel," he afterwards wrote in his 
memoirs, " my heart was enrolled in it." The count de Broglie, 
whom he consulted, discouraged his zeal for the cause of liberty. 
Finding his purpose unchangeable, however, he presented the 
young enthusiast to Johann Kalb, who was also seeking service 
in America, and through Silas Deane, American agent in Paris, 
an arrangement was concluded, on the 7th of December 1776, 
by which La Fayette was to enter the American service as major- 
general. At this moment the news arrived of grave disasters to 
the American arms. La Fayette's friends again advised him to 
abandon his purpose. Even the American envoys, Franklin 
and Arthur Lee, who had superseded Deane, withheld further 
encouragement and the king himself forbade his leaving. At 
the instance of the British ambassador at Versailles orders were 
issued to seize the ship La Fayette was fitting out at Bordeaux, 
and La Fayette himself was arrested. But the ship was sent 

1 The family of La Fayette, to the cadet branch of which he be- 
longed, received its name from an estate in Aix, Auvergne, which 
belonged in the 13th century to the Motier family. 

xvi. 3 



from Bordeaux to a neighbouring port in Spain, La Fayette 
escaped from custody in disguise, and before a second lettre 
de cachet could reach him he was afloat with eleven chosen 
companions. Though two British cruisers had been sent in 
pursuit of him, he landed safely near Georgetown, S.C., after 
a tedious voyage of nearly two months, and hastened to Phila- 
delphia, then the seat of government of the colonies. 

When this lad of nineteen, with the command of only what 
little English he had been able to pick up on his voyage, pre- 
sented himself to Congress with Deane's authority to, demand a 
commission of the highest rank after the commander-in-chief, 
his reception was a little chilly. Deane's contracts were so 
numerous, and for officers of such high rank, that it was impossible 
for Congress to ratify them without injustice to Americans who 
had become entitled by their service to promotion. La Fayette 
appreciated the situation as soon as it was explained to him, 
and immediately expressed his desire to serve in the American 
army upon two conditions — that he should receive no pay, and 
that he should act as a volunteer. These terms were so different 
from those made by other foreigners, they had been attended 
with such substantial sacrifices, and they promised such import- 
ant indirect advantages, that Congress passed a resolution, on 
the 31st of July 1777, " that his services be accepted, and that, 
in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connexions, 
he have the rank and commission of major-general of the United 
States." Next day La Fayette met Washington, whose lifelong 
friend he became. Congress intended his appointment as purely 
honorary, and the question of giving him a command was left 
entirely to Washington's discretion. His first battle was Brandy- 
wine (q.v.) on the nth of September 1777, where he showed 
courage and activity and received a wound. Shortly afterwards 
he secured what he most desired, the command of a division — 
the immediate result of a communication from Washington to 
Congress of November 1, 1777, in which he said: — 

" The marquis de La Fayette is extremely solicitous of having a 
command equal to his rank. I do not know in what light Congress 
will view the matter, but it appears to me, from a consideration of 
his illustrious and important connexions, the attachment which he 
has manifested for our cause, and the consequences which his return 
in disgust might produce, that it will be advisable to gratify his 
wishes, and the more so as several gentlemen from France who 
came over under some assurances have gone back disappointed in 
their expectations. His conduct with respect to them stands in a 
favourable point of view — having interested himself to remove their 
uneasiness and urged the impropriety of their making any unfavour- 
able representations upon their arrival at home. Besides, he is 
sensible, discreet in his manners, has made great proficiency in our 
language, and from the disposition he discovered at the battle of 
Brandywine possesses a large share of bravery and military ardour." 
Of La Fayette's military career in the United States there 
is not much to be said. Though the commander of a division, 
he never had many troops in his charge, and whatever military 
talents he possessed were not of the kind which appeared to 
conspicuous advantage on the theatre to which his wealth and 
family influence rather than his soldierly gifts had called him. 
In the first months of 1778 he commanded troops detailed 
for the projected expedition against Canada. His retreat from 
Barren Hill (May 28, 1778) was commended as masterly; and 
he fought at the battle of Monmouth (June 28,) and received 
from Congress a formal recognition of his services in the Rhode 
Island expedition (August 1778). 

The treaties of commerce and defensive alliance, signed by the 
insurgents and France on the 6th of February 1778, were promptly 
followed by a declaration of war by England against the latter, 
and La Fayette asked leave to revisit France and to consult his 
king as to the further direction of his services. This leave was 
readily granted; it was not difficult for Washington to replace 
the major-general, but it was impossible to find another equally 
competent, influential and devoted champion of the American 
cause near the court of Louis XVI. In fact, he went on a mission 
rather than a visit. He embarked on the nth of January 1779, 
was received with enthusiasm, and was made a colonel in the 
French cavalry. On the 4th of March following Franklin wrote 
to the president of Congress: " The marquis de La Fayette. . . 
is infinitely esteemed and beloved here, and I am persuaded will 

11 



66 



LA FAYETTE, MARQUIS DE 



do everything in his power to merit a continuance of the same 
affection from America." He won the confidence of Vergennes. 
La Fayette was absent from America about six months, and 
his return was the occasion of a complimentary resolution of 
Congress. From April until October 1781 he was charged with 
the defence of Virginia, in which Washington gave him the 
credit of doing all that was possible with the forces at his disposal; 
and he showed his zeal by borrowing money on his own account 
to provide his soldiers with necessaries. The battle of Yorktown, 
in which La Fayette bore an honourable if not a distinguished 
part, was the last of the war, and terminated his military career 
in the United States. He immediately obtained leave to return 
to France, where it was supposed he might be useful in negotiations 
for a general peace. He was also occupied in the preparations 
for a combined French and Spanish expedition against some of 
the British West India Islands, of which he had been appointed 
chief of staff, and a formidable fleet assembled at Cadiz, but 
the armistice signed on the 20th of January 1783 between the 
belligerents put a stop to the expedition. He had been pro- 
moted (1781) to the rank of marechal de camp (major-general) 
in the French army, and he received every token of regard 
from his sovereign and his countrymen. He visited the United 
States again in 1784, and remained some five months as the 
guest of the nation. 

La Fayette did not appear again prominently in public life 
until 1787, though he did good service to the French Protestants, 
and became actively interested in plans to abolish slavery. In 
1787 he took his seat in the Assembly of Notables. He 
demanded, and he alone signed the demand, that the king 
convoke the states-general, thus becoming a leader in the 
French Revolution. He showed Liberal tendencies both in 
that assembly and after its dispersal, and in 1788 was de- 
prived, in consequence, of his active command. In 1789 La 
Fayette was elected to the states-general, and took a prominent 
part in its proceedings. He was chosen vice-president of the 
National Assembly, and on the nth of July 1789 presented a 
declaration of rights, modelled on Jefferson's Declaration of 
Independence in 1776. On the 15th of July, the second day of 
the new regime, La Fayette was chosen by acclamation colonel- 
general of the new National Guard of Paris. He also proposed 
the combination of the colours of Paris, red and blue, and the 
royal white, into the famous tricolour cockade of modern France 
(July 17). For the succeeding three years, until the end of the 
constitutional monarchy in 1792, his history is largely the history 
of France. His life was beset with very great responsibility 
and perils, for he was ever the minister of humanity and order 
among a frenzied people who had come to regard order and 
humanity as phases of treason. He rescued the queen from the 
hands of the populace on the 5th and 6th of October 1789, 
saved many humbler victims who had been condemned to death, 
and he risked his life in many unsuccessful attempts to rescue 
others. Before this, disgusted with enormities which he was 
powerless to prevent, he had resigned his commission; but so 
impossible was it to replace him that he was induced to resume 
it. In the Constituent Assembly he pleaded for the abolition of 
arbitrary imprisonment, for religious tolerance, for popular 
representation, for the establishment of trial by jury, for the 
gradual emancipation of slaves, for the freedom of the press, 
for the abolition of titles of nobility, and the suppression of 
privileged orders. In February 1790 he refused the supreme 
command of the National Guard of the kingdom. In May he 
founded the " Society of 1789 " which afterwards became the 
Feuillants Club. He took a prominent part in the celebration 
of July 14, 1790, the first anniversary of the destruction of the 
Bastille. After suppressing an imeute in April 1791 he again 
resigned his commission, and was again compelled to retain it. 
He was the friend of liberty as well as of order, and when Louis 
XVI. fled to Varennes he issued orders to stop him. Shortly 
afterwards he was made lieutenant-general in the army. He 
commanded the troops in the suppression of another emeute, 
on the occasion of the proclamation of the constitution 
(September 18, 1791), after which, feeling that his task 
was done, he retired into private life. This did not prevent 



his friends from proposing him for the mayoralty of Paris in 
opposition to Petion. 

When, in December 1791, three armies were formed on the 
western frontier to attack Austria, La Fayette was placed in 
command of one of them. But events moved faster than La 
Fayette's moderate and humane republicanism, and seeing that 
the lives of the king and queen were each day more and more 
in danger, he definitely opposed himself to the further advance 
of the Jacobin party, intending eventually to use his army for 
the restoration of a limited monarchy. On the 19th of August 
1792 the Assembly declared him a traitor. He was compelled 
to take refuge in the neutral territory of Liege, whence as one 
of the prime movers in the Revolution he was taken and held 
as a prisoner of state for five years, first in Prussian and 
afterwards in Austrian prisons, in spite of the intercession of 
America and the pleadings of his wife. Napoleon, however, 
though he had a low opinion of his capacities, stipulated in the 
treaty of Campo Formio (1797) for La Fayette's release. He 
was not allowed to return to France by the Directory. He 
returned in 1799; in 1802 voted against the life consulate of 
Napoleon; and in 1804 he voted against the imperial title. 
He lived in retirement during the First Empire, but returned 
to public affairs under the First Restoration and took some 
part in the political events of the Hundred Days. From 1818 
to 1824 he was deputy for the Sarthe, speaking and voting 
always on the Liberal side, and even becoming a carbonaro. 
He then revisited America (July 1824-September 1825) where 
he was overwhelmed with popular applause and voted the sum 
of $200,000 and a township of land. From 1825 to his death he 
sat in the Chamber of Deputies for Meaux. During the revolution 
of 1830 he again took command of the National Guard and 
pursued the same line of conduct, with equal want of success, 
as in the first revolution. In 1834 he made his last speech — 
on behalf of Polish political refugees. He died at Paris on the 
20th of May 1834. In 1876 in the city of New York a monument 
was erected to him, and in 1883 another was erected at Puy. 

Few men have owed more of their success and usefulness 
to their family rank than La Fayette, and still fewer have abused 
it less. He never achieved distinction in the field, and his 
political career proved him to be incapable of ruling a great 
national movement; but he had strong convictions which 
always impelled him to study the interests of humanity, and a 
pertinacity in maintaining them, which, in all the strange vicissi- 
tudes of his eventful life, secured him a very unusual measure of 
public respect. No citizen of a foreign country has ever had so 
many and such warm admirers in America, nor does any states- 
man in France appear to have ever possessed uninterruptedly 
for so many years so large a measure of popular influence and 
respect. He had what Jefferson called a " canine appetite " 
for popularity and fame, but in him the appetite only seemed to 
make him more anxious to merit the fame which he enjoyed. 
He was brave to rashness; and he never shrank from danger 
or responsibility if he saw the way open to spare life or suffering, 
to protect the defenceless, to sustain the law and preserve order. 
His son, Georges Washington Motier de La Fayette 
(1779-1849), entered the army and was aide-de-camp to General 
Grouchy through the Austrian, Prussian and Polish (1805-07) 
campaigns. Napoleon's distrust of his father rendering promo- 
tion improbable, Georges de La Fayette retired into private life 
in 1807 until the Restoration, when he entered the Chamber of 
Representatives and voted consistently on the Liberal side. 
He was away from Paris during the revolution of July 1830, 
but he took an active part in the " campaign of the banquets," 
which led up to that of 1848. He died in December of the next 
year. His son, Oscar Thomas Gilbert Motier de La Fayette 
(1815-1881), was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, and 
served as an artillery officer in Algeria. He entered the Chamber 
of Representatives in 1846 and voted, like his father, with the 
extreme Left. After the revolution of 1848 he received a post 
in the provisional government, and as a member of the Con- 
stituent Assembly he became secretary of the war committee. 
After the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly in 1851, he 
retired from public life, but emerged on the establishment of 



LA FAYETTE, COMTESSE DE— -LA FERTfe 



67 



the third republic, becoming a life senator in 1875. His brother 
Edmond Motier de La Fayette (1818-1890) shared his political 
opinions. He was one of the secretaries of the Constituent 
Assembly, and a member of the senate from 1876 to 1888. 

See Memoires historiques et pieces authentiques sur M. de La 
Fayette pour servir a I'histoire des revolutions (Paris, An II., 1793- 
1794); B. Sarrans, La Fayette et la Revolution de 1830, histoire des 
choses et des hommes de Juillet (Paris, 1834); Memoires, correspond- 
ances et manuscrits de La Fayette, published by his family (6 vols., 
Paris, 1837-1838); Regnault Warin, Memoires pour servir a la vie du 
general La Fayette (Paris, 1824) ; A. Bardoux, La jeunesse de La 
Fayette (Paris, 1892); Les Demieres annees de La Fayette (Paris, 
1893); E. Charavaray, Le General La Fayette (Paris, 1895); A. 
Levasseur, La Fayette en Amerique 1824 (Paris, 1829); J. Cloquet, 
Souvenirs de la vie privee du general La Fayette (Paris, 1836); Max 
Budinger, La Fayette in Oesterreich (Vienna, 1898); and M. M. 
Crawford, The Wife of Lafayette (1908) ; Bayard Tuckerman, Life 
of Lafayette (New York, 1889) ; Charlemagne Tower, The Marquis 
de La Fayette in the American Revolution (Philadelphia, 1895). 

LA FAYETTE, MARIE-MADELEINE PIOCHE DE LA 
VERGNE, Comtesse de (1634-1692), French novelist, was 
baptized in Paris, on the 18th of March 1634. Her father, Marc 
Pioche de la Vergne, commandant of Havre, died when she was 
sixteen, and her mother seems to have been more occupied with 
her own than her daughter's interests. Mme de la Vergne 
married in 1651 the chevalier de Sevigne, and Marie thus became 
connected with Mme de Sevigne, who was destined to be a 
lifelong friend. She studied Greek, Latin and Italian, and in- 
spired in one of her tutors, Gilles de Menage, an enthusiastic 
admiration which he expressed in verse in three or four languages. 
Marie married in 1655 Francois Motier, comte de La Fayette. 
They lived on the count's estates in Auvergne, according to her 
own account (in a letter to Menage) quite happily; but after 
the birth of her two sons her husband disappeared so effectually 
that it was long supposed that he died about 1660, though 
he really lived until 1683. Mme de La Fayette had returned 
to Paris, and about 1665 contracted an intimacy with the due 
de la Rochefoucauld, then engaged on his Maximes. The con- 
stancy and affection that marked this liaison on both sides 
justified it in the eyes of society, and when in 1680 La Rochefou- 
cauld died Mme de La Fayette received the sincerest sympathy. 
Her first novel, La Princesse de Montpensier, was published 
anonymously in 1662; Zayde appeared in 1670 under the name 
of J. R. de Segrais; and in 1678 her masterpiece, La Princesse 
de Cleves, also under the name of Segrais. The history of the 
modern novel of sentiment begins with the Princesse de Cleves. 
The interminable pages of Mile de Scudery with the Precieuses 
and their admirers masquerading as Persians or ancient Romans 
had already been discredited by the burlesques of Paul Scarron 
and Antoine Furetiere. It remained for Mme de La Fayette 
to achieve the more difficult task of substituting something 
more satisfactory than the disconnected episodes of the roman 
comique. This she accomplished in a story offering in its short- 
ness and simplicity a complete contrast to the extravagant 
and lengthy romances of the time. The interest of the story 
depends not on incident but on the characters of the personages. 
They act in a perfectly reasonable way and their motives are 
analysed with the finest discrimination. No doubt the semi- 
autobiographical character of the material partially explains 
Mme de La Fayette's refusal to acknowledge the book. Con- 
temporary critics, even Mme de Sevigne amongst them, found 
fault with the avowal made by Mme de Cleves to her husband. 
In answer to these criticisms, which her anonymity prevented 
her from answering directly, Mme de La Fayette wrote her 
last novel, the Comtesse de Tende. 

The character of her work and her history have combined 
to give an impression of melancholy and sweetness that only 
represents one side of her character, for a correspondence 
brought to light comparatively recently showed her as the acute 
diplomatic agent of Jeanne de Nemours, duchess of Savoy, at 
the court of Louis XIV. She had from her early days also been 
intimate with Henrietta of England, duchess of Orleans, under 
whose immediate direction she wrote her Histoire de Madame 
Henrieltc d'Angleterre, which only appeared in 1720. She wrote 



memoirs of the reign of Louis XIV., which, with the exception 
of two chapters, for the years 1688 and 1689 (published at 
Amsterdam, 173 1), were lost through her son's carelessness. 
Madame de La Fayette died on the 25th of May 1692. 

See Sainte-Beuve, Portraits de femmes; the comte d'Haussonville, 
Madame de La Fayette (1891), in the series of Grands ecrivains 
francais; M. de Lescure's notice prefixed to an edition of the 
Princesse de Cleves (188 1); and a critical edition of the historical 
memoirs by Eugene Asse (1890). See also L. Rea, Marie Madeleine, 
comtesse de La Fayette (1908). 

LAFAYETTE, a city and the county-seat of Tippecanoe 
county, Indiana, U.S.A., situated at the former head of naviga- 
tion on the Wabash river, about 64 m. N.W. of Indianapolis. 
Pop. (1900) 18,116, of whom 2266 were foreign-born; (1910 
census) 20,081. It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis 
& Louisville, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, 
the Lake Erie & Western, and the Wabash railways, and by 
the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern (electric), and the Fort 
Wayne & Wabash Valley (electric) railways. The river is not 
now navigable at this point. Lafayette is in the valley of the 
Wabash river, which is sunk below the normal level of the plain, 
the surrounding heights being the walls of the Wabash basin. 
The city has an excellent system of public schools, a good public 
library, two hospitals, the Wabash Valley Sanitarium (Seventh 
Day Adventist), St Anthony's Home for old people and two 
orphan asylums. It is the seat of Purdue University, a co-educa- 
tional, technical and agricultural institution, opened in 1874 
and named in honour of John Purdue (1802-1876), who gave 
it $150,000. This university is under state control, and received 
the proceeds of the Federal agricultural college grant of 1862 
and of the second Morrill Act of 189c; in connexion with it 
there is an agricultural experiment station. It had in 1908- 
1909 180 instructors, 1900 students, and a library of 25,000 
volumes and pamphlets. Just outside the city is the State 
Soldiers' Home, where provision is also made for the wives and 
widows of soldiers; in 1908 it contained 553 men and 700 
women. The city lies in the heart of a rich agricultural region, 
and is an important market for grain, produce and horses. 
Among its manufactures are beer, foundry and machine shop 
products (the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville railway has 
shops here), straw board, telephone apparatus, paper, wagons, 
packed meats, canned goods, flour and carpets; the value of 
the factory product increased from $3,514,276 in 1900 to 
$4,631,415 in 1905, or 31-8%. The municipality owns its water 
works. 

Lafayette is about 5 m. N.E. of the site of the ancient Wea 
(Miami) Indian village known as Ouiatanon, where the French 
established a post about 1720. The French garrison gave way 
to the English about 1760; the stockade fort was destroyed 
during the conspiracy of Pontiac, and was never rebuilt. The 
head-quarters of Tecumseh and his brother, the " Prophet," 
were established 7 m. N. of Lafayette near the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, and the settlement there was known as the 
" Prophet's Town." Near this place, and near the site of the 
present village of Battle Ground (where the Indiana Methodists 
now have a summer encampment and a camp meeting in August), 
was fought on the 7 th of November 181 1 the battle of Tippecanoe, 
in which the Indians were decisively defeated by Governor 
William Henry Harrison, the whites losing 188 in killed and 
wounded and the Indians about an equal number. The battle 
ground is owned by the state; in 1907 the state legislature and 
the United States Congress each appropriated $12,500 for a 
monument, which took the form of a granite shaft; 90 ft. high. 
The first American settlers on the site of Lafayette appeared 
about 1820, and the town was laid out in 1825, but for many 
years its growth was slow. The completion of the Wabash and 
Erie canal marked a new era in its development, and in 1854 
Lafayette was incorporated. 

LA FERT6, the name of a number of localities in France, 
differentiated by agnomens. La Ferte Imbault (department of 
Loir-et-Cher) was in the possession of Jacques d'fitampes 
(1590-1668), marshal of France and ambassador in England, 



68 



LA FERTE-BERNARD— LAFONT 



who was known as the marquis of La Ferte Imbault. La 
Ferte Nabert (the modern La Ferte Saint Aubin, department 
of Loiret) was acquired in the 16th century by the house of Saint 
Nectaire (corrupted to Senneterre), and erected into a duchy 
in the peerage of France (duche-pairie) in 1665 for Henri de Saint 
Nectaire, marshal of France. It was called La Ferte Lowendal 
after it had been acquired by Marshal Lowendal in 1748. 

LA FERT13-BERNARD, a town of western France, in the 
department of Sarthe, on the Huisne, 27 m. N.E. of Le Mans, 
on the railway from Paris to that town. Pop. (1906) 4358. 
La Ferte carries on cloth manufacture and flour-milling and 
has trade in horses and cattle. Its church of Notre Dame has 
a choir (16th century) with graceful apse-chapels of Renaissance 
architecture and remarkable windows of the same period; the 
remainder of the church is in the Flamboyant Gothic style. 
The town hall occupies the superstructure and flanking towers 
of a fortified gateway of the 15th century. 

La Ferte-Bernard owes its origin and name to a stronghold 
(jermeti) built about the nth century and afterwards held by 
the family of Bernard. In 1424 it did not succumb to the English 
troops till after a four months' siege. It belonged in the 16th 
century to the family of Guise and supported the League, but 
was captured by the royal forces in 1590. 

LA FERT^-MILON, a town of northern France in the depart- 
ment of Aisne on the Ourcq, 47 m. W. by S. of Reims by rail. 
Pop. (1906) 1563. The town has imposing remains comprising 
one side flanked by four towers of an unfinished castle built 
about the beginning of the 15th century by Louis of Orleans, 
brother of Charles VI. The churches of St Nicholas and Notre- 
Dame, chiefly of the 16th century, both contain fine old stained 
glass. Jean Racine, the poet, was born in the town, and a 
statue by David d' Augers has been erected to him. 

LAFFITTE, JACQUES (1767-1844), French banker and 
politician, was born at Bayonne on the 24th of October 1767, 
one of the ten children of a carpenter. He became clerk in 
the banking house of Perregaux in Paris, was made a partner 
in the business in 1800, and in 1804 succeeded Perregaux as 
head of the firm. The house of Perregaux, Laffitte et Cie. 
became one of the greatest in Europe, and Laffitte bejame 
regent (1809), then governor (1814) of the Bank of France and 
president of the Chamber of Commerce (1814). He raised large 
sums of money for the provisional government in 18 14 and for 
Louis XVIII. during the Hundred Days, and it was with him 
that Napoleon deposited five million francs in gold before 
leaving France for the last time. Rather than permit the govern- 
ment to appropriate the money from the Bank he supplied 
two million from his own pocket for the arrears of the imperial 
troops after Waterloo. He was returned by the department 
of the Seine to the Chamber of Deputies in 1816, and took his seat 
on the Left. He spoke chiefly on financial questions; his known 
Liberal views did not prevent Louis XVIII. from insisting on 
his inclusion on the commission on the public finances. In 
18 1 8 he saved Paris from a financial crisis by buying a large 
amount of stock, but next year, in consequence of his heated 
defence of the liberty of the press and the electoral law of 1867, 
the governorship of the Bank was taken from him. One of the 
earliest and most determined of the partisans of a constitutional 
monarchy under the duke of Orleans, he was deputy for Bayonne 
in July 1830, when his house in Paris became the headquarters 
of the revolutionary party. When Charles X., after retracting 
the hated ordinances, sent the comte d'Argout 1 to Laffitte to 
negotiate a change of ministry, the banker replied, " It is too late. 
There is no longer a Charles X.," and it was he who secured 
the nomination of Louis Philippe as lieutenant-general of the 
kingdom. On the 3rd of August he became president of the 
Chamber of Deputies, and on the 9th he received in this capacity 
Louis Philippe's oath to the new constitution. The clamour 
of the Paris mob for the death of the imprisoned ministers of 
Charles X., which in October culminated in riots, induced the 

1 Apoilinaire Antoine Maurice, comte d'Argout (1782-1858), after- 
wards reconciled to the July monarchy, and a member of the Laffitte, 
Casimir-Perier and Thiers cabinets. 



more moderate members of the government — including Guizot, 
the due de Broglie and Casimir-Perier — to hand over the 
administration to a ministry which, possessing the confidence 
of the revolutionary Parisians, should be in a better position 
to save the ministers from their fury. On the 5th of November, 
accordingly, Laffitte became minister-president of a government 
pledged to progress (mouvement), holding at the same time the 
portfolio of finance. The government was torn between the 
necessity for preserving order and the no less pressing necessity 
(for the moment) of conciliating the Parisian populace; with the 
result that it succeeded in doing neither one nor the other. 
The impeached ministers were, indeed, saved by the courage 
of the Chamber of Peers and the attitude of the National Guard; 
but their safety was bought at the price of Laffitte's popularity. 
His policy of a French intervention -in favour of the Italian 
revolutionists, by which he might have regained his popularity, 
was thwarted by the diplomatic policy of Louis Philippe. The 
resignation of Lafayette and Dupont de l'Eure still further 
undermined the government, which, incapable even of keeping 
order in the streets of Paris, ended by being discredited with all 
parties. At length Louis Philippe, anxious to free himself 
from the hampering control of the agents of his fortune, thought 
it safe to parade his want of confidence in the man who had 
made him king. Thereupon, in March 1831, Laffitte resigned, 
begging pardon of God and man for the part he had played in 
raising Louis Philippe to the throne. He left office politically 
and financially a ruined man. His affairs were wound up in 
1836, and next year he created a credit bank, which prospered 
as long as he lived, but failed in 1848. He died in Paris on the 
26th of May 1844. 
See P. Thureau-Dangin, La Monarchic de Juillet (vol. i. 1884). 

LAFFITTE, PIERRE (1823-1903), French Positivist, was 
born on the 21st of February 1823 at Beguey (Gironde). Residing 
at Paris as a teacher of mathematics, he became a disciple of 
Comte, who appointed him his literary executor. On the 
schism of the Positivist body which followed Comte's death, 
he was recognized as head of the section which accepted the full 
Comtian doctrine; the other section adhering to Littre, who 
rejected the religion of humanity as inconsistent with the 
materialism of Comte's earlier period. From 1853 Laffitte 
delivered Positivist lectures in the room formerly occupied by 
Comte in the rue Monsieur le Prince. He published Les Grands 
Types de Vhumanite (1875) and Cours de philosophic premiere 
(1889). In 1893 he was appointed to the new chair founded 
at the College de France for the exposition of the general history 
of science, and it was largely due to his inspiration that a statue 
to Comte was erected in the Place de la Sorbonne in 1902. He 
died on the 4th of January 1903. 

LA FLECHE, a town of western France, capital of an arrond- 
issement in the department of Sarthe on the Loire, 31 m. S.S.W. 
of Le Mans by rail. Pop. (1906) town 7800; commune 10,663. 
The chief interest of the town lies in the Prytanee, a famous 
school for the sons of officers, originally a college founded for 
the Jesuits in 1607 by Henry IV. The buildings, including a 
fine chapel, were erected from 1620 to 1653 and are surrounded 
by a park. A bronze statue of Henry IV. stands in the market- 
place. La Fleche is the seat of a sub-prefect and of a tribunal 
of first instance, and carries on tanmng, flour-milling, and the 
manufacture of paper, starch, wooden shoes and gloves. It is an 
agricultural market. 

The lords of La Fleche became counts of Maine about 1100, 
but the lordship became separate from the county and passed 
in the 16th century to the family of Bourbon and thus to 
Henry IV. 

LAFONT, PIERRE CHERI (1797-1873), French actor, was 
born at Bordeaux on the 15th of May 1797. Abandoning his 
profession as assistant ship's doctor in the navy, he went to 
Paris to study singing and acting. He had some experience at 
a small theatre, and was preparing to appear at the Opera 
Comique when the director of the Vaudeville offered him an 
engagement. Here he made his debut in 182 1 in La Somnambule, 
and his good looks and excellent voice soon brought him into 



LA FONTAINE 



69 



public favour. After several years at the Nouveaut6s and the 
Vaudeville, on the burning of the latter in 1838 he went to 
England, and married, at Gretna Green, Jenny Colon, from 
whom he was soon divorced. On his return to Paris he joined 
the Varietes, where he acted for fifteen years in such plays as 
Le Chevalier de Saint Georges, Le Lion empaille, Une derniere 
conquete, &c. Another engagement at the Vaudeville followed, 
and one at the Gaiete, and he ended his brilliant career at the 
Gymnase in the part of the noble father in such plays as Les 
Vieux GarQons and Nos bons villageois. He died in Paris on the 
19th of April 1873. 

LA FONTAINE, JEAN DE (1621-1695), French poet, was 
born at Chateau Thierry in Champagne, probably on the 8th of 
July 1621. His father was Charles de La Fontaine, " maitre 
des eaux et forets " — a kind of deputy-ranger — of the duchy of 
Chateau Thierry; his mother was Francoise Pidoux. On 
both sides his family was of the highest provincial middle 
class, but was not noble; his father was also fairly wealthy. 
Jean, the eldest child, was educated at the college (grammar- 
school) of Reims, and at the end of his school days he entered 
the Oratory in May 1641, and the seminary of Saint-Magloire 
in October of the same year; but a very short sojourn proved 
to him that he had mistaken his vocation. He then apparently 
studied law, and is said to have been admitted as avocat, though 
there does not seem to be actual proof of this. He was, however, 
settled in life, or at least might have been so, somewhat early. 
In 1647 his father resigned his rangership in his favour, and 
arranged a marriage for him with Marie Hericart, a girl of sixteen, 
who brought him twenty thousand livres, and expectations. 
She seems to have been both handsome and intelligent, but the 
two did not get on well together. There appears to be absolutely 
no ground for the vague scandal as to her conduct, which was, 
for the most part long afterwards, raised by gossips or personal 
enemies of La Fontaine. All that is positively said against 
her is that she was a negligent housewife and an inveterate 
novel reader; La Fontaine himself was constantly away from 
home, was certainly not strict in point of conjugal fidelity, and 
was so bad a man of business that his affairs became involved 
in hopeless difficulty, and a separation de biens had to take 
place in 1658. This was a perfectly amicable transaction for 
the benefit of the family; by degrees, however, the pair, still 
without any actual quarrel, ceased to live together, and for the 
greater part of the last forty years of La Fontaine's life he lived 
in Paris while his wife dwelt at Chateau Thierry, which, however, 
he frequently visited. One son was born to them in 1653, and 
was educated and taken care of wholly by his mother. 

Even in the earlier years of his marriage La Fontaine seems 
to have been much at Paris, but it was not till about 1656 that 
he became a regular visitor to the capital. The duties of his 
office, which were only occasional, were compatible with this 
non-residence. It was not till he was past thirty that his literary 
career began. The reading of Malherbe, it is said, first awoke 
poetical fancies in him, but for some time he attempted nothing 
but trifles in the fashion of the time — epigrams, ballades, rondeaux, 
&c. His first serious work was a translation or adaptation of 
the Eunuchus of Terence (1654). At this time the Maecenas 
of French letters was the Superintendant Fouquet, to whom 
La Fontaine was introduced by Jacques Jannart, a connexion 
of his wife's. Few people who paid their court to Fouquet went 
away empty-handed, and La Fontaine soon received a pension 
of 1000 livres (1659), on the easy terms of a copy of verses for 
each quarter's receipt. He began too a medley of prose and 
poetry, entitled Le Songe de Vaux, on Fouquet's famous country 
house. It was about this time that his wife's property had to 
be separately secured to her, and he seems by degrees to have 
had to sell everything of his own; but, as he never lacked 
powerful and generous patrons, this was of small importance 
to him. In the same year he wrote a ballad, Les Rieurs du 
Beau-Richard, and this was followed by many small pieces of 
occasional poetry addressed to various personages from the king 
downwards. Fouquet soon incurred the royal displeasure, but 
La Fontaine, like most of his literary proteges, was not unfaithful 



to him, the well-known elegy Pleurez, nymphes de Vaux, being 
by no means the only proof of his devotion. Indeed it is thought 
not improbable that a journey to Limoges in 1663 in company 
with Jannart, and of which we have an account written to his 
wife, was not wholly spontaneous, as it certainly was not on 
Jannart's part. Just at this time his affairs did not look promis- 
ing. His father and himself had assumed the title of esquire, 
to which they were not strictly entitled, and, some old edicts 
on the subject having been put in force, an informer procured a 
sentence against the poet fining him 2000 livres. He found, 
however, a new protector in the duke and still more in the 
duchess of Bouillon, his feudal superiors at Chateau Thierry, 
and nothing more is heard of the fine. Some of La Fontaine's 
liveliest verses are addressed to the duchess, Anne Mancini, 
the youngest of Mazarin's nieces, and it is even probable that 
the taste of the duke and duchess for Ariosto had something 
to do with'the writing of his first work of real importance, the 
first book of the Contes, which appeared in 1664. He was then 
forty-three years old, and his previous printed productions 
had been comparatively trivial, though much of his work was 
handed about in manuscript long before it was regularly published. 
It was about this time that the quartette of the Rue du Vieux 
Colombier, so famous in French literary history, was formed. 
It consisted of La Fontaine, Racine, Boileau and Moliere, the 
last of whom was almost of the same age as La Fontaine, the 
other two considerably younger. Chapelle was also a kind of 
outsider in the coterie. There are many anecdotes, some pretty 
obviously apocryphal, about these meetings. The most character- 
istic is perhaps that which asserts that a copy of Chapelain's 
unlucky Pucelle always lay on the table, a certain number of 
lines of which was the appointed punishment for offences against 
the company. The coterie furnished under feigned names 
the personages of La Fontaine's version of the Cupid and Psyche 
story, which, however, with Adonis, was not printed till 1669. 
Meanwhile the poet continued to find friends. In 1664 he was 
regularly commissioned and sworn in as gentleman to the 
duchess dowager of Orleans, and was installed in the Luxembourg. 
He still retained his rangership, and in 1666 we have something 
like a reprimand from Colbert suggesting that he should look 
into some malpractices at Chateau Thierry. In the same year 
appeared the second book of the Contes, and in 1668 the first 
six books of the Fables, with more of both kinds in 1671. In 
this latter year a curious instance of the docility with which the 
poet lent himself to any influence was afforded by his officiating, 
at the instance of the Port-Royalists, as editor of a volume of 
sacred poetry dedicated to the prince de Conti. A year after- 
wards his situation, which had for some time been decidedly 
flourishing, showed signs of changing very much for the worse. 
The duchess of Orleans died, and he apparently had to give up 
his rangership, probably selling it to pay debts. But there was 
always a providence for La Fontaine. Madame de la Sabliere, 
a woman of great beauty, of considerable intellectual power 
and of high character, invited him to make his home in her house, 
where he lived for some twenty years. He seems to have had 
no trouble whatever about his affairs thenceforward; and could 
devote himself to his two different lines of poetry, as well as to 
that of theatrical composition. 

In 1682 he was, at more than sixty years of age, recognized 
as one of the first men of letters of France. Madame de Sevign6, 
one of the soundest literary critics of the time, and by no means 
given to praise mere novelties, had spoken of his second collection 
of Fables published in the winter of 1678 as divine; and it is 
pretty certain that this was the general opinion. It was not 
unreasonable, therefore, that he should present himself to the 
Academy, and, though the subjects of his Contes were scarcely 
calculated to propitiate that decorous assembly, while his 
attachment to Fouquet and to more than one representative 
of the old Frondeur party made him suspect to Colbert and the 
king, most of the members were his personal friends. He was 
first proposed in 1682, but was rejected for Dangeau. The next 
year Colbert died and La Fontaine was again nominated. Boileau 
was also a candidate, but the first ballot gave the fabulist 



7° 



LA FONTAINE 



sixteen votes against seven only for the critic. The king, whose 
assent was necessary, not merely for election but for a second 
ballot in case of the failure of an absolute majority, was ill-pleased, 
and the election was left pending. Another vacancy occurred, 
however, some months later, and to this Boileau was elected. 
The king hastened to approve the choice effusively, adding, 
" Vous pouvez incessamment recevoir La Fontaine, il a promis 
d'etre sage." His admission was indirectly the cause of the 
only serious literary quarrel of his life. A dispute took place 
between the Academy and one of its members, Antoine Furetiere, 
on the subject of the latter's French dictionary, which was 
decided to be a breach of the Academy's corporate privileges. 
Furetiere, a man of no small ability, bitterly assailed those whom 
he considered to be his enemies, and among them La Fontaine, 
whose unlucky Contes made him peculiarly vulnerable, his 
second collection of these tales having been the subject of a 
police condemnation. The death of the author of the Roman 
Bourgeois, however, put an end to this quarrel. Shortly after- 
wards La Fontaine had a share in a still more famous affair, 
the celebrated Ancient-and-Modern squabble in which Boileau 
and Perrault were the chiefs, and in which La Fontaine (though 
he had been specially singled out by Perrault for favourable 
comparison with Aesop and Phaedrus) took the Ancient side. 
About the same time (1685-1687) he made the acquaintance 
of the last of his many hosts and protectors, Monsieur and 
Madame d'Hervart, and fell in love with a certain Madame 
Ulrich, a lady of some position but of doubtful character. This 
acquaintance was accompanied by a great familiarity with 
Vendome, Chaulieu and the rest of the libertine coterie of the 
Temple; but, though Madame de la Sabliere had long given 
herself up almost entirely to good works and religious exercises, 
La Fontaine continued an inmate of her house until her death 
in 1693. What followed is told in one of the best known of 
the many stories bearing on his childlike nature. Hervart on 
hearing of the death, had set out at once to find La Fontaine. 
He met him in the street in great sorrow, and begged him to make 
his home at his house. " J'y allais " was La Fontaine's answer. 
He had already undergone the process of conversion during 
a severe illness the year before. An energetic young priest, 
M. Poucet, had brought him, not indeed to understand, but to 
acknowledge the impropriety of the Contes, and it is said that 
the destruction of a new play of some merit was demanded and 
submitted to as a proof of repentance. A pleasant story is told 
of the young duke of Burgundy, Fenelon's pupil, who was then 
only eleven years old, sending 50 louis to La Fontaine as a 
present of his own motion. But, though La Fontaine recovered 
for the time, he was broken by age and infirmity, and his new 
hosts had to nurse rather than to entertain him, which they 
did very carefully and kindly. He did a little more work, com- 
pleting his Fables among other things; but he did not survive 
Madame de la Sabliere much more than two years, dying on the 
13th of April 1695, at the age of seventy-three. He was buried 
in the cemetery of the Holy Innocents. His wife survived him 
nearly fifteen years. 

The curious personal character of La Fontaine, like that of 
some other men of letters, has been enshrined in a kind of legend 
by literary tradition. At an early age his absence of mind and 
indifference to business gave a subject to Tallemant des Reaux. 
His later contemporaries helped to swell the tale, and the 18th 
century finally accepted it, including the anecdotes of his meeting 
his son, being told who he was, and remarking, " Ah, yes, I 
thought I had seen him somewhere! " of his insisting on fighting 
a duel with a supposed admirer of his wife, and then imploring 
him to visit at his house just as before; of his going into company 
with his stockings wrong side out, &c, with, for a contrast, 
those of his awkwardness and silence, if not positive rudeness, 
in company. It ought to be remembered, as a comment on the 
unfavourable description by La Bruyere, that La Fontaine was a 
special friend and ally of Benserade, La Bruyere's chief literary 
enemy. But after all deductions much will remain, especially 
when it is remembered that one of the chief authorities for these 
anecdotes is Louis Racine, a man who possessed intelligence 



and moral worth, and who received them from his father, La 
Fontaine's attached friend for more than thirty years. Perhaps 
the best worth recording of all these stories is one of the Vieux 
Colombier quartette, which tells how Moliere, while Racine 
and Boileau were exercising their wits upon " le bonhomme " 
or " le bon " (by both which titles La Fontaine was familiarly 
known), remarked to a bystander," Nos beaux esprits ont beau 
faire, ils n'effaceront pas le bonhomme." They have not. 

The works of La Fontaine, the total bulk of which is considerable, 
fall no less naturally than traditionally into three divisions, the 
Fables, the Contes and the miscellaneous works. Of these the first 
may be said to be known universally, the second to be known to 
all lovers of French literature, the third to be with a few exceptions 
practically forgotten. This distribution of the judgment of posterity 
is as usual just in the main, but not wholly. There are excellent 
things in the CEuvres Diver ses, but their excellence is only occasional, 
and it is not at the best equal to that of the Fables or the Contes. 
Itiwas thought by contemporary judges who were both competent 
and friendly that La Fontaine attempted too many styles, and there 
is something in the criticism. His dramatic efforts are especially 
weak. The best pieces usually published under his name — Ragotin, 
Le Florentin, La Coupe enchantee, were originally fathered not by 
him but by Champmesle, the husband of the famous actress who 
captivated Racine and Charles de Sevigne. His avowed work was 
chiefly in the form of opera, a form of no great value at its best. 
Psyche has all the advantages of its charming story and of La 
Fontaine's style, but it is perhaps principally interesting nowadays 
because of the framework of personal conversation already alluded to. 
The mingled prose and verse of the Songe de Vaux is not uninterest- 
ing, but its best things, such as the description of night — 

" Laissant tomber les fleurs et ne les semant pas," 

which has enchanted French critics, are little more than conceits, 
though as in this case sometimes very beautiful conceits. The 
elegies, the epistles, the epigrams, the ballades, contain many things 
which would be very creditable to a minor poet or a writer of vers de 
societe, but even if they be taken according to the wise rule of modern 
criticism, each in its kind, and judged simply according to their rank 
in that kind, they fall far below the merits of the two great collections 
of verse narratives which have assured La Fontaine's immortality. 

Between the actual literary merits of the two there is not much 
to choose, but the change of manners and the altered standard of 
literary decency have thrown the Contes into the shade. These tales 
are identical in general character with those which amused Europe 
from the days of the early fabliau writers. Light love, the mis- 
fortunes of husbands, the cunning of wives, the breach of their vows 
by ecclesiastics, constitute the staple of their subject. In some 
respects La Fontaine is the best of such tale-tellers, while he is 
certainly the latest who deserves such excuse as may be claimed by 
a writer who does not. choose indecent subjects from a deliberate 
knowledge that they are considered indecent, and with a deliberate 
desire to pander to a vicious taste. No one who followed him in the 
style can claim this excuse ; he can, and the way in which contempor- 
aries of stainless virtue such as Madame de Sevign6 speak of his work 
shows that, though the new public opinion was growing up, it was not 
finally accepted. In the Contes La Fontaine for the most part 
attempts little originality of theme. He takes his stories (varying 
them, it is true, in detail not a little) from Boccaccio, from Marguerite, 
from the Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, &c. He applies to them his 
marvellous power of easy sparkling narration, and his hardly less 
marvellous faculty of saying more or less outrageous things in the 
most polite and gentlemanly manner. These Contes have indeed 
certain drawbacks. They are not penetrated by the half pagan 
ardour for physical beauty and the delights of sense which animates 
and excuses the early Italian Renaissance. They have not the subtle 
mixture of passion and sensuality, of poetry and appetite, which 
distinguishes the work of Marguerite and of the Pleiade. They are 
emphatically contes pour rire, a genuine expression • of the esprit 
gaulois of the fabliau writers and of Rabelais, destitute of the gross- 
ness of envelope which had formerly covered that spirit. A com- 
parison of "La Fiancee du roi de Garbe " with its original in 
Boccaccio (especially if the reader takes M. Emile Montegut's ad- 
mirable essay as a commentary) will illustrate better than anything 
else what they have and what they have not. Some writers have 
pleaded hard for the admission of actual passion of the poetical sort 
in such pieces as "La Courtisane amoureuse," but as a whole it 
must be admitted to be absent. 

The Fables, with hardly less animation and narrative art than the 
Contes, are free from disadvantages (according to modern notions) of 
subject, and exhibit the versatility and fecundity of the author's 
talent perhaps even more fully. La Fontaine had many predecessors 
in the fable and especially in the beast fable. In his first issue, 
comprising what are now called the first six books, he adhered to the 
path of these predecessors with some closeness; but in the later 
collections he allowed himself far more liberty, and it is in these parts 
that his genius is most fully manifested. The boldness of the politics 
is as much to be considered as the ingenuity of the moralizing, as the 
intimate knowledge of human nature displayed in the substance cf 



LAFONTAINE, SIR L. H.— LAFOSSE 



7i 



the narratives, or as the artistic mastery shown in their form. It has 
sometimes been objected that the view of human character which La 
Fontaine expresses is unduly dark, and resembles too much that of 
La Rochefoucauld, for whom the poet certainly had a profound 
admiration. The discussion of this point would lead us too far here. 
It may only be said that satire (and La Fontaine is eminently a 
satirist) necessarily concerns itself with the darker rather than with 
the lighter shades. Indeed the objection has become pretty nearly 
obsolete with the obsolescence of what may be called the sentimental- 
ethical school of criticism. Its last overt expression was made by 
Lamartine, excellently answered by Sainte-Beuve. Exception has 
also been taken to the Fables on more purely literary, but hardly less 
purely arbitrary grounds by Lessing. Perhaps the best criticism 
ever passed upon La Fontaine's Fables is that of Silvestre de Sacy, 
to the effect that they supply three several delights to three several 
ages: the child rejoices in the freshness and vividness of the story, 
the eager student of literature in the consummate art with which it is 
told, the experienced man of the world in the subtle reflections on 
character and life which it conveys. Nor has any one, with the ex- 
ception of a few paradoxers like Rousseau and a few sentimentalists 
like Lamartine, denied that the moral tone of the whole is as fresh 
and healthy as its literary interest is vivid. The book has therefore 
naturally become the standard reading book of French both at 
home and abroad, a position which it shares in verse with the 
Telemaque of Fenelon in prose. It is no small testimony to its merit 
that not even this use or misuse has interfered with its popularity. 

The general literary character of La Fontaine is, with allowance 
made for the difference of subject, visible equally in the Fables and in 
the Contes. Perhaps one of the hardest sayings in French literature 
for an English student is the dictum of Joubert to the effect that 
" II y a dans La Fontaine une plenitude de poesie qu'on ne trouve nulle 
part dans les autres auteurs franqais." The difficulty arises from the 
ambiguity of the terms. For inventiveness of fancy and for diligent 
observation of the rules of art La Fontaine deserves, if not the first, 
almost the first place among French poets. In his hands the oldest 
story becomes novel, the most hackneyed moral piquant, the most 
commonplace details fresh and appropriate. As to the second point 
there has not been such unanimous agreement. It used to be con- 
sidered that La Fontaine's ceaseless diversity of metre, his archaisms, 
his licences in rhyme and orthography, were merely ingenious devices 
for the sake of easy writing, intended to evade the trammels of the 
stately couplet and rimes difficiles enjoined by Boileau. Lamartine 
in the attack already mentioned affects contempt of the " vers 
boiteux, disloques, inegaux, sans symmetric ni dans l'oreille ni sur la 
page." This opinion may be said to have been finally exploded by 
the most accurate metrical critic and one of the most skilful metrical 
practitioners that France has ever had, Theodore de Banville; and 
it is only surprising that it should ever have been entertained by any 
professional maker of verse. La Fontaine's irregularities are strictly 
regulated, his cadences carefully arranged, and the whole effect may 
be said to be (though, of course, in a light and tripping measure instead 
of a stately one) similar to that of the stanzas of the English pindaric 
ode in the hands of Dryden or Collins. There is therefore nothing 
against La Fontaine on the score of invention and nothing on the 
score of art. But something more, at least according to English 
standards, is wanted to make up a " plenitude of poesy," and this 
something more La Fontaine seldom or never exhibits. In words 
used by Joubert himself elsewhere, he never " transports." The 
faculty of transporting is possessed and used in very different manners 
by different poets. In some it takes the form of passion, in some of 
half mystical enthusiasm for nature, in some of commanding elo- 
quence, in some of moral fervour. La Fontaine has none of these 
things: he is always amusing, always sensible, always clever, some- 
times even affecting, but at the same time always more or less prosaic, 
were it not for his admirable versification. He is not a great poet, 
perhaps not even a great humorist; but he is the most admirable 
teller of light tales in verse that has ever existed in any time or 
country; and he has established in his verse-tale a model which is 
never likely to be surpassed. 

La Fontaine did not during his life issue any complete edition of 
his works, nor even of the two greatest and most important divisions 
of them. The most remarkable of his separate publications have 
already been noticed. Others were the Po'eme de la captivite de St 
Male (1673), one of the pieces inspired by the Port-Royalists, the 
Po'eme du Quinquina (1692), a piece of task work also, though of a 
very different kind, and a number of pieces published either in small 
pamphlets or with the works of other men. Among the latter may 
be singled out the pieces published by the poet with the works of 
his friend Maucroix (1685). The year after his death some post- 
humous works appeared, and some years after his son's death the 
scattered poems, letters, &c, with the addition of some unpublished 
work bought from the family in manuscript, were carefully edited 
and published as CEuvres diverses (1729). During the 18th century 
two of the most magnificent illustrated editions ever published of 
any poet reproduced the two chief works of La Fontaine. The 
Fables were illustrated by Oudry (1 755-1 759), the Contes by Eisen 
(1762). This latter under the title of " Edition des Fermiers- 
Generaux " fetches a high price. During the first thirty years of 
the 19th century Walckenaer, a great student of French 17th-century 
classics, published for the house of Didot three successive editions of 



La Fontaine, the last (1826-182 7) being perhaps entitled to the rank 
of the standard edition, as his Histoire de la vie et des ouvrages de La 
Fontaine is the standard biography and bibliography. The later 
editions of M. Marty-Laveaux in the Bibliotheque elzhirienne, A. 
Pauly in the Collection des classiques francaises of M. Lemerre and 
L. Moland in that of M. Gamier supply in different forms all that can 
be wished. The second is the handsomest, the third, which is com- 
plete, perhaps the most generally useful. Editions, selections, trans- 
lations, &c, of the Fables, especially for school use, are innumerable; 
but an illustrated edition published by the Librairie des Bibliophiles 
(1874) deserves to be mentioned as not unworthy of its 18th-century 
predecessors. The works of M. Grouchy, Documents inedits sur 
La Fontaine (1893); -of G. Lafenestre, Jean de La Fontaine (1895); 
and of Emile Faguet, Jean de La Fontaine (1900), should be 
mentioned. (G. Sa.) 

LAFONTAINE, SIR LOUIS HIPPOLYTE, Bart. (1807-1864), 
Canadian statesman and judge, third son of Antoine Menard 
LaFontaine (1772-1813) and Marie-J-Fontaine Bienvenue, was 
born at Boucherville in the province of Quebec on the 4th of 
October 1807. LaFontaine was educated at the College de 
Montreal under the direction of the Sulpicians, and was called 
to the bar of the province of Lower Canada on the 18th of August 
1829. He married firstly Adele, daughter of A. Berthelot of 
Quebec; and, secondly, Jane, daughter of Charles Morrison, 
of Berthier, by whom he had two sons. In 1830 he was elected 
a member of the House of Assembly for the county of Terrebonne, 
and became an ardent supporter of Louis Joseph Papineau in 
opposing the administration of the governor-in-chief, which led 
to the rebellion of 1837. LaFontaine, however, did not approve 
the violent methods of his leader, and after the hostilities at 
Saint Denis he presented a petition to Lord Gosford requesting 
him to summon the assembly and to adopt measures to stem 
the revolutionary course of events in Lower Canada. The 
rebellion broke out afresh in the autumn of 1838; the constitution 
of 1 79 1 was suspended; LaFontaine was imprisoned for a 
brief period; and Papineau, who favoured annexation by the 
United States, was in exile. At this crisis in Lower Canada the 
French Canadians turned to LaFontaine as their leader, and 
under his direction maintained their opposition to the special 
council, composed of nominees of the crown. In 1839 Lord 
Sydenham, the governor-general, offered the solicitor generalship 
to LaFontaine, which he refused; and after the Union of 1841 
LaFontaine was defeated in the county of Terrebonne through 
the governor's influence. During the next year he obtained a 
seat in the assembly of the province of Canada, and on the death 
of Sydenham he was called by Sir Charles Bagot to form an 
administration with Robert Baldwin. The ministry resigned 
in November 1843, as a protest against the actions of Lord 
Metcalfe, who had succeeded Bagot. In 1848 LaFontaine 
formed a new administration with Baldwin, and remained in 
office until 1851, when he retired from public life. It was during 
the ministry of LaFontaine-Baldwin that the Amnesty Bill 
was passed, which occasioned grave riots in Montreal, personal 
violence to Lord Elgin and the destruction of the parliament 
buildings. After the death of Sir James Stuart in 1853 La- 
Fontaine was appointed chief justice of Lower Canada and 
president of the seigneurial court, which settled the vexed 
question of land tenure in Canada; and in 1854 he was created 
a baronet. He died at Montreal on the 26th of February 1864. 

LaFontaine was well versed in constitutional' history and French 
law ; he reasoned closely and presented his conclusions with directness. 
He was upright in his conduct, sincerely attached to the traditions of 
his race, and laboured conscientiously to establish responsible govern- 
ment in Canada. His principal works are : L' Analyse de I ' ordonnance 
du conseil special sur les bureaux d" hypotheques (Montreal, 1842); 
Observations sur les questions seigneuriales (Montreal, 1854); see La- 
Fontaine, by A. DeCelles (Toronto, 1906). (A. G. D.) 

LAFOSSE, CHARLES DE (1640-1716), French painter, was 
born in Paris. He was one of the most noted and least servile 
pupils of Le Brun, under whose direction he shared in the chief 
of the great decorative works undertaken in the reign of Louis 
XIV. Leaving France in 1662, he spent two years in Rome and 
three in Venice, and the influence of his prolonged studies of 
Veronese is evident in his " Finding of Moses " (Louvre), and 
in his " Rape of Proserpine " (Louvre), which he presented 
to the Royal Academy as hisjdiploma picture in 1673. He was 



72 



LAGARDE— LAGHMAN 



at once named assistant professor, and in 1674 the full responsi- 
bilities of the office devolved on him, but his engagements did not 
prevent his accepting in 1689 the invitation of Lord Montagu 
to decorate Montagu House. He visited London twice, remaining 
on the second occasion — together with Rousseau and Monnoyer — 
more than two years. William III. vainly strove to detain 
him in England by the proposal that he should decorate Hampton 
Court, for Le Brun was dead, and Mansart pressed Lafosse to 
return to Paris to take in hand the cupola of the Invalides. 
The decorations of Montagu House are destroyed, those of 
Versailles are restored, and the dome of the Invalides (engraved, 
Picart and Cochin) is now the only work existing which gives 
a full measure of his talent. During his latter years Lafosse 
executed many other important decorations in public buildings 
and private houses, notably in that of Crozat, under whose roof 
he died on the 13 th of December 1716. 

LAGARDE, PAUL ANTON DE (1827-1891), German biblical 
scholar and orientalist, was born at Berlin on the 2nd of 
November 1827. His real name was Botticher, Lagarde being 
his mother's name. At Berlin (1844-1846) and Halle (1846- 
1847) he studied theology, philosophy and oriental languages. 
In 1852 his studies took him to London and Paris. In 1854 he 
became a teacher at a Berlin public school, but this did not 
interrupt his biblical studies. He edited the Didascalia aposto- 
lorum syriace (1854), and other Syriac texts collected in the 
British Museum and in Paris. In 1866 he received three years' 
leave of absence to collect fresh materials, and in 1869 succeeded 
Heinrich Ewald as professor of oriental languages at Gottingen. 
Like Ewald, Lagarde was an active worker in a variety of 
subjects and languages; but his chief aim, the elucidation of 
the Bible, was almost always kept in view. He edited the 
Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets 
according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Carlsruhe, 
Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), 
an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch 
aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac 
translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V. T. 
apocryphi syriace (1861), a Coptic translation of the Pentateuch, 
Der Pentateuch koplisch (1867), and a part of the Lucianic text 
of the Septuagint, which he was able to reconstruct from manu- 
scripts for nearly half the Old Testament. He devoted himself 
ardently to oriental scholarship, and published Zur Urgeschichte 
der Armenier (1854) and Armenische Studien (1877). He was 
also a student of Persian, publishing Isaias persice (1883) and 
Persische Studien (1884). He followed up his Coptic studies 
with Aegyptiaca (1883), and published many minor contributions 
to the study of oriental languages in Gesammelte Abhandlungen 
(1866), Symmicta (i. 1877, ii. 1880), Semitica (i. 1878, ii. 1879), 
Orientalia (1879-1880) and Miltheilungen (1884). Mention 
should also be made of the valuable Onomastica sacra (1870; 
2nd ed., 1887). Lagarde also took some part in politics. He 
belonged to the Prussian Conservative party, and was a violent 
anti-Semite. The bitterness which he felt appeared in his 
writings. He died at Gottingen on the 22nd of December 1891. 
See the article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie ; and cf. Anna 
de Lagarde, Paul de Lagarde (1894). 

LAGASH, or Sirpurla, one of the oldest centres of Sumerian 
civilization in Babylonia. It is represented by a rather low, 
long line of ruin mounds, along the dry bed of an ancient canal, 
some 3 m. E. of the Shatt-el-Haii and a little less than 10 m. N. 
of the modern Turkish town of Shatra. These ruins were dis- 
covered in 1877 by Ernest de Sarzec, at that time French consul 
at Basra, who was allowed, by the Montefich chief, Nasir Pasha, 
the first Wali-Pasha, or governor-general, of Basra, to excavate 
at his pleasure in the territories subject to that official. At 
the outset on his own account, and later as a representative of 
the French government, under a Turkish firman, de Sarzec 
continued excavations at this site, with various intermissions, 
until his death in 1901, after which the work was continued under 
the supervision of the Commandant Cros. The principal excava- 
tions were made in two larger mounds, one of which proved to 
be the site of the temple, E-Ninnu, the shrine of the patron god 



of Lagash, Nin-girsu or Ninib. This temple had been razed and 
a fortress built upon its ruins, in the Greek or Seleucid period, 
some of the bricks found bearing the inscription in Aramaic 
and Greek of a certain Hadad-nadin-akhe, king of a small 
Babylonian kingdom. It was beneath this fortress that the 
numerous statues of Gudea were found, which constitute the 
gem of the Babylonian collections at the Louvre. These had 
been decapitated and otherwise mutilated, and thrown into the 
foundations of the new fortress. From this stratum came also 
various fragments of bas reliefs of high artistic excellence. The 
excavations in the other larger mound resulted in the discovery 
of the remains of buildings containing objects of all sorts in 
bronze and stone, dating from the earliest Sumerian period 
onward, and enabling us to trace the art history of Babylonia 
to a date some hundreds of years before the time of Gudea. 
Apparently this mound had been occupied largely by store 
houses, in which were stored not only grain, figs, &c, but also 
vessels, weapons, sculptures and every possible object connected 
with the use and administration of palace and temple. In a 
small outlying mound de Sarzec discovered the archives of 
the temple, about 30,000 inscribed clay tablets, containing 
the business records, and revealing with extraordinary minute- 
ness the administration of an ancient Babylonian temple, the 
character of its property, the method of farming its lands, herding 
its flocks, and its commercial and industrial dealings and enter- 
prises; for an ancient Babylonian temple was a great industrial, 
commercial, agricultural and stock-raising establishment. Un- 
fortunately, before these archives could be removed, the galleries 
containing them were rifled by the Arabs, and large numbers 
of the tablets were sold to antiquity dealers, by whom they have 
been scattered all over Europe and America. From the inscrip- 
tions found at Tello, it appears that Lagash was a city of great 
importance in the Sumerian period, some time probably in the 
4th millennium B.C. It was at that time ruled by independent 
kings, Ur-Nina and his successors, who were engaged in contests 
with the Elamites on the east and the kings of Kengi and Kish 
on the north. With the Semitic conquest it lost its independence, 
its rulers becoming patesis, dependent rulers, under Sargon and 
his successors; but it still remained Sumerian and continued to 
be a city of much importance, and, above all, a centre of artistic 
development. Indeed, it was in this period and under the 
immediately succeeding supremacy of the kings of Ur, Ur-Gur 
and Dungi, that it reached its highest artistic development. At 
this period, also, under its patesis, Ur-bau and Gudea, Lagash had 
extensive commercial communications with distant realms. 
According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the 
Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite 
from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern 
Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies, presumably under his 
over-lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in battles in Elam on the east. 
His was especially the era of artistic development. Some of 
the earlier works of Ur-Nina, En-anna-tum, Entemena and 
others, before the Semitic conquest, are also extremely interesting, 
especially the famous stele of the vultures and a great silver vase 
ornamented with what may be called the coat of arms of Lagash, 
a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, grasping a lion in each 
talon. After the time of Gudea, Lagash seems to have lost its 
importance; at least we know nothing more about it until the 
construction of the Seleucid fortress mentioned, when it seems 
to have become part of the Greek kingdom of Characene. The 
objects found at Tello are the most valuable art treasures up to 
this time discovered in Babylonia. 
See E. de Sarzec, Dfoouvertes en Chaldee (1887 foil.). 

(J. P- Pe.) 
LAGHMAN, a district of Afghanistan, in the province of 
Jalalabad, between Jalalabad and Kabul, on the northern side 
of the Peshawar road, one of the richest and most fertile tracts 
in Afghanistan. It is the valley of the Kabul river between the 
Tagao and the Kunar and merges on the north into Kafiristan. 
The inhabitants, Ghilzais and Tajiks, are supposed to be the 
cleverest business people in the country. Sugar, cotton and 
rice are exported to Kabul. The Laghman route between Kabul 



LAGOON— LAGOS 



73 



and India crossing the Kunar river into the Mohmand country 
is the route followed by Alexander the Great and Baber; but 
it has now been supplanted by the Khyber. 

LAGOON (Fr. lagune, Lat. lacuna, a pool), a term applied to 
(i) a sheet of salt or brackish water near the sea, (2) a sheet of 
fresh water of no great depth or extent, (3) the expanse of smooth 
water enclosed by an atoll. Sea lagoons are formed only where 
the shores are low and protected from wave action. Under these 
conditions a bar may be raised above sea-level or a spit may 
grow until its end touches the land. The enclosed shallow water 
is then isolated in a wide stretch, the seaward banks broaden, 
and the lagoon becomes a permanent area of still shallow water 
with peculiar faunal features. In the old lake plains of Australia 
there are occasional wide and shallow depressions where water 
collects permanently. Large numbers of aquatic birds, black 
swans, wild duck, teal, migrant spoon-bills or pelicans, resort 
to these fresh-water lagoons. 

LAGOS, the western province of Southern Nigeria, a British 
colony and protectorate in West Africa. The province consists 
of three divisions: (1) the coast region, including Lagos Island, 
being the former colony of Lagos; (2) small native states 
adjacent to the colony; and (3) the Yoruba country, farther 
inland. The total area is some 27,000 sq. m., or about the size 
of Scotland. The province is bounded S. by the Gulf of Guinea, 
(from 2 46' 55" to 4° 30' E.); W. by the French colony of 
Dahomey; N. and E. by other provinces of Nigeria. 

Physical Features. — The coast is low, marshy and malarious, and 
all along the shore the great Atlantic billows cause a dangerous surf. 
Behind the coast-line stretches a series of lagoons, in which are small 
islands, that of Lagos having an area of 3! sq. m. Beyond the 
lagoons and mangrove swamps is a broad zone of dense primeval 
forest — " the bush " — which completely separates the arable lands 
from the coast lagoons. The water-parting of the streams flowing 
north to the Niger, and south to the Gulf of Guinea, is the main 
physical feature. The general level of Yorubaland is under 2000 ft. 
But towards the east, about the upper course of the river Oshun, the 
elevation is higher. Southward from the divide the land, which is 
intersected by the nearly parallel courses of the rivers Ogun, Omi, 
Oshun, Oni and Oluwa, falls in continuous undulations to the coast, 
the open cultivated ground gradually giving place to forest tracts, 
where the most characteristic tree is the oil-palm. Flowering trees, 
certain kinds of rubber vines, and shrubs are plentiful. In the 
northern regions the shea-butter tree is found. The fauna resembles 
that of the other regions of the Guinea coast, but large game is 
becoming' scarce. Leopards, antelopes and monkeys are common, 
and alligators infest the rivers. 

The lagoons, lying between the outer surf-beaten beach and the 
inner shore line, form a navigable highway of still waters, many miles 
in extent. They are almost entirely free from rock, though they are 
often shallow, with numerous mud banks. The most extensive are 
Lekki in the east, and Ikoradu (Lagos) in the west. At its N.W. 
extremity the Lagos lagoon receives the Ogun, the largest river in 
Yorubaland, whose current is strong enough to keep the seaward 
channel open throughout the year. Hence the importance of the 
port of Lagos, which lies in smooth water at the northern end of this 
channel. The outer entrance is obstructed by a dangerous sand bar. 
Climate and Health. — The climate is unhealthy, especially for 
Europeans. The rainfall has not been ascertained in the interior. 
In the northern districts it is probably considerably less than at 
Lagos, where it is about 70 in. a year. The variation is, however, very 
great. In 1901 the rainfall was 112 in., in 1902 but 47, these figures 
being respectively the highest and lowest recorded in a period of 
seventeen years. The mean temperature at Lagos is 82-5° F., the 
range being from 68 ° to 9 1 °. At certain seasons sudden heavy squalls 
of wind and rain that last for a few hours are common. The hurri- 
cane and typhoon are unknown. The principal diseases are malarial 
fever, smallpox, rheumatism, peripheral neuritis, dysentery, chest 
diseases and guinea-worm. Fever not unfrequently assumes the 
dangerous form known as " black-water fever." The frequency 
of smallpox is being much diminished outside the larger towns in the 
interior, in which vaccination is neglected. The absence of plague, 
yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever and scarlatina is noteworthy. 
A mild form of yaws is endemic. 

Inhabitants. — The population is estimated at 1,750,000. The 
Yoruba people, a Negro race divided into many tribes, form the 
majority of the inhabitants. Notwithstanding their political 
feuds and their proved capacity as fighting men, the Yoruba 
are distinguished above all the surrounding races for their 
generally peaceful disposition, industry, friendliness, courtesy 
and hospitality towards strangers. They are also intensely 
patriotic. Physically they resemble closely their Ewe and 



Dahomey neighbours, but are of somewhat lighter complexion, 
taller and of less pronounced Negro features. They exhibit 
high administrative ability, possess a marked capacity for trade, 
and have made remarkable progress in the industrial arts. The 
different tribes are distinguished by tattoo markings, usually 
some simple pattern of two or more parallel lines, disposed 
horizontally or vertically on the cheeks or other parts of the 
face. The feeling for religion is deeply implanted among the 
Yoruba. The majority are pagans, or dominated by pagan beliefs, 
but Islam has made great progress since the cessation of ttie 
Fula wars, while Protestant and Roman Catholic missions have 
been at work since 1848 at Abeokuta, Oyo, Ibadan and other 
large towns. Samuel Crowther, the first Negro bishop in the 
Anglican church, who was distinguished as an explorer, geo- 
grapher and linguist, was a native of Yorubaland, rescued 
(1822) by the English from slavery and educated at Sierra Leone 
(see Yoeubas). 

Towns. — Besides Lagos (q.v.), pop. about 50,000, the chief 
towns in the colony proper are Epe, pop. 16,000, on the northern 
side of the lagoons, and Badagry (a notorious place during the 
slave-trade period) and Lekki, both on the coast. Inland the 
chief towns are Abeokuta (q.v.), pop. about 60,000, and Ibadan 
(q.v.), pop. estimated at 150,000. 

Agriculture and Trade.- — The chief wealth of the country 
consists in forest produce, the staple industries being the collec- 
tion of palm-kernels and palm oil. Besides the oil-palm forests 
large areas are covered with timber trees, the wood chiefly cut 
for commercial purposes being a kind of mahogany. The destruc- 
tion of immature trees and the fluctuations in price render this a 
very uncertain trade. The rubber industry was started in 1894, 
and in 1896 the rubber exported was valued at £347,000. In 
1899, owing to reckless methods of tapping the vines, 75% of 
the rubber plants died. Precautions were then taken to preserve 
the remainder and allow young plants to grow. The collection 
of rubber recommenced in 1904 and the industry again became 
one of importance. A considerable area is devoted to cocoa 
plantations, all owned by native cultivators. Coffee and tobacco 
of good quality are cultivated and shea-butter is largely used as 
an illuminant. The Yoruba country is the greatest agricultural 
centre in West Africa. For home consumption the Yoruba 
grow yams, maize and millet, the chief articles of food, cassava, 
sweet potatoes, sesame and beans. Model farms have been 
established for experimental culture and for the tuition of the 
natives. A palatable wine is obtained from the Raphia vinifera 
and native beers are also brewed. Imported spirits are largely 
consumed. There are no manufactures on a large scale save 
the making of " country cloths " (from cotton grown, spun and 
woven in the country) and mats. Pottery and agricultural 
implements are made, and tanning, dyeing and forging practised 
in the towns, and along the rivers and lagoons boats and canoes 
are built. Fishing is extensively engaged in, the fish being 
dried and sent up country. Except iron there are no valuable 
minerals in the country. 

The cotton plant from which the " country cloths " are made 
is native to the country, the soil of which is capable of producing 
the very finest grades of cotton. The Egba branch of the Yoruba 
have always grown the plant. In 1869 the cotton exported was 
valued at £76,957, but owing to low prices the natives ceased to 
grow cotton for export, so that in 1879 the value of exported 
cotton was only £526. In 1902 planting for export was recom- 
menced by the Egba on scientific lines, and was started in the 
Abeokuta district with encouraging results. 

The Yoruba profess to be unable to alienate land in per- 
petuity, but native custom does not preclude leasing, and land 
concessions have been taken up by Europeans on long leases. 
Some concessions are only for cutting and removing timber; 
others permit of cultivation. The northern parts of the pro- 
tectorate are specially suitable for stock raising and poultry 
culture. 

The chief exports are palm-kernels, palm-oil, timber, rubber 
and cocoa. Palm-kernels alone constitute more than a half in 
value of the total exports, and with palm-oil over three-fourths. 



74 



LAGOS 



The trade in these products is practically confined to Great 
Britain and Germany, the share of the first-named being 25 % 
to Germany's 75%. Minor exports are coffee, "country 
cloths," maize, shea-butter and ivory. 

Cotton goods are the most important of the imports, spirits 
coming next, followed by building material, haberdashery and 
hardware and tobacco. Over 90% of the cotton goods are 
imported from Great Britain, whilst nearly the same proportion 
of the spirit imports come from Germany. Nearly all the 
liquors consist of " Trade Spirits," chiefly gin, rum and a con- 
coction called " alcohol," introduced (1901) to meet the growing 
taste of the people for stronger liquor. This stuff contained 90 % 
of pure alcohol and sometimes over 4% of fusel oil. To hinder 
the sale of this noxious compound legislation was passed in 1903 
prohibiting the import of liquor containing more than §% 
of fusel oil, whilst the states of Abeokuta and Ibadan prohibited 
the importation of liquor stronger than proof. The total trade 
of the country in 1905 was valued at £2,224,754, the imports 
slightly exceeding the exports. There is a large transit trade 
with Dahomey. 

Communications.— Lagos is well supplied with means of com- 
munication. A 3 ft. 6 in. gauge railway starts from Iddo Island, and 
extends past Abeokuta, 64 m. from Lagos, Ibadan (123 m.), Oshogbo 
(175 m.), to Illorin (247 m.) in Northern Nigeria, whence the line is 
continued to Jebba and Zunguru (see Nigeria). Abeokuta is served 
by a branch line, ijm. long, from Aro on the main line. Railway 
bridges connect Iddo Island both with the mainland and with Lagos 
Island (see Lagos, town). This line was begun in 1896 and opened 
to Ibadan in 1901. In 1905 the building of the section Ibadan- 
Illorin was undertaken. The railway was built by the government 
and cost about £7000 per mile. The lagoons offer convenient channels 
for numerous small craft, which, with the exception of steam- 
launches, are almost entirely native-built canoes. Branch steamers 
run between the Forcados mouth of the Niger and Lagos, and also 
between Lagos and Porto Novo, in French territory, and do a large 
transit trade. Various roads through the bush have been made by 
the government. There is telegraphic communication with Europe, 
Northern Nigeria and South Africa, and steamships ply regularly 
between Lagos and Liverpool, and Lagos and Hamburg (see Lagos, 
town). 

Administration, Justice, Education, &c. — The small part of the 
province which constitutes " the colony of Southern Nigeria " is 
governed as a crown colony. Elsewhere the native governments are 
retained, the chiefs and councils of elders receiving the advice and 
support of British commissioners. There is also an advisory native 
central council which meets at Lagos. The great majority of the 
civil servants are natives of the country, some of whom have been 
educated in England. The legal status of slavery is not recognized 
by the law courts and dealing in slaves is suppressed. As an institu- 
tion slavery is dying out, and only exists in a domestic form. 

The cost of administration is met, mainly, by customs, largely de- 
rived from the duties on imported spirits. From the railways, a 
government monopoly, a considerable net profit is earned. Ex- 
penditure is mainly under the heads of railway administration, other 
public works, military and police, health, and education. The 
revenue increased in the ten years 1895-1905 from £142,049 to 
£410,250. In the same period the expenditure rose from £144,484 

to £354,254- 

The defence of the province is entrusted to the Lagos battalion of 
the West African Frontier Force, a body under the control of the 
Colonial Office in London and composed of Hausa (four-fifths) and 
Yoruba. It is officered from the British army. 

The judicial system in the colony proper is based on that of 
England. The colonial supreme court, by agreement with the rulers 
of Abeokuta, Ibadan and other states in the protectorate, tries, with 
the aid of native assessors, all cases of importance in those countries. 
Other cases are tried by mixed courts, or, where Yoruba alone are 
concerned, by native courts. 

There is a government board of education which maintains a few 
schools and supervises those voluntarily established. These are 
chiefly those of various missionary societies, who, besides primary 
schools, have a few secondary schools. The Mahommedans have 
their own schools. Grants from public funds are made to the 
voluntary schools. Considerable attention is paid to manual train- 
ing, the laws of health and the teaching of English, which is spoken 
by about one-fourth of the native population. 

History. — Lagos Island was so named by the Portuguese 
explorers of the 15th century, because of the numerous lagoons 
or lakes on this part of the coast. The Portuguese, and after 
them the French, had settlements here at various points. In 
the 1 8th century Lagos Lagoon became the chief resort of slavers 
frequenting the Bight of Benin, this portion of the Gulf of 



Guinea becoming known pre-eminently as the Slave Coast- 
British traders established themselves at Badagry, 40 m. W. 
of Lagos, where in 1851 they were attacked by Kosoko, the 
Yoruba king of Lagos Island. As a result a British naval force 
seized Lagos after a sharp fight and deposed the king, placing 
his cousin, Akitoye, on the throne. A treaty was concluded 
under which Akitoye bound himself to put down the slave 
trade. This treaty was not adhered to, and in 1861 Akitoye's 
son and successor, King Docemo, was induced to give up his 
territorial jurisdiction and accept a pension of 1200 bags of 
cowries, afterwards commuted to £1000 a year, which pension 
he drew until his death in 1885. Immediately after the proclama- 
tion of the British annexation, a steady current of immigration 
from the mainland set in, and a flourishing town arose on Lagos 
Island. Iddo Island was acquired at the same time as Lagos 
Island, and from 1862 to 1894 various additions by purchase 
or cession were made to the colony. In 1879 the small kingdom 
of Kotonu was placed under British protection. Kotonu lies 
south and east of the Denham Lagoon (see Dahomey). In 
1889 it was exchanged with the French for the kingdom of Pokra 
which is to the north of Badagry. In the early years of the colony 
Sir John Glover, R.N., who was twice governor (1864-1866 and 
1871-1872), did much pioneer work and earned the confidence 
of the natives to a remarkable degree. Later Sir C. A. Moloney 
(governor 1886-1890) opened up relations with the Yoruba 
and other tribes in the hinterland. He despatched two com- 
missioners whose duty it was to conclude commercial treaties 
and use British influence to put a stop to intertribal fighting 
and the closing of the trade routes. In 1892 the Jebu, who acted 
as middlemen between the colony and the Yoruba, closed several 
trade routes. An expedition sent against them resulted in their 
subjugation and the annexation of part of their country. An 
order in council issued in 1899 extended the protectorate over 
Yorubaland. The tribes of the hinterland have largely welcomed 
the British protectorate and military expeditions have been 
few and unimportant. (For the history of the Yoruba states 
see Yorubas.) 

Lagos was made a separate government in 1863; in 1866 it 
was placed in political dependence upon Sierra Leone; in 1874 
it became (politically) an integral part of the Gold Coast Colony, 
whilst in 1886 it was again made a separate government, ad- 
ministered as a crown colony. In Sir William Macgregor, M.D., 
formerly administrator of British New Guinea, governor 1899- 
1904, the colony found an enlightened ruler. He inaugurated 
the railway system, and drew much closer the friendly ties 
between the British and the tribes of the protectorate. Mean- 
time, since 1884, the whole of the Niger delta, lying immediately 
east of Lagos, as well as the Hausa states and Bornu, had been 
acquired by Great Britain. Unification of the British possessions 
in Nigeria being desirable, the delta regions and Lagos were 
formed in 1906 into one government (see Nigeria). 

See C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol. iii. 
West Africa (Oxford, 1896) ; the annual Reports issued by the Colonial 
Office, London; A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples (London, 
1894); Lady Glover, The Life of Sir John Hawley Clover (London, 
1897). Consult also the works cited under Nigeria and Dahomey. 

LAGOS, a seaport of West Africa, capital of the British colony 
and protectorate of Southern Nigeria, in 6° 26' N., 3 23' E. on 
an island in a lagoon named Lagos also. Between Lagos and 
the mainland is Iddo Island. An iron bridge for road and rail- 
way traffic 2600 ft. long connects Lagos and Iddo Islands, and 
another iron bridge, 917 ft. long, joins Iddo Island to the main- 
land. The town lies but a foot or two above sea-level. The 
principal buildings are a large government house, the law courts, 
the memorial hall erected to commemorate the services of Sir 
John Glover, used for public meetings and entertainments, 
an elaborate club-house provided from public funds, and the 
police quarters. There are many substantial villas that serve 
as quarters for the officers of the civil service, as well as numerous 
solidly-built handsome private buildings. The streets are well 
kept; the town is supplied with electric light, and there is a 
good water service. The chief stores and dep6ts for goods are 



LAGOS— LAGRANGE 



75 



all on the banks of the lagoon. The swamps of which originally 
Lagos Island entirely consisted have been reclaimed. In 
connexion with this work a canal, 25 ft. wide, has been cut right 
through the island and a sea-wall built round its western half. 
There is a commodious public hospital, of the cottage type, 
on a good site. There is a racecourse, which also serves as a 
general public recreation ground. Shifting banks of sand form 
a bar at the sea entrance of the lagoon. Extensive works were 
undertaken in 1908 with a view to making Lagos an open port. 
A mole has been built at the eastern entrance to the harbour 
and dredgers are at work on the bar, which can be crossed by 
vessels drawing 13 ft. Large ocean-going steamers anchor 
not less than 2 m. from land, and goods and passengers are 
there transhipped into smaller steamers for Lagos. Heavy 
cargo is carried by the large steamers to Forcados, 200 m. farther 
down the coast, transhipped there into branch boats, and taken 
via the lagoons to Lagos. The port is 4279 m. from Liverpool, 
1203 from Freetown, Sierra Leone (the nearest safe port west- 
ward), and 315 from Cape Coast. 

The inhabitants, about 50,000, include, besides the native 
tribes, Sierra Leonis, Fanti, Krumen and the descendants of 
some 6000 Brazilian emancipados who were settled here in the 
early days of British rule. The Europeans number about 400. 
Rather more than half the populace are Moslems. 

LAGOS, a seaport of southern Portugal, in the district of Faro 
(formerly the province of Algarve) ; on the Atlantic Ocean, and 
on the estuary of the small river Lagos, here spanned by a fine 
stone bridge. Pop. (1900) 8291. The city is defended by fortifi- 
cations erected in the 17th century. It is supplied with water 
by an aqueduct 800 yds. long. The harbour is deep, capacious, 
and completely sheltered on the north and west; it is frequently 
visited by the British Channel fleet. Vines and figs are extensively 
cultivated in the neighbourhood, and Lagos is the centre of 
important sardine and tunny fisheries. Its trade is chiefly 
carried on by small coasting vessels, as there is no railway. 
Lagos is on or near the site of the Roman Lacobriga. Since the 
15th century it has held the formal rank and title of city. Cape 
St Vincent, the ancient Promontorium Sacrum, and the south- 
western extremity of the kingdom, is 22 m. W. It is famous 
for its connexion with Prince Henry (q.v.), the Navigator, who 
here founded the town of Sagres in 1421; and for several 
British naval victories, the most celebrated of which was won 
in 1797 by Admiral Jervis (afterwards Earl St Vincent) over a 
larger Spanish squadron. In 1759 Admiral Boscawen defeated 
a French fleet off Lagos. The great earthquake of 1 755 destroyed 
a large part of the city. 

LA GRACE, or Les GrAces, a game invented in France during 
the first quarter of the 19th century and called there le jeu dcs 
Grdces. It is played with two light sticks about 16 in. long and 
a wicker ring, which is projected into the air by placing it over 
the sticks crossed and then separating them rapidly. The ring 
is caught upon the stick of another player and thrown back, 
the object being to prevent it from falling to the ground. 

LA GRAND' COMBE, a town of southern France, in the depart- 
ment of Gard on the Gardon, 39 m. N.N.W. of Nimes by rail. 
Pop. (1906) town, 6406; commune, 11,292. There are extensive 
coal mines in the vicinity. 

LAGRANGE, JOSEPH LOUIS (1736-1813), French mathe- 
matician, was born at Turin, on the 25th of January 1736. He 
was of French extraction, his great grandfather, a cavalry 
captain, having passed from the service of France to that of 
Sardinia, and settled in Turin under Emmanuel II. His father, 
Joseph Louis Lagrange, married Maria Theresa Gros, only 
daughter of a rich physician at Cambiano, and had by her eleven 
children, of whom only the eldest (the subject of this notice) 
and the youngest survived infancy. His emoluments as treasurer 
at war, together with his wife's fortune, provided him with 
ample means, which he lost by rash speculations, a circumstance 
regarded by his son as the prelude to his own good fortune; for 
had he been rich, he used to say, he might never have known 
mathematics. 

The genius of Lagrange did not at once take its true bent. 



His earliest tastes were literary rather than scientific, and he 
learned the rudiments of geometry during his first year at the 
college of Turin, without difficulty, but without distinction. 
The perusal of a tract by Halley (Phil. Trans, xviii. 960) 
roused his enthusiasm for the analytical method, of which he 
was destined to develop the utmost capabilities. He now entered, 
unaided save by his own unerring tact and vivid apprehension, 
upon a course of study which, in two years, placed him on a level 
with the greatest of his contemporaries. At the age of nineteen 
he communicated to Leonhard Euler his idea of a general method 
of dealing with " isoperimetrical " problems, known later as 
the Calculus of Variations. It was eagerly welcomed by the 
Berlin mathematician, who had the generosity to withhold from 
publication his own further researches on the subject, until his 
youthful correspondent should have had time to complete and 
opportunity to claim the invention. This prosperous opening 
gave the key-note to Lagrange's career. Appointed, in 1754, 
professor of geometry in the royal school of artillery, he formed 
with some of his pupils — for the most part his seniors — friend- 
ships based on community of scientific ardour. With the aid of 
the marquis de Saluces and the anatomist G. F. Cigna, he 
founded in 1758 a society which became the Turin Academy of 
Sciences. The first volume of its memoirs, 1 published in the 
following year, contained a paper by Lagrange entitled Recherches 
sur la nature et la propagation du son, in which the power of his 
analysis and his address in its application were equally con- 
spicuous. He made his first appearance in public as the critic 
of Newton, and the arbiter between d'Alembert and Euler. By 
considering only the particles of air found in a right line, he 
reduced the problem of the propagation of sound to the solution of 
the same partial differential equations that include the motions 
of vibrating strings, and demonstrated the insufficiency of the 
methods employed by both his great contemporaries in dealing 
with the latter subject. He further treated in a masterly manner 
of echoes and the mixture of sounds, and explained the pheno- 
menon of grave harmonics as due to the occurrence of beats so 
rapid as to generate a musical note. This was followed, in the 
second volume of the Miscellanea Taurinensia (1762) by his 
" Essai d'une nouvelle methode pour determiner les maxima et 
les minima des formules integrates indefinies," together with the 
application of this important development of analysis to the 
solution of several dynamical problems, as well as to the demon- 
stration of the mechanical principle of " least action." The 
essential point in his advance on Euler's mode of investigating 
curves of maximum or minimum consisted in his purely analytical 
conception of the subject. He not only freed it from all trammels 
of geometrical construction, but by the introduction of the 
symbol 5 gave it the efficacy of a new calculus. He is thus justly 
regarded as the inventor of the " method of variations " — a 
name supplied by Euler in 1766. 

By these performances Lagrange found himself, at the age 
of twenty-six, on the summit of European fame. Such a height 
had not been reached without cost. Intense application during 
early youth had weakened a constitution never robust, and led 
to accesses of feverish exaltation culminating, in the spring of 
1 761, in an attack of bilious hypochondria, which permanently 
lowered the tone of his nervous system. Rest and exercise, 
however, temporarily restored his health, and he gave proof 
of the undiminished vigour of his powers by carrying off, in 
1764, the prize offered by the Paris Academy of Sciences for the 
best essay on the libration of the moon. His treatise was remark- 
able, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coin- 
cidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, 
but as containing the first employment of his radical formula 
of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of 
d'Alembert that of virtual velocities. His success encouraged 
the Academy to propose, in 1766, as a theme for competition, the 
hitherto unattempted theory of the Jovian system. The prize 
was again awarded to Lagrange; and he earned the same dis- 
tinction with essays on the problem of three bodies in 1772, on 
the secular equation of the moon in- 1774, and in 1778 on the 
theory of cometary perturbations. 



7 6 



LAGRANGE 



He had in the meantime gratified a long felt desire by a visit 
to Paris, where he enjoyed the stimulating delight of conversing 
with such mathematicians as A. C. Clairault, d'Alembert, 
Condorcet and the Abbe Marie. Illness prevented him from 
visiting London. The post of director of the mathematical 
department of the Berlin Academy (of which he had been a 
member since 1759) becoming vacant by the removal of Euler 
to St Petersburg, the latter and d'Alembert united to recommend 
Lagrange as his successor. Euler's eulogium was enhanced by 
his desire to quit Berlin, d'Alembert's by his dread of a royal 
command to repair thither; and the result was that an invita- 
tion, conveying the wish of the " greatest king in Europe " to 
have the " greatest mathematician " at his court, was sent to 
Turin. On the 6th of November 1766, Lagrange was installed 
in his new position, with a salary of 6000 francs, ample leisure 
for scientific research, and royal favour sufficient to secure him 
respect without exciting envy. The national jealousy of 
foreigners, was at first a source of annoyance to him; but such 
prejudices were gradually disarmed by the inoffensiveness of his 
demeanour. We are told that the universal example of his 
colleagues, rather than any desire for female society, impelled 
him to matrimony; his choice being a lady of the Conti family, 
who, by his request, joined him at Berlin. Soon after marriage 
his wife was attacked by a lingering illness, to which she suc- 
cumbed, Lagrange devoting all his time, and a considerable store 
of medical knowledge, to her care. 

The long series of memoirs — some of them complete treatises 
of great moment in the history of science — communicated by 
Lagrange to the Berlin Academy between the years 1767 and 
1787 were not the only fruits of his exile. His Mecanique 
analytique, in which his genius most fully displayed itself, was 
produced during the same period. This great work was the 
perfect realization of a design conceived by the author almost 
in boyhood, and clearly sketched in his first published essay. 1 
Its scope may be briefly described as the reduction of the theory 
of mechanics to certain general formulae, from the simple 
development of which should be derived the equations necessary 
for the solution of each separate problem. 2 From the funda- 
mental principle of virtual velocities, which thus acquired a new 
significance, Lagrange deduced, with the aid of the calculus 
of variations, the whole system of mechanical truths, by pro- 
cesses so elegant, lucid and harmonious as to constitute, in Sir 
William Hamilton's words, " a kind of scientific poem." This 
unification of method was one of matter also. By his mode of 
regarding a liquid as a material system characterized by the 
unshackled mobility of its minutest parts, the separation between 
the mechanics of matter in different forms of aggregation finally 
disappeared, and the fundamental equation of forces was for 
the first time extended to hydrostatics and hydrodynamics. 3 
Thus a universal science of matter and motion was derived, by 
an unbroken sequence of deduction, from one radical principle; 
and analytical mechanics assumed the clear and complete form 
of logical perfection which it now wears. 

A publisher having with some, difficulty been found, the book 
appeared at Paris in 1 788 under the supervision of A. M. Legendre. 
But before that time Lagrange himself was on the spot. After 
the death of Frederick the Great, his presence was competed 
for by the courts of France, Spain and Naples, and a residence 
in Berlin having ceased to possess any attraction for him, he 
removed to Paris in 1787. Marie Antoinette warmly patronized 
him. He was lodged in the Louvre, received the grant of an 
income equal to that he had hitherto enjoyed, and, with the 
title of " veteran pensioner " in lieu of that of " foreign associate " 
(conferred in 1772), the right of voting at the deliberations of the 
Academy. In the midst of these distinctions, a profound 
melancholy seized upon him. His mathematical enthusiasm 
was for the time completely quenched, and during two years 
the printed volume of his Mecanique, which he had seen only in 
manuscript, lay unopened beside him. He relieved his dejection 

1 (Euvres, i. 15. 2 Mec. An., Advertisement to 1st ed. 

3 E. Duhring, Kritische Gesch. der Mechanik, 220, 367; Lagrange, 
Mec. An. i. 166-172, 3rd ed. 



with miscellaneous studies, especially with that of chemistry, 
which, in the new form given to it by Lavoisier, he found " aisee 
comme l'algebre." The Revolution roused him once more to 
activity and cheerfulness- Curiosity impelled him to remain 
and watch the progress of such a novel phenomenon; but 
curiosity was changed into dismay as the terrific character of the 
phenomenon unfolded itself. He now bitterly regretted his 
temerity in braving the danger. " Tu l'as voulu" he would 
repeat self-reproachfully. Even from revolutionary tribunals, 
however, the name of Lagrange uniformly commanded respect. 
His pension was continued by the National Assembly, and he 
was partially indemnified for the depreciation of the currency 
by remunerative appointments. Nominated president of the 
Academical commission for the reform of weights and measures, 
his services were retained when its " purification " by the 
Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues. He again 
sat on the commission of 1 799 for the construction of the metric 
system, and by his zealous advocacy of the decimal principle 
largely contributed to its adoption. 

Meanwhile, on the 31st of May 1792 he married Mademoiselle 
Lemonnier, daughter of the astronomer of that name, a young 
and beautiful girl, whose devotion ignored disparity of years, 
and formed the one tie with life which Lagrange found it hard to 
break. He had no children by either marriage. Although 
specially exempted from the operation of the decree of October 
1793, imposing banishment on foreign residents, he took alarm 
at the fate of J. S. Bailly and A. L. Lavoisier, and prepared 
to resume his former situation in Berlin. His design was frus- 
trated by the establishment of and his official connexion with 
the Ecole Normale, and the Ecole Polytechnique. The former 
institution had an ephemeral existence; but amongst the 
benefits derived from the foundation of the Ecole Polytechnique 
one of the greatest, it has been observed, 4 was the restoration 
of Lagrange to mathematics. The remembrance of his teachings 
was long treasured by such of his auditors — amongst whom 
were J. B. J. Delambre and S. F. Lacroix — as were capable of 
appreciating them. In expounding the principles of the differ- 
ential calculus, he started, as it were, from the level of his pupils, 
and ascended with them by almost insensible gradations from 
elementary to abstruse conceptions. He seemed, not a professor 
amongst students, but a learner amongst learners; pauses for 
thought alternated with luminous exposition; invention 
accompanied demonstration; and thus originated his Theorie 
des fonctions analytiques (Paris, 1797). The leading idea of this 
work was contained in a paper published in the Berlin Memoirs 
for 1772. 5 Its object was the elimination of the, to some minds, 
unsatisfactory conception of the infinite from the metaphysics 
of the higher mathematics, and the substitution for the differential 
and integral calculus of an analogous method depending wholly 
on the serial development of algebraical functions. By means 
of this " calculus of derived functions " Lagrange hoped to give 
to the solution of all analytical problems the utmost " rigour of 
the demonstrations of the ancients"; 6 but it cannot be said 
that the attempt was successful. The validity of his fundamental 
position was impaired by the absence of a well-constituted 
theory of series; the notation employed was inconvenient, 
and was abandoned by its inventor in the second edition of his 
Mecanique; while his scruples as to the admission into analytical 
investigations of the idea of limits or vanishing ratios have long 
since been laid aside as idle. Nowhere, however, were the 
keenness and clearness of his intellect more conspicuous than 
in this brilliant effort, which, if it failed in its immediate object, 
was highly effective in secondary results. His purely abstract 
mode of regarding functions, apart from any mechanical 01 
geometrical considerations, led the way to a new and sharply 
characterized development of the higher analysis in the hands 
of A. Cauchy, C. G. Jacobi, and others. 7 The Theorie des 
fonctions is divided into three parts, of which the first explains 
the general doctrine of functions, the second deals with its 

4 Notice by J. Delambre, CEuvres de Lagrange, i. p. xlii. 

5 CEuvres, iii. 441. 6 Theorie des fonctions, p. 6. 
7 H. Suter, Ceschichte der math. Wiss. ii. 222-223. 



LAGRANGE 



77 



application to geometry, and the third with its bearings on 
mechanics. 

On the establishment of the Institute, Lagrange was placed 
at the head of the section of geometry; he was one of the first 
members of the Bureau des Longitudes; and his name appeared 
in 1791 on the list of foreign members of the Royal Society. 
On the annexation of Piedmont to France in 1796, a touching 
compliment was paid to him in the person of his aged father. 
By direction of Talleyrand, then minister for foreign affairs, 
the French commissary repaired in state to the old man's 
residence in Turin, to congratulate him on the merits of his son, 
whom they declared " to have done honour to mankind by his 
genius, and whom Piedmont was proud to have produced, and 
France to possess." Bonaparte, who styled him " la haute 
pyramide des sciences mathematiques," loaded him with personal 
favours and official distinctions. He became a senator, a count 
of the empire, a grand officer of the legion of honour, and just 
before his death received the grand cross of the order of reunion. 
The preparation of a new edition of his Mecanique exhausted 
his already failing powers. Frequent fainting fits gave presage 
of a speedy end, and on the 8th of April 1813 he had a final 
interview with his friends B. Lacepede, G. Monge and J. A. 
Chaptal. He spoke with the utmost calm of his approaching 
death; " c'est une derniere fonction," he said, "qui n'est ni 
penible ni desagreable." He nevertheless looked forward to a 
future meeting, when he promised to complete the autobio- 
graphical details which weakness obliged him to interrupt. 
They remained untold, for he died two days later on the 10th of 
April, and was buried in the Pantheon, the funeral oration being 
pronounced by Laplace and Lacepede. 

Amongst the brilliant group of mathematicians whose magnani- 
mous rivalry contributed to accomplish the task of generalization 
and deduction reserved for the 18th century, Lagrange occupies an 
eminent place. It is indeed by no means easy to distinguish and 
apportion the respective merits of the competitors. This is especially 
the case between Lagrange and Euler on the one side, and between 
Lagrange and Laplace on the other. The calculus of variations lay 
undeveloped in Euler's mode of treating isoperimetrical problems. 
The fruitful method, again, of the variation of elements was intro- 
duced by Euler, but adopted and perfected by Lagrange, who first 
recognized its supreme importance to the analytical investigation of 
the planetary movements. Finally, of the grand series of researches 
by which the stability of the solar system was ascertained, the glory 
must be almost equally divided between Lagrange and Laplace. 
In analytical invention, and mastery over the calculus, the Turin 
mathematician was admittedly unrivalled. Laplace owned that he 
had despaired of effecting the integration of the differential equations 
relative to secular inequalities until Lagrange showed him the way. 
But Laplace unquestionably surpassed his rival in practical sagacity 
and the intuition of physical truth. Lagrange saw in the problems 
of nature so many occasions for analytical triumphs; Laplace re- 
garded analytical triumphs as the means of solving the problems of 
nature. One mind seemed the complement of the other; and both, 
united in honourable rivalry, formed an instrument of unexampled 
perfection for the investigation of the celestial machinery. What 
may be called Lagrange's first period of research into planetary 
perturbations extended from 1774 to 1784 (see Astronomy : History). 
The notable group of treatises communicated, 1781-1784, to the 
Berlin Academy was designed, but did not prove to be his final 
contribution to the theory of the planets. After an interval of 
twenty-four years the subject, re-opened by S. D. Poisson in a paper 
read on the 20th of June 1808, was once more attacked by Lagrange 
with all his pristine vigour and fertility of invention. Resuming the 
inquiry into the invariability of mean motions, Poisson carried the 
approximation, with Lagrange's formulae, as far as the squares of 
the disturbing forces, hitherto neglected, with the same result as to 
the stability of the system. He had not attempted to include in his 
calculations the orbital variations of the disturbing bodies; but 
Lagrange, by the happy artifice of transferring the origin of co- 
ordinates from the centre of the sun to the centre of gravity of the 
sun and planets, obtained a simplification of the formulae, by which 
the same analysis was rendered equally applicable to each of the 
planets severally. It deserves to be recorded as one of the numerous 
coincidences of discovery that Laplace, on being made acquainted 
by Lagrange with his new method, produced analogous expressions, 
to which his independent researches had led him. The final achieve- 
ment of Lagrange in this direction was the extension of the method 
of the variation of arbitrary constants, successfully used by him in 
the investigation of periodical as well as of secular inequalities, to 
any system whatever of mutually interacting bodies. 1 " Not 



1 (Euvres, vi. 771. 



without astonishment," even to himself, regard being had to the 
great generality of the differential equations, he reached a result so 
wide as to include, as a particular case, the solution of the planetary 
problem recently obtained by him. He proposed to apply the same 
principles to the calculation of the disturbances produced in the 
rotation of the planets by external action on their equatorial pro- 
tuberances, but was anticipated by Poisson, who gave formulae for 
the variation of the elements of rotation strictly corresponding with 
those found by Lagrange for the variation of the elements of revolu- 
tion. The revision of the Mecanique analytique was undertaken 
mainly for the purpose of embodying in it these new methods and 
final results, but was interrupted, when two-thirds completed, by 
the death of its author. 

In the advancement of almost every branch of pure mathematics 
Lagrange took a conspicuous part. The calculus of variations is 
indissolubly associated with his name. In the theory of numbers 
he furnished solutions of many of P. Fermat's theorems, and added 
some of his own. In algebra he discovered the method of approxi- 
mating to the real roots of an equation by means of continued frac- 
tions, and imagined a general process of solving algebraical equations 
of every degree. The method indeed fails for equations of an order 
above the fourth, because it then involves the solution of an equa- 
tion of higher dimensions than they proposed. Yet it possesses the 
great and characteristic merit of generalizing the solutions of his 
predecessors, exhibiting them all as modifications of one principle. 
To Lagrange, perhaps more than to any other, the theory of differ- 
ential equations is indebted for its position as a science, rather than 
a collection of ingenious artifices for the solution of particular 
problems. To the calculus of finite differences he contributed the 
beautiful formula of interpolation which bears his name; although 
substantially the same result seems to have been previously obtained 
by Euler. But it was in the application to mechanical questions of 
the instrument which he thus helped to form that his singular merit 
lay. It was his just boast to have transformed mechanics (defined by 
him as a " geometry of four dimensions ") into a branch of analysis, 
and to have exhibited the so-called mechanical " principles " as 
simple results of the calculus. The method of " generalized co- 
ordinates," as it is now called, by which he attained this result, is 
the most brilliant achievement of the analytical method. Instead 
of following the motion of each individual part of a material system, 
he showed that, if we determine its configuration by a sufficient 
number of variables, whose number is that of the degrees of freedom 
to move (there being as many equations as the system has degrees of 
freedom), the kinetic and potential energies of the system can be 
expressed in terms of these, and the differential equations of motion 
thence deduced by simple differentiation. Besides this most im- 
portant contribution to the general fabric of dynamical science, we 
owe to Lagrange several minor theorems of great elegance, — among 
which may be mentioned his theorem that the kinetic energy im- 
parted by given impulses to a material system under given con- 
straints is a maximum. To this entire branch of knowledge, in short, 
he successfully imparted that character of generality and com- 
pleteness towards which his labours invariably tended. 

His share in the gigantic task of verifying the Newtonian theory 
would alone suffice to immortalize his name. His co-operation was 
indeed more indispensable than at first sight appears. Much as 
was done by him, what was done through him was still more import- 
ant. Some of his brilliant rival's most conspicuous discoveries were 
implicitly contained in his writings, and wanted but one step for 
completion. But that one step, from the abstract to the concrete, 
was precisely that which the character of Lagrange's mind indisposed 
him to make. As notable instances may be mentioned Laplace's 
discoveries relating to the velocity of sound and the secular accelera- 
tion of the moon, both of which were led close up to by Lagrange's 
analytical demonstrations. In the Berlin Memoirs for 1778 and 1783 
Lagrange gave the first direct and theoretically perfect method of 
determining cometary orbits. It has not indeed proved practically 
available; but his system of calculating cometary perturbations 
by means of " mechanical quadratures " has formed the starting- 
point of all subsequent researches on the subject. His determina- 
tion 2 of maximum and minimum values for the slowly varying 
planetary eccentricities was the earliest attempt to deal with the 
problem. Without a more accurate knowledge of the masses of the 
planets than was then possessed a satisfactory solution was im- 
possible; but the upper limits assigned by him agreed closely with 
those obtained later by U. J. J. Leverrier. 3 As a mathematical 
writer Lagrange has perhaps never been surpassed. His treatises 
are not only storehouses of ingenious methods, but models of sym- 
metrical form. The clearness, elegance and originality of his mode 
of presentation give lucidity to what is obscure, novelty to what is 
familiar, and simplicity to what is abstruse. His genius was one of 
generalization and abstraction; and the aspirations of the time 
towards unity and perfection received, by his serene labours, an 
embodiment denied to them in the troubled world of politics. 

Bibliography. — Lagrange's numerous scattered memoirs have 
been collected and published in seven 4to volumes, under the title 

2 (Euvres, v. 211 seq. 
3 Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 117. 



78 



LAGRANGE-CHANCEL— LA GUAIRA 



CEuvresde Lagrange, publUes sous les soins de M. J. A. Serret (Paris, 
1867-1877). The first, second and third sections of this publication 
comprise respectively the papers communicated by him to the 
Academies of Sciences of Turin, Berlin and Paris; the fourth in- 
cludes his miscellaneous contributions to other scientific collections 
together with his additions to Euler's Algebra, and his Lecons 
ilementatres at the Ecole Normale in 1795. Delambre's notice of his 
hie, extracted from the Mem. de VInstitut, 1812, is prefixed to the 
first volume. Besides the separate works already named are Resolu- 
tion des equations numeriques (1798, 2nd ed., 1808, 3rd ed., 1826) 
and Lecons sur le calcul des fonctions (1805, 2nd ed., 1806), designed 
as a commentary and supplement to the first part of the Theorie des 
fonctions. The first volume of the enlarged edition of the Mecanique 
a pff a £ "i 181 1, the second, of which the revision was completed by 
MM Prony and Binet, in 1815. A third edition, in 2 vols., 4 to, was 
issued in 1853-1855, and a second of the Theorie des fonctions in 1813 
bee also J. J. Virey and Potel, Precis Mstorique (1813); Th 
1 nomson s Annals of Philosophy (1813-1820), vols. ii. and iv • 
H. buter, Geschichte der math. Wiss. (1873); E. Diihring, Kritische 
Uesch. der allgemeinen Principien der Mechanik (1877, 2nd ed.) ; 
A. Gautier, Essai historique sur le probleme des trois corps (1817)' 
R. Grant, Mstory of Physical Astronomy, &c; Pietro Cossali, ttlog'e 
I. ua, / l8 I3 l ; L ,- Mar tini, Cenni biogrdfici (1840); Moniteur du 26 
Fevner (1814); W. Whewell, Hist, of the Inductive Sciences, ii. 
passim; J. Clerk Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, ii. 184- A 
Berry, Short Hist, of Astr., p. 313; J. S. Bailly, Hist.de Tastr. 
moderne, 111. 156, 185, 232; J. C. Poggendorff, Biog. Lit. Hand- 
worterbuch. 1^ j^ q ■, 

LAGRANGE-CHANCEL [Chancel], FRANCOIS JOSEPH 

( 1 6 7 7-1 7 58) , French dramatist and satirist, was born at Perigueux 
on the 1 st of January 1677. He was an extremely precocious 
boy, and at Bordeaux, where he was educated, he produced a 
play when he was nine years old. Five years later his mother 
took him to Paris, where he found a patron in the princesse 
de Conti, to whom he dedicated his tragedy of Jugurtha or, as it 
was called later, Adherbal (1694). Racine had given him advice 
and was present at the first performance, although he had long 
lived m complete retirement. Other plays followed: Oreste et 
Pylade (1697), Meleagre (1699), Amasis (1701), and Ino et Meli- 
certe (1715). Lagrange hardly realized the high hopes raised by 
his precocity, although his only serious rival on the tragic stage 
was Campistron, but he obtained high favour at court, becoming 
mallre d'hdtel to the duchess of Orleans. This prosperity ended 
with the publication in 1720 of his Philippiques, odes accusing 
the regent, Philip, duke of Orleans, of the most odious crimes. 
He might have escaped the consequences of this libel but for 
the bitter enmity of a former patron, the due de La Force. 
Lagrange found sanctuary at Avignon, but was enticed beyond 
the boundary of the papal jurisdiction, when he was arrested 
and sent as a prisoner to the isles of Sainte Marguerite. He 
contrived, however, to escape to Sardinia and thence to Spain 
and Holland, where he produced his fourth and fifth Philippiques. 
On the death of the Regent he was able to return to France. 
He was part author of a Histoire de Perigord left unfinished, and 
made a further contribution to history, or perhaps, more exactly 
to romance, in a letter to Elie Freron on the identity of the Man 
with the Iron Mask. Lagrange's family life was embittered 
by a long lawsuit against his son. He died at Perigueux at the 
end of December 1758. 

He had collected his own works (5 vols., 1758) some months before 
ms death. His most famous work, the Philippiques, was edited bv 
M. de Lescure in 1858, and a sixth philippic by M. Diancourt in 1886. 

LA GRANJA, or San Ildefonso, a summer palace of the kings 
of Spain; on the south-eastern border of the province of Segovia, 
and on the western slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama, 7 m' 
by road S.E. of the city of Segovia. The royal estate is 3905 
ft above sea-level. The scenery of this region, especially in 
the gorge of the river Lozoya, with its granite rocks, its dense 
forest of pmes, firs and birches, and its red-tiled farms, more 
nearly resembles the highlands of northern Europe than any 
other part of Spain. La Granja has an almost alpine climate, 
with a clear, cool atmosphere and abundant sunshine. Above 
the palace rise the wooded summits of the Guadarrama, culminat- 
ing in the peak of Penalara (7891 ft.); in front of it the wide 
plains of Segovia extend northwards. The village of San 
Ildefonso, the oldest part of the estate, was founded in 1450 
by Henry IV., who built a hunting lodge and chapel here. In 



1477 the chapel was presented by Ferdinand and Isabella to 
the monks of the Parral, a neighbouring Hieronymite monastery. 
The original granja (i.e. grange or farm), established by the monks, 
was purchased in 17 19 by Philip V., after the destruction of his 
summer palace at Valsain, the ancient Vallis Sapinorum, 2 m. 
S. Philip determined to convert the estate into a second 
Versailles. The palace was built between 1721 and 1723. Its 
facade is fronted by a colonnade in which the pillars reach to the 
roof. The state apartments contain some valuable 18th-century 
furniture, but the famous collection of sculptures was removed 
to Madrid in 1836, and is preserved there in the Museo del Prado. 
At La Granja it is represented by facsimiles in plaster. The 
collegiate church adjoining the palace dates from 1724, and con- 
tains the tombs of Philip V. and his consort Isabella Farnese. 
An artificial lake called El Mar, 4095 ft. above sea-level, 
irrigates the- gardens, which are imitated from those of Versailles, 
and supplies water for the fountains. These, despite the anti- 
quated and sometimes tasteless style of their ornamentation, 
are probably the finest in the world; it is noteworthy that, 
owing to the high level of the lake, no pumps or other mechanism 
are needed to supply pressure. There are twenty-six fountains 
besides lakes and waterfalls. Among the most remarkable 
are the group of " Perseus, Andromeda and the Sea-Monster," 
which sends up a jet of water no ft. high, the " Fame," which 
reaches 125 ft., and the very elaborate " Baths of Diana." It 
is of the last that Philip V. is said to have remarked, " It has 
cost me three millions and amused me three minutes." Most 
of the fountains were made by order of Queen Isabella in 1727, 
during the king's absence. The glass factory of San Ildefonso 
was founded by Charles III. 

. It was in La Granja that Philip V. resigned the crown to his son 
in January 1724, to resume it after his son's death seven months 
later; that the treaties of 1777, 1778, 1796 and 1800 were signed 
(see Spain: History) ; that Ferdinand VII. summoned Don Carlos to 
the throne in 1832, but was induced to alter the succession in favour 
ot his own infant daughter Isabella, thus involving Spain in civil 
war; and that in 1836 a military revolt compelled the Queen- 
regent Christina to restore the constitution of 1812. 

LAGRENEE, LOUIS JEAN FRANCOIS (1724-1805), French 
painter, was a pupil of Carle Vanloo. Born at Paris on the 
30th of December 1724, in 1755 he became a member of the 
Royal Academy, presenting as his diploma picture the " Rape of 
Deiamra " (Louvre). He visited St Petersburg at the call of the 
empress Elizabeth, and on his return was named in 1781 director 
of the French Academy at Rome; he there painted the " Indian 
Widow," one of his best-known works. In 1804 Napoleon 
conferred on him the cross of the legion of honour, and on 
the 19th of June 1805 he died in the Louvre, of which he was 
honorary keeper. 

LA GUAIRA, or La Gtjayra (sometimes Laguaira, &c ) 
a town and port of Venezuela, in the Federal district 23 m' 
byrail and 6f m. in a direct line N.'of Caracas. Pop. (1904, 
estimate) 14,000. It is situated between a precipitous mountain 
side and a broad, semicircular indentation of the coast line which 
forms the roadstead of the port. The anchorage was long con- 
sidered one of the most dangerous on the Caribbean coast, and 
landing was attended with much danger. The harbour has been 
improved by the construction of a concrete breakwater running 
out from the eastern shore line 2044 ft., built up from an extreme 
depth of 46 ft. or from an average depth of 29A ft., and rising 
195 ft. above sea-level. This encloses an area of 76^ acres 
having an average depth of nearly 28 ft. The harbour is further 
improved by 1870 ft. of concrete quays and 1397 ft. of retaining 
sea-wall, with several piers (three covered) projecting into deep 
water. These works were executed by a British company, 
known as the La Guaira Harbour Corporation, Ltd., and were 
completed in 189 1 at a cost of about one million sterling. The 
concession is for 99 years and the additional charges which the 
company is authorized to impose are necessarily heavy. These 
improvements and the restrictions placed upon the direct trade 
between West Indian ports and the Orinoco have greatly increased 
the foreign trade of La Guaira, which in 1903 was 52% of that 
of the four puertos habilitados of the republic. The shipping 



LA GUERGNNIERE— LA HARPE 



79 



entries of that year numbered 217, of which 203 entered with 
general cargo and 14 with coal exclusively. The exports included 
152,625 bags coffee, 114,947 bags cacao and 152,891 hides. 
For 1905-1906 the imports at La Guaira were valued officially 
at £767,365 and the exports at £663,708. The city stands on 
sloping ground stretching along the circular coast line with a 
varying width of 130 to 330 ft. and having the appearance of 
an amphitheatre. The port improvements added 18 acres of 
reclaimed land to La Guaira 's area, and the removal of old shore 
batteries likewise increased its available breadth. In this narrow 
space is built the town, composed in great part of small, roughly- 
made cabins, and narrow, badly-paved streets, but with good 
business houses on its principal street. From the mountain side, 
reddish-brown in colour and bare of vegetation, the solar heat 
is reflected with tremendous force, the mean annual temperature 
being 84° F. The seaside towns of Maiquetia, 2 m. VV. and 
Macuto, 3 m. E., which have better climatic and sanitary 
conditions and are connected by a narrow-gauge railway, are 
the residences of many of the wealthier merchants of La Guaira. 
La Guaira was founded in 1588, was sacked by filibusters 
under Amias Preston in 1595, and by the French under Gram- 
mont in 1680, was destroyed by the great earthquake of 
the 26th of March 181 2, and suffered severely in the war for 
independence. In 1903, pending the settlement of claims of 
Great Britain, Germany and Italy against Venezuela, La 
Guaira was blockaded by a British-German-Italian fleet. 

LA GUERONNIERE, LOUIS ETIENNE ARTHUR DUBREUIL 
HllLION, Vicomte de (1816-1875), French politician, was the 
scion of a noble Poitevin family. Although by birth and educa- 
tion attached to Legitimist principles, he became closely 
associated with Lamartine, to whose organ, Le Bien Public, he 
was a principal contributor. After the stoppage of this paper 
he wrote for La Presse, and in 1850 edited Le Pays. A character 
sketch of Louis Napoleon in this journal caused differences with 
Lamartine, and La Gueronniere became more and more closely 
identified with the policy of the prince president. Under the 
Empire he was a member of the council of state (1853), senator 
(1861), ambassador at Brussels (1868), and at Constantinople 
(1870), and grand officer of the legion of honour (1866). He 
died in Paris on the 23rd of December 1875. Besides his Etudes 
el portraits politiques contemporains (1856) his most important 
works are those on the foreign policy of the Empire: La France, 
Rome et Italie (1851), L' Abandon de Rome (1862), De la politique 
interieure et exterieure de la France (1862). 

His elder brother, Alfred Dubreuil Helton, Comte de La 
Gueronniere (1810-1884), who remained faithful to the Legitimist 
party, was also a well-known writer and journalist. He was con- 
sistent in his opposition to the July Monarchy and the Empire, 
but in a series of books on the crisis of 1870-1871 showed a 
more favourable attitude to the Republic. 

LAGUERRE, JEAN HENRI GEORGES (1858- ), French 
lawyer and politician, was born in Paris on the 24th of June 
1858. Called to the bar in 1879, he distinguished himself by 
brilliant pleadings in favour of socialist and anarchist leaders, 
defending Prince Kropotkine at Lyons in 1883, Louise Michel 
in the same year; and in 1886, with A. Millerand as colleague 
he defended Ernest Roche and Due Quercy, the instigators of 
the Decazeville strike. His strictures on the procureur de la 
Republique on this occasion being declared libellous he was sus- 
pended for six months and in 1890 he again incurred suspension 
for an attack on the attorney-general, Quesnay de Beaurepaire. 
He also pleaded in the greatest criminal cases of his time, though 
from 1893 onwards exclusively in the provinces, his exclusion 
from the Parisian bar having been secured on the pretext of 
his connexion with La Presse. He entered the Chamber of 
Deputies for Apt in 1883 as a representative of the extreme 
revisionist programme, and was one of the leaders of the 
Boulangist agitation. He had formerly written for Georges 
Clemenceau's organ La Justice, but when Clemenceau refused 
to impose any shibboleth on the radical party he became director 
of La Presse. He rallied to the republican party in May 1891, 
some months before General Boulanger's suicide. He was not 



re-elected to the Chamber in 1893. Laguerre was an excellent 
lecturer on the revolutionary period of French history, concerning 
which he had collected many valuable and rare documents. 
He interested himself in the fate of the " Little Dauphin " 
(Louis XVII.}, whose supposed remains, buried at Ste Marguerite, 
he proved to be those of a boy of fourteen. 

LAGUNA, or La Laguna, an episcopal city and formerly the 
capital of the island of Teneriffe, in the Spanish archipelago 
of the Canary Islands. Pop. (1900) 13,074. Laguna is 4 m. N. 
by W. of Santa Cruz, in a plain 1800 ft. above sea-level, sur- 
rounded by mountains. Snow is unknown here, and the mean 
annual temperature exceeds 63° F.; but the rainfall is very 
heavy, and in winter the plain is sometimes flooded. The 
humidity of the atmosphere, combined with the warm climate 
and rich volcanic soil, renders the district exceptionally fertile; 
wheat, wine and tobacco, oranges and other fruits, are produced 
in abundance. Laguna is the favourite summer residence of 
the wealthier inhabitants of Santa Cruz. Besides the cathedral, 
the city contains several picturesque convents, now secularized, 
a fine modern town hall, hospitals, a large public library and 
some ancient palaces of the Spanish nobility. Even the modern 
buildings have often an appearance of antiquity, owing to the 
decay caused by damp, and the luxuriant growth of climbing 
plants. 

LA HARPE, JEAN FRANCOIS DE (1739-1803), French critic, 
was born in Paris of poor parents on the 20th of November 
1 739. His father, who signed himself Delharpe, was a descendant 
of a noble family originally of Vaud. Left an orphan at the age 
of nine, La Harpe was taken care of for six months by the sisters 
of charity, and his education was provided for by a scholarship 
at the College d'Harcourt. When nineteen he was imprisoned 
for some months on the charge of having written a satire against 
his protectors at the college. La Harpe always denied his guilt, 
but this culminating misfortune of an early life spent entirely 
in the position of a dependent had possibly something to do 
with the bitterness he evinced in later life. In 1763 his tragedy 
of Warwick was played before the court. This, his first play, 
was perhaps the best he ever wrote. The many authors whom he 
afterwards offended were always able to observe that the critic's 
own plays did not reach the standard of excellence he set up. 
Timoleon (1764), Pharamond (1765) and Gustave Wa sa (1766) were 
failures. Melanie was a better play, but was never represented. 
The success of Warwick led to 'a correspondence with Voltaire, 
who conceived a high opinion of La Harpe, even allowing him 
to correct his verses. In 1764 La Harpe married the daughter 
of a coffee house keeper. This marriage, which proved very 
unhappy and was dissolved, did not improve his position. 
They were very poor, and for some time were guests of Voltaire 
at -Ferney. When, after Voltaire's death, La Harpe in his praise 
of the philosopher ventured on some reasonable, but rather 
ill-timed, criticism of individual works, he was accused of treachery 
to one who had been his constant friend. In 1768 he returned 
from Ferney to Paris, where he began to write for the Mercure. 
He was a born fighter and had small mercy on the authors whose 
work he handled. But he was himself violently attacked, and 
suffered under many epigrams, especially those of Lebrun- 
Pindare. No more striking proof of the general hostility can be 
given than his reception (1776) at the Academy, which Sainte- 
Beuve calls his " execution." Marmontel, who received him, 
used the occasion to eulogize La Harpe's predecessor, Charles 
Pierre Colardeau, especially for his pacific, modest and indulgent 
disposition. The speech was punctuated by the applause of the 
audience, who chose to regard it as a series of sarcasms on the 
new member. Eventually La Harpe was compelled to resign 
from the Mercure, which he had edited from 1770. On the 
stage he produced Les Barmecides (1778), Philoctete, Jeanne de 
Naples (1781), Les Brames (1783), Ccriolan (1784), Virginie 
(1786). In 1786 he began a course of literature at the newly- 
established Lycee. In these lectures, published as the Cours de 
litterature ancienne et moderne, La Harpe is at his best, for he 
found a standpoint more or less independent of contemporary 
polemics. He is said to be inexact in dealing with the ancients, 



8o 



LAHIRE— LA HOGUE, BATTLE OF 



and he had only a superficial knowledge of the middle ages, but he 
is excellent in his analysis of 1 7th-century writers. Sainte-Beuve 
found in him the best critic of the French school of tragedy, which 
reached its perfection in Racine. La Harpe was a disciple of the 
" philosophes"; he supported the extreme party through the 
excesses of 170/2 and 1793. In 1793 he edited the Mercure de 
France which adhered blindly to the revolutionary leaders. 
But in April 1794 he was nevertheless seized as a " suspect." 
In prison he underwent a spiritual crisis which he described in 
convincing language, and he emerged an ardent Catholic and a 
reactionist in politics. When he resumed his chair at the 
Lycee, he attacked his former friends in politics and literature. 
He was imprudent enough to begin the publication (1801-1807) 
of his Correspondence lilteraire (1774-1791) with the grand-duke, 
afterwards the emperor Paul of Russia. In these letters he 
surpassed the brutalities of the Mercure. He contracted a 
second marriage, which was dissolved after a few weeks by his 
wife. He died on the nth of February 1803 in Paris, leaving 
in his will an incongruous exhortation to his fellow countrymen 
to maintain peace and concord. Among his posthumous works 
was a Prophetie de Cazotte which Sainte-Beuve pronounces his 
best work. It is a sombre description of a dinner-party of 
notables long before the Revolution, when Jacques Cazotte 
is made to prophesy the frightful fates awaiting the various 
individuals of the company. 

Among his works not already mentioned are: — Commentaire sur 
Racine (1795-1796), published in 1807; Commentaire sur le theatre de 
Voltaire of earlier date (published posthumously in 1814), and an epic 
poem La Religion (1814). His Cours de litterature has been often 
reprinted. To the edition of 1825-1826 is prefixed a notice by 
Pierre Daunou. See also Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, vol. v.; 
G. Peignot, Recherches historiques, bibliographiques et litteraires . . . 
sur La Harpe (1820). 

LAHIRE, LAURENT DE (1606-1656), French painter, was 
born at Paris on the 27th of February 1606. He became a 
pupil of Lallemand, studied the works of Primaticcio at Fontaine- 
bleau, but never visited Italy, and belongs wholly to that transi- 
tion period which preceded the school of Simon Vouet. His 
picture of Nicolas V. opening the crypt in which he discovers 
the corpse of St Francis of Assisi standing (Louvre) was executed 
in 1630 for the Capuchins of the Marais; it shows a gravity 
and sobriety of character which marked Lahire's best work, and 
seems not to have been without influence on Le Sueur. The 
Louvre contains eight other works, and paintings by Lahire are in 
the museums of Strasburg, Rouen and Le Mans. His drawings, 
of which the British Museum possesses a fine example, " Pre- 
sentation of the Virgin in the Temple," are treated as seriously 
as his paintings, and sometimes show simplicity and dignity 
of effect. The example of the Capuchins, for whom he executed 
several other works in Paris, Rouen and Fecamp, was followed 
by the goldsmiths' company, for whom he produced in 1635 " St 
Peter healing the Sick " (Louvre) and the " Conversion of St 
Paul " in 1637. In 1646, with eleven other artists, he founded 
the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. Richelieu 
called Lahire to the Palais Royal; Chancellor Seguier, Tallemant 
de Reaux and many others entrusted him with important 
works of decoration; for the Gobelins he designed a series of 
large compositions. Lahire painted also a great number of 
portraits, and in 1654 united in one work for the town-hall of 
Paris those of the principal dignitaries of the municipality. 
He died on the 28th of December 1656. 

LAHN, a river of Germany, a right-bank tributary of the 
Rhine. Its source is on the Jagdberg, a summit of the Rothaar 
Mountains, in the cellar of a house (Lahnhof), at an elevation 
of 1975 ft. It flows at first eastward and then southward to 
Giessen, then turns south-westward and with a winding course 
reaches the Rhine between the towns of Oberlahnstein and 
Niederlahnstein. Its valley, the lower part of which divides 
the Taunus hills from the Westerwald, is often very narrow and 
picturesque; among the towns and sites of interest on its banks 
are Marburg and Giessen with their universities, Wetzlarwith 
its cathedral, Runkel with its castle, Limburg with its cathedral, 
the castles of Schaumburg, Balduinstein, Laurenburg, Langenau, 



Burgstein and Nassau, and the well-known health resort of Ems. 
The Lahn is about 135 m. long; it is navigable from its mouth 
to Giessen, and is partly canalized. A railway follows the valley 
practically throughout. In 1796 there were here several en- 
counters between the French under General Jourdan and the 
troops of the archduke Johan, which resulted in the retreat of 
the French across the Rhine. 

LAHNDA (properly Lahndd or Lahindd, western, or Lahnde-di 
boll, the language of the West), an Indo- Aryan language spoken 
in the western Punjab. In 1901 the number of speakers was 
3,337 >9 l 7- Its eastern boundary is very indefinite as the language 
gradually merges into the Panjabi immediately to the east, but 
it is conventionally taken as the river Chenab from the Kashmir 
frontier to the town of Ramnagar, and thence as a straight line 
to the south-west corner of the district of Montgomery. Lahnda 
is also spoken in the north of the state of Bahawalpur and of the 
province of Sind, in which latter locality it is known as Siraiki. 
Its western boundary is, roughly speaking, the river Indus, 
across which the language of the Afghan population is Pashto 
(Pushtu), while the Hindu settlers still speak Lahnda. In the 
Derajat, however, Lahnda is the principal language of all classes 
in the plains west of the river. 

Lahnda is also known as Western Panjabi and as Jatki, or 
the language of the Jats, who form the bulk of the population 
whose mother-tongue it is. In the Derajat it is called Hindko 
or the language of Hindus. In 18 19 the Serampur missionaries 
published a Lahnda version of the New Testament. They 
called the language Uchchi, from the important town of Uch 
near the confluence of the Jhelam and the Chenab. This name 
is commonly met with in old writings. It has numerous dialects, 
which fall into two main groups, a northern and a southern, 
the speakers of which are separated by the Salt Range. The 
principal varieties of the northern group are Hindki (the same 
in meaning as Hindko) and Pothwari. In the southern group 
the most important are Khetra.ni, MultanI, and the dialect of 
Shahpur. The language possesses no literature. 

Lahnda belongs to the north-western group of the outer band of 
Indo- Aryan languages (q.v.), the other members being Kashmiri 
(q.v.) and Sindhi, with both of which it is closely connected. See 
Sindhi; also Hindostani. (G. A. Gr.) 

LA HOGUE, BATTLE OF, the name now given to a series of 
encounters which took place from the 19th to the 23rd (O.S.) 
of May 1692, between an allied British and Dutch fleet and a 
French force, on the northern and eastern sides of the Cotentin 
in Normandy. A body of French troops, and a number of 
Jacobite exiles, had been collected in the Cotentin. The 
government of Louis XIV. prepared a naval armament to cover 
their passage across the Channel. This force was to have been 
composed of the French ships at Brest commanded by the count 
of Tourville, and of a squadron which was to have joined him 
from Toulon. But the Toulon ships were scattered by a gale, 
and the combination was not effected. The count of Tourville, 
who had put to sea to meet them, had with him only 45 or 
47 ships of the line. Yet when the reinforcement failed to 
join him, he steered up Channel to meet the allies, who were 
known to be in strength. On the 15th of May the British fleet 
of 63 sail of the line, under command of Edward Russell, after- 
wards earl of Orford, was joined at St Helens by the Dutch 
squadron of 36 sail under Admiral van Allemonde. The apparent 
rashness of the French admiral in seeking an encounter with 
very superior numbers is explained by the existence of a general 
belief that many British captains were discontented, and would 
pass over from the service of the government established by 
the Revolution of 1688 to their exiled king, James II. It is said 
that Tourville had orders from Louis XIV. to attack in any case, 
but the story is of doubtful authority. The British government, 
aware of the Jacobite intrigues in its fleet, and of the prevalence 
of discontent, took the bold course of appealing to the loyalty 
and patriotism of its officers. At a meeting of the flag-officers on 
board the " Britannia," Russell's flag-ship, on the 15th of May, 
they protested their loyalty, and the whole allied fleet put to sea 
on the 18th. On the 19th of May, when Cape Barfleur, the 



LAHORE 



81 



north-eastern point of the Cotentin, was 21 m. S.W. of them, 
they sighted Tourville, who was then 20 m. to the north of Cape 
La Hague, the north-western extremity of the peninsula, which 
must not be confounded with La Houque, or La Hogue, the 
place at which the fighting ended. The allies were formed in a 
line from S.S.W. to N.N.E. heading towards the English coast, 
the Dutch forming the White or van division, while the Red or 
centre division under Russell, and the Blue or rear under Sir 
John Ashby, were wholly composed of British ships. The wind 
was from the S.W. and the weather hazy. Tourville bore down 
and attacked about mid-day, directing his main assault on the 
centre of the allies, but telling off some ships to watch the van 
and rear of his enemy. As this first encounter took place off Cape 
Barfleur, the battle was formerly often called by the name. On 
the centre, where Tourville was directly opposed to Russell, the 
fighting was severe. The British flag-ship the " Britannia " 
(100), and the French, the " Soleil Royal " (100), were both 
completely crippled. After several hours of conflict, the French 
admiral, seeing himself outnumbered, and that the allies could 
outflank him and pass through the necessarily wide intervals 
in his extended line, drew off without the loss of a ship. The 
wind now fell and the haze became a fog. Till the 23rd, the two 
fleets remained off the north coast of the Cotentin, drifting 
west with the ebb tide or east with the flood, save when they 
anchored. During the night of the ioth/2oth some British ships 
became entangled, in ■ the fog, with the French, and drifted 
through them on the tide, with loss. On the 23rd both fleets 
were near La Hague. About half the French, under D'Amfreville, 
rounded the cape, and fled to St Malo through the dangerous 
passage known as the Race of Alderney (le Ras Blanchard). 
The others were unable to get round the cape before the flood tide 
set in, and were carried to the eastward. Tourville now trans- 
ferred his own flag, and left his captains free to save themselves 
as they best could. He left the " Soleil Royal," and sent her 
with two others to Cherbourg, where they were destroyed by Sir 
Ralph Delaval. The others now ran round Cape Barfleur, and 
sought refuge on the east side of the Cotentin at the anchorage 
of La Houque, called by the English La Hogue, where the troops 
destined for the invasion were encamped. Here 13 of them 
were burnt by Sir George Rooke, in the presence of the French 
generals and of the exiled king James II. From the name of 
the place where the last blow was struck, the battle has come 
to be known by the name of La Hogue. 

Sufficient accounts of the battle may be found in Lediard's Naval 
History (London, 1735), and for the French side in Tronde's Batailles 
navales de la France (Paris, 1867). The escape of D'Amfreville's 
squadron is the subject of Browning's poem " Herve Riel." 

_ (D. H.) 
LAHORE, an ancient city of British India, the capital of the 
Punjab, which gives its name to a district and division. It lies 
in 31 35' N. and 74 20' E. near the left bank of the River Ravi, 
1706 ft. above the sea, and 1252 m. by rail from Calcutta. 
It is thus in about the same latitude as Cairo, but owing to its 
inland position is considerably hotter than that city, being one 
of the hottest places in India in the summer time. In the cold 
season the climate is pleasantly cool and bright. The native 
city is walled, about ij m. in length W. to E. and about f m. 
in breadth N. to S. Its site has been occupied from early times, 
and much of it stands high above the level of the surrounding 
country, raised on the remains of a succession of former habita- 
tions. Some old buildings, which have been preserved, stand 
now below the present surface of the ground. This is well seen 
in the mosque now called Masjid Niwin (or sunken) built in 
1 560, the mosque of Mullah Rahmat, 7 ft. below, and the Shivali, 
a very old Hindu temple, about 12 ft. below the surrounding 
ground. Hindu tradition traces the origin of Lahore to Loh 
or Lava, son of Rama, the hero of the Ramayana. The absence 
of mention of Lahore by Alexander's historians, and the fact 
that coins of the Graeco-Bactrian kings are not found among 
the ruins, lead to the belief that it was not a place of any import- 
ance during the earliest period of Indian history. On the other 
hand, Hsiian Tsang, the Chinese Buddhist, notices the city in 
his Itinerary (a.d. 630); and it seems probable, therefore, that 



Lahore first rose into prominence between the 1st and 7th 
centuries a.d. Governed originally by a family of Chauhan 
Rajputs, a branch of the house of Ajmere, Lahore fell successively 
under the dominion of the Ghazni and Ghori sultans, who made 
it the capital of their Indian conquests, and adorned it with 
numerous buildings, almost all now in ruins. But it was under 
the Mogul empire that Lahore reached its greatest size and 
magnificence.. The reigns of Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah 
Jahan and Aurangzeb form the golden period in the annals and 
architecture of the city. Akbar enlarged and repaired the fort, 
and surrounded the town with a wall, portions of which remain, 
built into the modern work of Ranjit Singh. Lahore formed the 
capital of the Sikh empire of that monarch. At the end of the 
second Sikh War, with the rest of the Punjab, it came under 
the British dominion. 

The architecture of Lahore cannot compare with that of 
Delhi. Jahangir in 1622-1627 erected the Khwabgah or " sleep- 
ing-place," a fine palace much defaced by the Sikhs but to some 
extent restored in modern times; the Moti Masjid or " pearl 
mosque " in the fort, used by Ranjit Singh and afterwards by 
the British as a treasure-house; and also the tomb of Anarkali, 
used formerly as the station church and now as a library. Shah 
Jahan erected a palace and other buildings near the Khwabgah, 
including the beautiful pavilion called the Naulakha from its 
cost of nine lakhs, which was inlaid with precious stones. The 
mosque of Wazir Khan (1634) provides the finest example of 
kashi or encaustic tile work. Aurangzeb's Jama Masjid, or 
" great mosque," is a huge bare building, stiff in design, and 
lacking the detailed ornament typical of buildings at Delhi. 
The buildings of Ranjit Singh, especially his mausoleum, are 
common and meretricious in style. He was, moreover, responsible 
for much of the despoiling of the earlier buildings. The streets 
of the native city are narrow and tortuous, and are best seen 
from the back of an elephant. Two of the chief features of 
Lahore lie outside its walls at Shahdara and Shalamar Gardens 
respectively. Shahdara, which contains the tomb of the emperor 
Jahangir, lies across the Ravi some 6 m. N. of the city. It 
consists of a splendid marble cenotaph surrounded by a grove 
of trees and gardens. The Shalamar Gardens, which were laid 
out in a.d. 1637 by Shah Jahan, lie 6 m. E. of the city. They 
are somewhat neglected except on festive occasions, when the 
fountains are playing and the trees are lit up by lamps at 
night. 

The modern city of Lahore, which contained a population 
of 202,964 in 1901, may be divided into four parts: the native 
city, already described; the civil station or European quarter, 
known as Donald Town; the Anarkali bazaar, a suburb S. of 
the city wall; and the cantonment, formerly called Mian Mir. 
The main street of the civil station is a portion of the grand 
trunk road from Calcutta to Peshawar, locally known as the 
Mall. The chief modern buildings along this road, west to east, 
are the Lahore museum, containing a fine collection of Graeco- 
Buddhist sculptures, found by General Cunningham in the 
Yusufzai country, and arranged by Mr Lockwood Kipling, a 
former curator of the museum; the cathedral, begun by Bishop 
French, in Early English style, and consecrated in 1887; the 
Lawrence Gardens and Montgomery Halls, surrounded by a 
garden that forms the chief meeting-place of Europeans in the 
afternoon; and opposite this government house, the official 
residence of the lieutenant-governor of the Punjab; next to 
this is the Punjab club for military men and civilians. Three 
miles beyond is the Lahore cantonment, where the garrison is 
stationed, except a company of British infantry, which occupies 
the fort. It is the headquarters of the 3rd division of the northern 
army. Lahore is an important junction on the North- Western 
railway system, but has little local trade or manufacture. The 
chief industries are silk goods, gold and silver lace, metal work 
and carpets which are made in the Lahore gaol. There are also 
cotton mills, flour mills, an ice-factory, and several factories 
for mineral waters, oils, soap, leather goods, &c. Lahore is 
an important educational centre. Here are the Punjab University 
with five colleges, medical and law colleges, a central training 



82 



LA HOZ Y MOTA— LAIBACH 



college, the Aitchison Chiefs' College for the sons of native 
noblemen, and a number of other high schools and technical 
and special schools. 

The District of Lahore has an area of 3704 sq. m., and its 
population in 1901 was 1,162,109, consisting chiefly of Punjabi 
Mahommedans with a large admixture of Hindus and Sikhs. 
In the north-west the district includes a large part of the barren 
Rechna Doab, while south of the Ravi is a desolate alluvial 
tract, liable to floods. The Manjha plateau, however, between 
the Ravi and the Beas, has been rendered fertile by the Bari 
Doab canal. The principal crops are wheat, pulse, millets, 
maize, oil-seeds and cotton. There are numerous factories for 
ginning and pressing cotton. Irrigation is provided by the main 
line of the Bari Doab canal and its branches, and by inundation- 
cuts from the Sutlej. The district is crossed in several directions 
by lines of the North- Western railway. Lahore, Kasur, Chunian 
and Raiwind are the chief trade centres. 

The Division or Lahore extends along the right bank of 
the Sutlej from the Himalayas to Multan. It comprises the six 
districts of Sialkot, Gujranwala, Montgomery, Lahore, Amritsar 
and Gurdaspur. Total area, 17,154 sq.m.;pop. (1901) 5,598,463. 
The commissioner for the division also exercises political control 
over the hill state of Chamba. The common language of the 
rural population and of artisans is Punjabi; while Urdu or 
Hindustani is spoken by the educated classes. So far from the 
seaboard, the range between extremes of winter and summer 
temperature in the sub-tropics is great. The mean temperature 
in the shade in June is about 92 F., in January about 50 . In 
midsummer the thermometer sometimes rises to 115 in the 
shade, and remains on some occasions as high as 105° throughout 
the night. In winter the morning temperature is sometimes 
as low as 20 . The rainfall is uncertain, ranging from 8 in. to 
25, with an average of 15 in. The country as a whole is parched 
and arid, and greatly dependent on irrigation. 
. LA HOZ Y MOTA, JUAN CLAUDIO DE (i63o?-i7io?), 
Spanish dramatist, was born in Madrid. He became a knight 
of Santiago in 1653, and soon afterwards succeeded his father 
as regidor of Burgos. In 1665 he was nominated to an important 
post at the Treasury, and in his later years acted as official 
censor of the Madrid theatres. On the 13th of August 1709 
he signed his play entitled Josef, Salvador de Egipto, and is pre- 
sumed to have died in the following year. Hoz is not remark- 
able for originality of conception, but his recasts of plays by 
earlier writers are distinguished by an adroitness which accounts 
for the esteem 'in which he was held by his contemporaries. 
El Montanfs Juan Pascal and El castigo de la miseria, reprinted 
in the Biblioteca de Aulores Espanoles, give a just idea of his 
adaptable talent. 

LAHR, a town in the grand-duchy of Baden, on the Schutter, 
about 9 m. S. of Offenburg, and on the railway Dinglingen-Lahr. 
Pop. (1900) 13,577. One of the busiest towns in Baden, it 
carries on manufactures of tobacco and cigars, woollen goods, 
chicory, leather, pasteboard, hats and numerous other articles, 
has considerable trade in wine, while among its other industries 
are printing and lithography. Lahr first appears as a town in 
1278, and after several vicissitudes it passed wholly to Baden 
in 1803. 

See Stein, Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt Lahr (Lahr, 1827) ; 
and Sutterlin, Lahr und seine Umgebung (Lahr, 1904). 

LAIBACH (Slovenian, Ljubljana), capital of the Austrian 
duchy of Carniola, 237 m. S.S.W. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900) 
36,547, mostly Slovene. It is situated on the Laibach, near its 
influx into the Save, and consists of the town proper and eight 
suburbs. Laibach is an episcopal see, and possesses a cathedral 
in the Italian style, several beautiful churches, a town hall in 
Renaissance style and a castle, built in the 15th century, on the 
Schlossberg, an eminence which commands the town. Laibach 
is the principal centre of the national Slovenian movement, 
and it contains a Slovene theatre and several societies for the 
promotion of science and literature in the native tongue. The 
Slovenian language is in general official use, and the municipal 
administration is purely Slovenian. The industries include 



manufactures of pottery, bricks, oil, linen and woollen cloth, 
fire-hose and paper. 

Laibach is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Emona or 
Aemona, founded by the emperor Augustus in 34 B.C. It was 
besieged by Alaric in 400, and in 451 it was desolated by the Huns. 
In 900 Laibach suffered much from the Magyars, who were, however, 
defeated there in 914. In the 12th century the town passed into the 
hands of the dukes of Carinthia; in 1270 it was taken by Ottocar of 
Bohemia; and in 1277 it came under the Habsburgs. In the early 
part of the 15th century the town was several times besieged by the 
Turks. The bishopric was founded in 1461. On the 17th of March 
1797 and again on the 3rd of June 1809 Laibach was taken by the 
French, and from 1809 to 1813 it became the seat of their general 
government of the Illyrian provinces. From 1816 to 1849 Laibach 
was the capital of the kingdom of Illyria. The town is also historic- 
ally known from the congress of Laibach, which assembled here in 
1821 (see below). Laibach suffered severely on the 14th of April 
1895 from an earthquake. 

Congress or Conference of Laibach. — Before the break-up of 
the conference of Troppau (q.v.), it had been decided to adjourn 
it till the following January, and to invite the attendance of 
the king of Naples, Laibach being chosen as the place of meet- 
ing. Castlereagh, in the name of Great Britain, had cordially 
approved this invitation, as " implying negotiation " and there- 
fore as a retreat from the position taken up in the Troppau 
Protocol. Before leaving Troppau, however, the three autocratic 
powers, Russia, Austria and Prussia, had issued, on the 8th of 
December 1820, a circular letter, in which they reiterated the 
principles of the Protocol, i.e. the right and duty of the powers 
responsible for the peace of Europe to intervene to suppress 
any revolutionary movement by which they might conceive 
that peace to be endangered (Hertslet, No. 105). Against this 
view Castlereagh once more protested in a circular despatch of 
the 19th of January 182 1, in which he clearly differentiated 
between the objectionable general principles advanced by the 
three powers, and the particular case of the unrest in Italy, 
the immediate concern not of Europe at large, but of Austria 
and of any other Italian powers which might consider themselves 
endangered (Hertslet, No. 107). 

The conference opened on the 26th of January 1821, and its 
constitution emphasized the_ divergences revealed in the above 
circulars. The emperors of Russia and Austria were present 
in person, and with them were Counts Nesselrode and Capo 
d'Istria, Metternich and Baron Vincent; Prussia and France 
were represented by plenipotentiaries. But Great Britain, on 
the ground that she had no immediate interest in the Italian 
question, was represented only by Lord Stewart, the ambassador 
at Vienna, who was not armed with full powers, his mission being 
to watch the proceedings and to see that nothing was done 
beyond or in violation of the treaties. Of the Italian princes, 
Ferdinand of Naples and the duke of Modena came in person; 
the rest were represented by plenipotentiaries. 

It was soon clear that a more or less open breach between 
Great Britain and the other powers was inevitable, Metternich 
was anxious to secure an apparent unanimity of the powers to 
back the Austrian intervention in Naples, and every device 
was used to entrap the English representative into subscribing 
a formula which would have seemed to commit Great Britain 
to the principles of the other allies. When these devices failed, 
attempts were made unsuccessfully to exclude Lord Stewart 
from the conferences on the ground of defective powers. Finally 
he was forced to an open protest, which he caused to be inscribed 
on the journals, but the action of Capo d'Istria in reading to the 
assembled Italian ministers, who were by no means reconciled 
to the large claims implied in the Austrian intervention, a declara- 
tion in which as the result of the " intimate union established 
by solemn acts between all the European powers " the Russian 
emperor offered to the allies " the aid of his arms, should new 
revolutions threaten new dangers," an attempt to revive that 
idea of a " universal union " based on the Holy Alliance (q.v.) 
against which Great Britain had consistently protested. 

The obiections of Great Britain were, however, not so much 
to an Austrian intervention in Naples as to the far-reaching 
principles by which it was sought to justify it. King Ferdinand 
had been invited to Laibach, according to the circular of the 



LAIDLAW— LAING, M. 



83 



8th of December, in order that he might be free to act as 
" mediator between his erring peoples and the states whose 
tranquillity they threatened." The cynical use he made of his 
" freedom " to repudiate obligations solemnly contracted is 
described elsewhere (see Naples, History). The result of this 
action was the Neapolitan declaration of war and the occupa- 
tion of Naples by Austria, with the sanction of the congress. 
This was preceded, on the 10th of March, by the revolt of the 
garrison of Alessandria and the military revolution in Piedmont, 
which in its turn was suppressed, as a result of negotiations at 
Laibach, by Austrian troops. It was at Laibach, too, that, on 
the 19th of March, the emperor Alexander received the news 
of Ypsilanti's invasion of the Danubian principalities, which 
heralded the outbreak of the War of Greek Independence, and 
from Laibach Capo d'Istria addressed to the Greek leader the 
tsar's repudiation of his action. 

The conference closed on the 12th of May, on which date 
Russia, Austria and Prussia issued a declaration (Hertslet, 
No. 108) " to proclaim to the world the principles which guided 
them " in coming '.' to the assistance of subdued peoples," a 
declaration which once more affirmed the principles of the 
Troppau Protocol. In this lay the European significance of the 
Laibach conference, of which the activities had been mainly 
confined to Italy. The issue of the declaration without the 
signatures of the representatives of Great Britain and France 
proclaimed the disunion of the alliance; within which — to use 
Lord Stewart's words — there existed " a triple understanding 
which bound the parties to carry forward their own views in 
spite of any difference of opinion between them and the two 
great constitutional governments." 

No separate history of the congress exists, but innumerable refer- 
ences are to be found in general histories and in memoirs, correspond- 
ence, &c, of the time. See Sir E. Hertslet, Map of Europe (London, 
1875); Castlereagh, Correspondence; Metternich, Memoirs; N. 
Bianchi, Storia documentata delta diplomazia Europea in Italia (8 vols., 
Turin, 1865-1872); Gentz's correspondence (see Gentz, F. von). 
Valuable unpublished correspondence is preserved at the Record 
Office in the volumes marked F. O., Austria, Lord Stewart, January 
to February 182 1, and March to September 1 82 1. (W. A. P.) 

LAIDLAW, WILLIAM (1780-184 5), friend and amanuensis 
of Sir Walter Scott, was born at Blackhouse, Selkirkshire, on 
the 19th of November 1780, the son of a sheep farmer. After 
an elementary education in Peebles he returned to work upon 
his father's farm. James Hogg, the shepherd poet, who was 
employed at Blackhouse for some years, ' became Laidlaw's 
friend and appreciative critic. Together they assisted Scott 
by supplying material for his Border Minstrelsy, and Laidlaw, 
after two failures as a farmer in Midlothian and Peebleshire, 
became Scott's steward at Abbotsford. He also acted as Scott's 
amanuensis at different times, taking down a large part of The 
Bride of Lammermoor, The Legend of Montrose and Ivanhoe 
from the author's dictation. He died at Contin near Dingwall, 
Ross-shire, on the 18th of May 1845. Of his poetry, little is 
known except Lucy's Flittin' in Hogg's Forest Minstrel. 

LAING, ALEXANDER GORDON (1 793-1826), Scottish 
explorer, the first European to reach Timbuktu, was born at 
Edinburgh on the 27th of December 1793. He was educated 
by his father, William Laing, a private teacher of classics, and 
at Edinburgh University. In 181 1 he went to Barbados as 
clerk to his maternal uncle Colonel (afterwards General) Gabriel 
Gordon. Through General Sir George Beckwith, governor of 
Barbados, he obtained an ensigncy in the York Light Infantry. 
He was employed in the West Indies, and in 1822 was promoted 
to a company in the Royal African Corps. In that year, while 
with his regiment at Sierra Leone, he was sent by the governor, 
Sir Charles MacCarthy, to the Mandingo country, with the double 
object of opening up commerce and endeavouring to abolish the 
slave trade in that region. Later in the same year Laing visited 
Falaba, the capital of the Sulima country, and ascertained the 
source of the Rokell. He endeavoured to reach the source of 
the Niger, but was stopped by the natives. He was, however, 
enabled to fix it with approximate accuracy. He took an active 
part in the Ashanti War of 1823-24, and was sent home with the 



despatches containing the news of the death in action of Sir 
Charles MacCarthy. Henry, 3rd Earl Bathurst, then secretary 
for the colonies, instructed Captain Laing to undertake a journey, 
via Tripoli and Timbuktu, to further elucidate the hydrography 
of the Niger basin. Laing left England in February 1825, and at 
Tripoli on the 14th of July following he married Emma Warring- 
ton, daughter of the British consul. Two days later, leaving his 
bride behind, he started to cross the Sahara, being accompanied 
by a sheikh who was subsequently accused of planning his 
murder. Ghadames was reached, by an indirect route, in 
October 1825, and in December Laing was in the Tuat territory, 
where he was well received by the Tuareg. On the 10th of 
January 1826 he left Tuat, and made for Timbuktu across the 
desert of Tanezroft. Letters from him written in May and 
July following told of sufferings from fever and the plundering 
of his caravan by Tuareg, Laing being wounded in twenty-four 
places in the fighting. Another letter dated from Timbuktu 
on the 2 1 st of September announced his arrival in that city on 
the preceding 18th of August, and the insecurity of his position 
owing to the hostility of the Fula chieftain Bello, then ruling 
the city. He added that he intended leaving Timbuktu in 
three days' time. No further news was received from the 
traveller. From native information it was ascertained that he 
left Timbuktu on the day he had planned and was murdered 
on the night of the 26th of September 1826. His papers were 
never recovered, though it is believed that they were secretly 
brought to Tripoli in 1828. In 1903 the French government 
placed a tablet bearing the name of the explorer and the date of 
his visit on the house occupied by him during his thirty-eight 
days' stay in Timbuktu. 

While in England in 1824 Laing prepared a narrative of his earlier 
journeys, which was published in 1825 and entitled Travels in the 
Timannee, Kooranko and Soolima Countries, in Western Africa. 

LAING, DAVID (1793-1878), Scottish antiquary, the son of 
William Laing, a bookseller in Edinburgh, was born in that city 
on the 20th of April 1793. Educated at the Canongate Grammar 
School, when fourteen he was apprenticed to his father. Shortly 
after the death of the latter in 1837, Laing was elected to the 
librarianship of the Signet Library, which post he retained till 
his death. Apart from an extraordinary general bibliographical 
knowledge, Laing was best known as a lifelong student of the 
literary and artistic history of Scotland. He published no 
original volumes, but contented himself with editing the works 
of others. Of these, the chief are — Dunbar's Works (2 vols., 
.1834), with a supplement added in 1865; Robert Baillie's 
Letters and Journals (3 vols., 1841-1842); John Knox's Works 
(6 vols., 1846-1864); Poems and Fables of Robert Henryson 
(1865); Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland 
(3 vols., 1872-1879); Sir David Lyndsay's Poetical Works 
(3 vols., 1879). Laing was for more than fifty years a member 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and he contributed 
upwards of a hundred separate papers to their Proceedings. 
He was also for more than forty years secretary to the Bannatyne 
Club, many of the publications of which were edited by him. 
He was struck with paralysis in 1878 while in the Signet Library, 
and it is related that, on recovering consciousness, he looked 
about and asked if a proof of Wyntoun had been sent from the 
printers. He died a few days afterwards, on the 18th of October, 
in his eighty-sixth year. His library was sold by auction, and 
realized £16,137. To the university of Edinburgh he bequeathed 
his collection of MSS. 

See the Biographical Memoir prefixed to Select Remains of Ancient, 
Popular and Romance Poetry of Scotland, edited by John Small 
(Edinburgh, 1885); also T. G. Stevenson, Notices of David Laing 
with List of his Publications, &c. (privately printed 1878). 

LAING, MALCOLM (1762-1818), Scottish historian, son of 
Robert Laing, and elder brother of Samuel Laing the elder, 
was born on his paternal estate on the Mainland of Orkney. 
Having studied at the grammar school of Kirkwall and at 
Edinburgh University, he was called to the Scotch bar in 1785, 
but devoted his time mainly to historical studies. In 1793 he 
completed the sixth and last volume of Robert Henry's History 
of Great Britain, the portion which he wrote being in its strongly 



8 4 



LAING, S.— LAISANT 



liberal tone at variance with the preceding part of the work; 
and in 1802 he published his History of Scotland from the Union of 
the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms, a work showing consider- 
able research. Attached to the History was a dissertation on 
the Gowrie conspiracy, and another on the supposed authenticity 
of Ossian's poems. In another dissertation, prefixed to a second 
and corrected edition of the History published in 1804, Laing 
endeavoured to prove that Mary, queen of Scots, wrote the 
Casket Letters, and was partly responsible for the murder of 
Lord Darnley. In the same year he edited the Life and Historie 
of King James VI., and in 1805 brought out in two volumes an 
edition of Ossian's poems. Laing, who was a friend of Charles 
James Fox, was member of parliament for Orkney and Shetland 
from 1807 to 181 2. He died on the 6th of November 1818. 

LAING, SAMUEL (1810-1807), British author and railway 
administrator, was born at Edinburgh on the 12th of December 
1810. He was the nephew of Malcolm Laing, the historian of 
Scotland; and his father, Samuel Laing (1780-1868), was also 
a well-known author, whose books on Norway and Sweden 
attracted much attention. Samuel Laing the younger entered 
St John's College, Cambridge, in 1827, and after graduating as 
second wrangler and Smith's prizeman, was elected a fellow, 
and remained at Cambridge temporarily as a coach. He was 
called to the bar in 1837, and became private secretary to Mr 
Labouchere (afterwards Lord Taunton), the president of the 
Board of Trade. In 1842 he was made secretary to the railway 
department, and retained this post till 1847. He had by then 
become an authority on railway working, and had been a member 
of the Dalhousie Railway Commission; it was at his suggestion 
that the " parliamentary " rate of a penny a mile was instituted. 
In 1848 he was appointed chairman and managing director of 
the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, and his business 
faculty showed itself in the largely increased prosperity of the 
line. He also became chairman (1852) of the Crystal Palace 
Company, but retired from both posts in 1855. In 1852 he 
entered parliament as a Liberal for Wick, and after losing his 
seat in 1857, was re-elected in 1859, in which year he was ap- 
pointed financial secretary to the Treasury; in i860 he was 
made finance minister in India. On returning from India, he 
was re-elected to parliament for Wick in 1865. He was defeated 
in 1868, but in 1873 he was returned for Orkney and Shetland, 
and retained his seat till 1885. Meanwhile he had been re- 
appointed chairman of the Brighton line in 1867, and continued 
in that post till 1 894, being generally recognized as an admirable 
administrator. He was also chairman of the Railway Debenture 
Trust and the Railway Share Trust. In later life he became 
well known as an author, his Modern Science and Modern 
Thought (1885), Problems of the Future (1889) and Human 
Origins (1892) being widely read, not only by reason of the 
writer's influential position, experience of affairs and clear 
style, but also through their popular and at the same time 
well-informed treatment of the scientific problems of the day. 
Laing died at Sydenham on the 6th of August 1897. 

LAING'S [or Lang's] NEK, a pass through the Drakensberg, 
South Africa, immediately north of Majuba (q.v.), at an elevation 
of 5400 to 6000 ft. It is the lowest part of a ridge which slopes 
from Majuba to the Buffalo river, and before the opening of 
the railway in 1891 the road over the nek was the main artery 
of communication between Durban and Pretoria. The railway 
pierces the nek by a tunnel 2213 ft. long. When the Boers 
rose in revolt in December 1880 they occupied Laing's Nek 
to oppose the entry of British reinforcements into the Transvaal. 
On the 28th of January 1881 a small British force endeavoured 
to drive the Boers from the pass, but was forced to retire. 

LAIRD, MACGREGOR (1808-1861), Scottish merchant, 
pioneer of British trade on the Niger, was born at Greenock in 
1808, the younger son of William Laird, founder of the Birken- 
head firm of shipbuilders of that name. In 1831 Laird and 
certain Liverpool merchants formed a company for the commercial 
development of the Niger regions, the lower course of the Niger 
having been made known that year by Richard and John Lander. 
In 1832 the company despatched two small ships to the Niger, 



one, the " Alburkah," a paddle-wheel steamer of 55 tons designed 
by Laird, being the first iron vessel to make an ocean voyage. 
Macgregor Laird went with the expedition, which was led by 
Richard Lander and numbered forty-eight Europeans, of whom 
all but nine died from fever or, in the case of Lander, from 
wounds. Laird went up the Niger to the confluence of the 
Benue (then called the Shary or Tchadda), which he was the 
first white man to ascend. He did not go far up the river but 
formed an accurate idea as to its source and course. The expedi- 
tion returned to Liverpool in 1834, Laird and Surgeon R. A. K. 
Oldfield being the only surviving officers besides Captain (then 
Lieut.) William Allen, R.N., who accompanied the expedition 
by order of the Admiralty to survey the river. Laird and 
Oldfield published in 1837 in two volumes the Narrative of an 
Expedition into the Interior of Africa by the River Niger . . . in 
1832, 1833, 1834. Commercially the expedition had been 
unsuccessful, but Laird had gained experience invaluable to 
his successors. He never returned to Africa but henceforth 
devoted himself largely to the development of trade with West 
Africa and especially to the opening up of the countries now 
forming the British protectorates of Nigeria. One of his principal 
reasons for so doing was his belief that this method was the best 
means of stopping the slave trade and raising the social condition 
of the Africans. In 1854 he sent out at his own charges, but with 
the support of the British government, a small steamer, the 
" Pleiad," which under W. B. Baikie made so successful a voyage 
that Laird induced the government to sign contracts for annual 
trading trips by steamers specially built for navigation of the 
Niger and Benue. Various stations were founded on the Niger, 
and though government support was withdrawn after the death 
of Laird and Baikie, British traders continued to frequent the 
river, which Laird had opened up with little or no personal 
advantage. Laird's interests were not, however, wholly African. 
In 1837 he was one of the promoters of a company formed to 
run steamships between England and New York, and in 1838 
the " Sirius," sent out by this company, was the first ship to 
cross the Atlantic from Europe entirely under steam. Laird 
died in London on the 9th of January 1861. 

His elder brother, John Laird (1805-1874), was one of the first 
to use iron in the construction of ships; in 1829 he made an 
iron lighter of 60 tons which was used on canals and lakes in 
Ireland; in 1834 he built the paddle steamer " John Randolph" 
for Savannah, U.S.A., stated to be the first iron ship seen in 
America. For the East India Company he built in 1839 the first 
iron vessel carrying guns and he was also the designer of the 
famous " Birkenhead." A Conservative in politics, he repre- 
sented Birkenhead in the House of Commons from 1861 to his 
death. 

LAiS, the name of two Greek courtesans, generally distin- 
guished as follows. (1) The elder, a native of Corinth, born 
c. 480 B.C., was famous for her greed and hardheartedness, which 
gained her the nickname of Axine (the axe). Among her lovers 
were the philosophers Aristippus and Diogenes, and Eubatas 
(or Aristoteles) of Cyrene, a famous runner. In her old age 
she became a drunkard. Her grave was shown in the Craneion 
near Corinth, surmounted by a lioness tearing a ram. (2) The 
younger, daughter of Timandra the mistress of Alcibiades, born 
at Hyccara in Sicily c. 420 B.C., taken to Corinth during the 
Sicilian expedition. The painter Apelles, who saw her drawing 
water from the fountain of Peirene, was struck by her beauty, 
and took her as a model. Having followed a handsome Thessalian 
to his native land, she was slain in the temple of Aphrodite by 
women who were jealous of her beauty. Many anecdotes are 
told of a Lais by Athenaeus, Aelian, Pausanias, and she forms 
the subject of many epigrams in the Greek Anthology; but, 
owing to the similarity of names, there is considerable uncertainty 
to whom they refer. The name itself, like Phryne, was used 
as a general term for a courtesan. 

See F. Jacobs, Vermischte Schriften, iv. (1830). 

LAISANT, CHARLES ANNE (1841- ), French politician, 
was born at Nantes on the 1st of November 1841, and was 
educated at the Ecole Polytechnique as a military engineer. 



LAI-YANG— LAKE, ist VISCOUNT 



85 



He defended the fort of Issy at the siege of Paris, and served 
in Corsica and in Algeria in 1873. In 1876 he resigned his 
commission to enter the Chamber as deputy for Nantes in the 
republican interest, and in 1879 he became director of the Petit 
Parisien. For alleged libel on General Courtot de Cissey in this 
paper he was heavily fined. In the Chamber he spoke chiefly 
on army questions; and was chairman of a commission appointed 
to consider army legislation, resigning in 1887 on the refusal 
of the Chamber to sanction the abolition of exemptions of any 
kind. He then became an adherent of the revisionist policy 
of General Boulanger and a member of the League of Patriots. 
He was elected Boulangist deputy for the 18th Parisian arron- 
dissement in 1889. He did not seek re-election in 1893, but 
devoted himself thenceforward to mathematics, helping to make 
known in France the theories of Giusto Bellavitis. He was 
attached to the staff of the ficole Poly technique, and in 1903- 
1904 was president of the French Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

In addition to his political pamphlets Pourquoi et comment je suis 
Boulangiste (1887) and L'Anarchie bourgeoise (1887), he published 
mathematical works, among them- Introduction d, Vitude des quart- 
ernions (1881) and Theorie et applications des iquipollences (1887). 

LAI-YANG, a city in the Chinese province of Shan-tung, 
in 37° N., 120° 55' E., about the middle of the eastern peninsula, 
on the highway running south from Chi-fu to Kin-Kia or Ting- 
tsu harbour. It is surrounded by well-kept walls of great 
antiquity, and its main streets are spanned by large pailous 
or monumental arches, some dating from the time of the emperor 
Tai-ting-ti of the Yuan dynasty (1324). There are extensive 
suburbs both to the north and south, and the total population 
is estimated at 50,000. The so-called Ailanthus silk produced 
by Salurnia cynthia is woven at Lai-yang into a strong fabric; 
and the manufacture of the peculiar kind of wax obtained from 
the la-shu or wax-tree insect is largely carried on in the vicinity. 

LAKANAL, JOSEPH (1762-1845), French politician, was born 
at Serres (Ariege) on the 14th of July 1762. His name, origin- 
ally Lacanal, was altered to distinguish him from his Royalist 
brothers. He joined one of the teaching congregations, and for 
fourteen years taught in their schools. When elected by his 
native department to the Convention in 1792 he was acting 
as vicar to his uncle Bernard Font (1723-1800), the constitutional 
bishop of Pamiers. In the Convention he held apart from the 
various party sections, although he voted for the death of 
Louis XVI. He rendered great service to the Revolution by 
his practical knowledge of education. He became a member 
of the Committee of Public Instruction early in 1793, and after 
carrying many useful decrees on the preservation of national 
monuments, on the military schools, on the reorganization 
of the Museum of Natural History and other matters, he brought 
forward on the 26th of June his Projet d 'education nationale 
(printed at the Imprimerie Nationale), which proposed to lay 
the burden or primary education on the public funds, but to 
leave secondary education to private enterprise. Provision was 
also made for public festivals, and a central commission was to 
be entrusted with educational questions. The scheme, in the 
main the work of Sieyes, was refused by the Convention, who 
submitted the whole question to a special commission of six, 
which under the influence of Robespierre adopted a report 
by Michel le Peletier de Saint Fargeau shortly before his tragic 
death. Lakanal, who was a member of the commission, now 
began to work for the organization of higher education, and 
abandoning the principle of his Projet advocated the establish- 
ment of state-aided schools for primary, secondary and university 
education. In October 1793 he was sent by the Convention to 
the south-western departments and did not return to Paris 
until after the revolution of Thermidor. He now became 
president of the Education Committee and promptly abolished 
the system which had had Robespierre's support. He drew up 
schemes for departmental normal schools, for primary schools 
(reviving in substance the Projet) and central schools. He 
presently acquiesced in the supersession of his own system, 
but continued his educational reports after his election to the 



Council of the Five Hundred. In 1799 he was sent by the 
Directory to organize the defence of the four departments on 
the left bank of the Rhine threatened by invasion. Under the 
Consulate he resumed his professional work, and after Waterloo 
retired to America, where he became president of the university 
of Louisiana. He returned to France in 1834, and shortly 
afterwards, in spite of his advanced age, married a second time. 
He died in Paris on the 14th of February 1845; his widow 
survived till 1881. Lakanal was an original member of the 
Institute of France. He published in 1838 an Expose sommaire 
des travaux de Joseph Lakanal. 

His eJoge at the Academy of Moral and Political Science, of which 
he was a member, was pronounced by the comte de Remusat 
(February 16, 1845), and a Notice historique by F. A. M. Mignet was 
read on the 2nd of May 1857. See also notices by Emile Darnaud 
(Paris, 1874), " Marcus " (Paris, 1879), P. Legendre in Hommes de la 
revolution (Paris, 1882), E. Guillon, Lakanal et V instruction publique 
(Paris, 1881). For details of the reports submitted by him to the 
government see M. Tourneux, " Histoire de l'instruction publique, 
actes et deliberations de la convention, &c." in Bibliog. de I'hist. de 
Paris (vol. iii., 1900); also A. Robert and G. Cougny, Dictionnaire 
des parlementaires (vol. ii., 1890). 

LAKE, GERARD LAKE, ist Viscount (1744-1808), British 
general, was born on the 27th of July 1744. He entered the 
foot guards in 1758, becoming lieutenant (captain in the army) 
1762, captain (Lieut.- colonel) in 1776, major 1784, and lieut.- 
colonel in 1 792, by which time he was a general officer in the army. 
He served with his regiment in Germany in 1 760-1 762 and with 
a composite battalion in the Yorktown campaign of 1781. 
After this he was equerry to the prince of Wales, afterwards 
George IV. In 1790 he became a major-general, and in 1793 
was appointed to command the Guards Brigade in the duke of 
York's army in Flanders. He was in command at the brilliant 
affair of Lincelles, on the 18th of August 1793, and served on the 
continent (except for a short time when seriously ill) until April 
1794. He had now sold his lieut.-colonelcy in the guards, and 
had become colonel of the 53rd foot and governor of Limerick. 
In 1797 he was promoted lieut.-general. In the following year 
the Irish rebellion broke out. Lake, who was then serving in 
Ireland, succeeded Sir Ralph Abercromby in command of the 
troops in April 1798, issued a proclamation ordering the surrender 
of all arms by the civil population of Ulster, and on the 21st of 
June routed the rebels at Vinegar Hill (near Enniscorthy, Co. 
Wexford). He exercised great, but perhaps not unjustified, 
severity towards all rebels found in arms. Lord Cornwallis 
now assumed the chief command in Ireland, and in August sent 
Lake to oppose the French expedition which landed at Killala 
Bay. On the 29th of the same month Lake arrived at Castlebar, 
but only in time to witness the disgraceful rout of the troops 
under General Hely-Hutchinson (afterwards 2nd earl of Donough- 
more) ; but he retrieved this disaster by compelling the surrender 
of the French at Ballinamuck, near Cloone, on the 8th of 
September. In 1799 Lake returned to England, and soon after- 
wards obtained the command in chief in India. He took over 
his duties at Calcutta in July 1801, and applied himself to the 
improvement of the Indian army, especially in the direction 
of making all arms, infantry, cavalry and artillery, more mobile 
and more manageable. In 1802 he was made a full general. 

On the outbreak of war with the Mahratta confederacy in 
1803 General Lake took the field against Sindhia, and within 
two months defeated the Mahrattas at Coel, stormed Aligahr, 
took Delhi and Agra, and won the great victory of Laswari 
(November ist, 1803), where the power of Sindhia was completely 
broken, with the loss of thirty-one disciplined battalions, trained 
and officered by Frenchmen, and 426 pieces of ordnance. This 
defeat, followed a few days later by Major-General Arthur 
Wellesley's victory at Argaum, compelled Sindhia to come to 
terms, and a treaty with him was signed in December 1803. 
Operations were, however, continued against his confederate, 
Holkar, who, on the 17th of November 1804, was defeated by 
Lake at Farrukhabad. But the fortress of Bhurtpore held out 
against four assaults early in 1805, and Cornwallis, who succeeded 
Wellesley as governor-general in July of that year — superseding 
Lake at the same time as commander-in-chief — determined 



86 



LAKE 



to put an end to the war. But after the death of Cornwallis 
in October of the same year, Lake pursued Holkar into the 
Punjab and compelled him to surrender at Amritsar in December 
1805. Wellesley in a despatch attributed much of the success 
of the war to Lake's " matchless energy, ability and valour." 
For his services Lake received the thanks of parliament, and was 
rewarded by a peerage in September 1804. At the conclusion 
of the war he returned to England, and in 1807 he was created a 
viscount. He represented Aylesbury in the House of Commons 
from 1790 to 1802, and he also was brought into the Irish parlia- 
ment by the government as member for Armagh in 1799 to 
vote for the Union. He died in London on the 20th of February 
1808. 

See H. Pearse, Memoir of the Life and Services of Viscount Lake 
(London, 1908) ; G. B. Malleson, Decisive Battles of India (1883) ; 
J. Grant Duff, History of the Mahrattas (1873); short memoir in 
From Cromwell to Wellington, ed. Spenser Wilkinson. 

LAKE. Professor Forel of Switzerland, the founder of the 
science of limnology (Gr. Xinvrj, a lake), defines a lake (Lat. 
lacus) as a mass of still water situated in a depression of the 
ground, without direct communication with the sea. The term 
is sometimes applied to widened parts of rivers, and sometimes 
to bodies of water which lie along sea-coasts, even at sea-level 
and in direct communication with the sea. The terms pond, 
tarn, loch and mere are applied to smaller lakes according to size 
and position. Some lakes are so large that an observer cannot 
see low objects situated on the opposite shore, owing to the 
lake -surface assuming the general curvature of the earth's 
surface. Lakes are nearly universally distributed, but are more 
abundant in high than in low latitudes. They are abundant in 
mountainous regions, especially in those which have been 
recently glaciated. They are frequent along rivers which have 
low gradients and wide flats, where they are clearly connected 
with the changing channel of the river. Low lands in proximity 
to the sea, especially in wet climates, have numerous lakes, as, 
for instance, Florida. Lakes may be either fresh or salt, according 
to the nature of the climate, some being much more salt than the 
sea itself. They occur in all altitudes; Lake Titicaca in South 
America is 12,500 ft. above sea-level, and Yellowstone Lake 
in the United States is 7741 ft. above the sea; on the other hand, 
the surface of the Caspian Sea is 86 ft., the Sea of Tiberias 682 ft. 
and the Dead Sea 1 292 ft. below the level of the ocean. 

The primary source of lake water is atmospheric precipitation, 
which may reach the lakes through rain, melting ice and snow, 
springs, rivers and immediate run-off from the land-surfaces. 
The surface of the earth, with which we are directly in touch, 
is composed of lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, and 
these interpenetrate. Lakes, rivers, the water-vapour of the 
atmosphere and the water of hydration of the lithosphere, must 
all be regarded as outlying portions of the hydrosphere, which 
is chiefly made up of the great oceans. Lakes may be compared 
to oceanic islands. Just as an oceanic island presents many 
peculiarities in its rocks, soil, fauna and flora, due to its isolation 
from the larger terrestrial masses, so does a lake present peculi- 
arities and an individuality in its physical, chemical and biological 
features, owing to its position and separation from the waters 
of the great oceans. 

Origin of Lakes. — From the geological point of view, lakes may be 
arranged into three groups: (A) Rock-Basins, (B) Barrier- Basins 
and (C) Organic Basins. 

A. Rock-Basins have been formed in several ways: — 

1. By slow movements of the earth's crust, during the formation of 
mountains; the Lake of Geneva in Switzerland and the Lake of 
Annecy in France are due to the subsidence or warping of part of the 
Alps; on the other hand, Lakes Stefanie, Rudolf, Albert Nyanza, 
Tanganyika and Nyasa in Africa, and the Dead Sea in Asia Minor, 
are all believed to lie in a great rift or sunken valley. 

2. By Volcanic Agencies.- — Crater-lakes formed on the sites of 
dormant volcanoes may be from a few yards to several miles in 
width, have generally a circular form, and are often without visible 
outlet. Excellent examples of such lakes are to be seen in the pro- 
vince of Rome (Italy) and in the central plateau of France, where 
M. Delebecque found the Lake of Issarles 329 ft. in depth. The most 
splendid crater-lake is found on the summit of the Cascade range of 
Southern Oregon (U.S.A.). This lake is 2000 ft. in depth. 

3. By Subsidence due to Subterranean Channels and Caves in Lime- 



stone Rocks. — When the roofs of great limestone caves or underground 
lakes fall in, they produce at the surface what are called limestone 
sinks. Lakes similar to these are also found in regions abounding in 
rock-salt deposits; the Jura range offers many such lakes. 

4. By Glacier Erosion. — A. C. Ramsay has shown that innumerable 
lakes of the northern hemisphere do not lie in fissures produced by 
underground disturbances, nor in areas of subsidence, nor in syn- 
clinal folds of strata, but are the results of glacial erosion. Many 
flat alluvial plains above gorges in Switzerland, as well as in the 
Highlands of Scotland, were, without doubt, what Sir Archibald 
Geikie calls glen-lakes, or true rock-basins, which have been filled 
up by sand and mud brought into them by their tributary streams. 

B. Barrier-Basins. — These may be due to the following causes : — 

1. A landslip often occurs in mountainous regions, where strata, 
dipping towards the valley, rest on soft layers; the hard rocks slip 
into the valley after heavy rains, damming back the drainage, which 
then forms a barrier-basin. Many small lakes high up in the Alps 
and Pyrenees are formed by a river being dammed back in this way. 

2. By a Glacier. — In Alaska, in Scandinavia and in the Alps a 
glacier often bars the mouth of a tributary valley, the stream flowing 
therein is dammed back, and a lake is thus formed. The best-known 
lake of this kind is the Marjelen Lake in the Alps, near the great 
Aletsch Glacier. Lake Castain in Alaska is barred by the Malaspina 
Glacier; it is 2 or 3 m. long and I m. in width when at its highest 
level ; it discharges through a tunnel 9 m. in length beneath the ice- 
sheet. The famous parallel roads of Glen Roy in Scotland are suc- 
cessive terraces formed along the shores of a glacial lake during the 
waning glacial epoch. Lake Agassiz, which during the glacial period 
occupied the valley of the Red River, and of which the present Lake 
Winnipeg is a remnant, was formed by an ice-dam along the margin 
of two great ice-sheets. It is estimated to have been 700 m. in length, 
and to have covered an area of 110,000 sq. m., thus exceeding the 
total area of the five great North American lakes: Superior (31,200), 
Michigan (22,450), Huron with Georgian Bay (23,800), Erie (9960) 
and Ontario (7240). 

3. By the Lateral Moraine of an Actual Glacier. — These lakes some- 
times occur in the Alps of Central Europe and in the Pyrenees 
Mountains. 

4. By the Frontal Moraine of an Ancient Glacier. — The barrier in 
this case consists of the last moraine left by the retreating glacier. 
Such lakes are abundant in the northern hemisphere, especially in 
Scotland and the Alps. 

5. By Irregular Deposition of Glacial Drift. — After the retreat of 
continental glaciers great masses of glacial drift are left on the land- 
surfaces, but, on account of the manner in which these masses were 
deposited, they abound in depressions that become filled with water. 
Often these lakes are without visible outlets, the water frequently 
percolating through the glacial drift. These lakes are so numerous 
in the north-eastern part of North America that one can trace the 
southern boundary of the great ice-sheet by following the southern 
limit of the lake-strewn region, where lakes may be counted by tens 
of thousands, varying from the size of a tarn to that of the great 
Laurentian lakes above mentioned. 

6. By Sand drifted into Dunes. — ft is a well-known fact that sand 
may travel across a country for several miles in the direction of the 
prevailing winds. When these sand-dunes obstruct a valley a lake 
may be formed. A good example of such a lake is found in Moses 
Lake in the state of Washington ; but the sand-dunes may also fill up 
or submerge river-valleys and lakes, for instance, in the Sahara, 
where the Shotts are like vast lakes in the early morning, and in 
the afternoon, when much evaporation has taken place, like vast 
plains of white salt. 

7. By Alluvial Matter deposited by Lateral Streams. — If the current 
of a main river be not powerful enough to sweep away detrital matter 
brought down by a lateral stream, a dam is formed causing a lake. 
These lakes are frequently met with in the narrow valleys of the 
Highlands of Scotland. 

8. By Flows of Lava. — Lakes of this kind are met with in volcanic 
regions. 

C. Organic Basins. — In the vast tundras that skirt the Arctic 
Ocean in both the old and the new world, a great number of frozen 
ponds and lakes are met with, surrounded by banks of vegetation. 
Snow-banks are generally accumulated every season at the same 
spots. During summer the growth of the tundra vegetation is 
very rapid, and the snow-drifts that last longest are surrounded 
by luxuriant vegetation. When such accumulations of snow 
finally melt, the vegetation on the place they occupied is much less 
than along their borders. Year after year such places become more 
and more depressed, comparatively to the general surface, where 
vegetable growth is more abundant, and thus give origin to lakes. 

It is well known that in coral-reef regions small bays are cut off 
from the ocean by the growth of corals, and thus ultimately fresh- 
water basins are formed. 

Life History of Lakes. — From the time of its formation a lake 
is destined to disappear. The historical period has not been 
long enough to enable man to have watched the birth, life and 
death of any single lake of considerable size, still by studying the 



LAKE 



87 



various stages of development a fairly good idea of the course 
they run can be obtained. 

In humid reg'ons two processes tend to the extinction of a 
lake, viz. the deposition of detrital matter in the lake, and the 
lowering of the lake by the cutting action of the outlet stream 
on the barrier. These outgoing streams, however, being very 
pure and clear, all detrital matter having been deposited in the 
lake, have less eroding power than inflowing streams. One 
of the best examples of the action of the filling-up process is 
presented by Lochs Doine, Voil and Lubnaig in the Callander 
district of Scotland. In post-glacial times these three lochs 
formed, without doubt, one continuous sheet of water, which 
subsequently became divided into three different basins by the 
deposition of sediment. Loch Doine has been separated from 
Loch Voil by alluvial cones laid down by two opposite streams. 
At the head of Loch Doine there is an alluvial fiat that stretches 
for ij m., formed by the Lochlarig river and its tributaries. 
The long stretch of alluvium that separates Loch Voil from 
Loch Lubnaig has been laid down by Calair Burn in Glen Buckie, 
by the Kirkton Burn at Balquhidder, and by various streams 
on both sides of Strathyre. Loch Lubnaig once extended to a 
point f m. beyond its present outlet, the level of the loch being 
lowered about 20 ft. by the denuding action of the river Leny 
on its rocky barrier. 

In arid regions, where the rainfall is often less than 10 ins. 
in the year, the action of winds in the transport of sand and dust 
is more in evidence than that of rivers, and the effects of evapora- 



change of climate in the direction of aridity reduced the level of 
the lake below the level of the outlet, the waters became gradually 
salt, and the former great fresh-water lake has been reduced 
gradually to the relatively small Great Salt Lake of the present 
day. The sites of extinct salt lakes yield salt in commercial 
quantities. 

The Water of Lakes. — (a) Composition. — It is interesting to com- 
pare the quantity of solid matter in, and the chemical composition of, 
the water of fresh and salt lakes: — 

Total Solids by Evaporation 
expressed in Grams per Litre. 
Great Salt Lake (Russell) .... 238-12 
Lake of Geneva (Delebecque) . . 0-1775 

The following analysis of a sample of the water of the Great Salt 
Lake (Utah, U.S.A.) is given by I. C. Russell:— 

Na 

K 

Li 

Mg 

Ca 

CI 

S0 3 

O in sulphates 

Fe 2 3 +Al 2 3 

Si0 2 . 

Bo 2 3 . 

Br 3 . 

The following analyses of the waters of other salt lakes are given 
by Mr J. Y. Buchanan (Art. " Lake," Ency. Brit., 9th Ed.), an analy- 
sis of sea-water from the Suez Canal being added for comparison : — ■ 



Grams per Litre. 




Probable Combination. 


• 75-825 , 


NaCl . 




192-860 


3-925 


K 2 SO„ . 




8-756 


0-021 


Li 2 S0 4 




0-166 


4-844 


MgCl 2 . 




15-044 


2-424 


MgS0 4 




5-216 


. I28-278 


CaS0 4 




8-240 


I2-522 


Fe 2 3 +Al 2 3 


0-004 


2-494 


Si0 2 




0-018 


0-004 


Surplus 


S0 3 


0-051 


0-018 








trace 








faint trace 













Koko-nor. 


Aral Sea. 


Caspian Sea. 




Dead Sea. 


Lake Van. 


Suez Canal, 
Ismailia. 




Open. 


Karabugas. 




Specific Gravity .... 
Percentage of Salt ... 


1-00907 
i-ii 


1-09 


1 -01 106 
1-30 


1-26217 
28-5 


1-17500 
22-28 


22-13 


1-01800 
1-73 


1-03898 
5-1 


Name of Salt. 


Grams of Salt per 1000 Grams of Water. 


Bicarbonate of Lime . 
„ Iron . 
,, Magnesia 

Carbonate of Soda 

Phosphate of Lime 

Sulphate of Lime 

„ Magnesia 
,, Soda 

Potash . 

Chloride of Sodium . 
„ Potassium 
„ Rubidium 
,, Magnesium 
„ Calcium . 

Bromide of Magnesium 

Silica 




0-6804 
0-0053 
0-6598 

0-0028 

0-9324 
1-7241 

6-9008 
0-2209 
0-0055 

0-0045 
0-0098 


0-2185 

1-3499 
2-9799 

6-2356 
0-1145 

0-0003 


0-1123 
0-0014 

0-002I 
0-9004 
3-0855 

8-Il6 3 

0-1339 
0-0034 
0-6115 

0-0081 
0-0024 


61-9350 

83-2840 

9-956o 

0-2510 

129-3770 

0-193° 



13 

192 

15 



7570 
5460 

4100 

4610 
5990 


o-86oo 

76-5000 
23-3000 

95-6000 

22-4500 

2-3100 

0-2400 


0-4031 
5-3976 

0-2595 
2-5673 
0-5363 
8-0500 

0-0761 


0-0072 
0-0069 

0-0029 

1-8593 
3-2231 

40-4336 
0-6231 
0-0265 
4-7632 

0-0779 
0-0027 


Total Solid Matter 


11-1463 


10-8987 


12-9773 


284-9960 


222-7730 


221-2600 


17-2899 


51-0264 



tion greater than of precipitation. Salt and bitter lakes prevail 
in these regions. Many salt lakes, such as the Dead Sea and the 
Great Salt Lake, are descended from fresh-water ancestors, 
while others, like the Caspian and Aral Seas, are isolated portions 
of the ocean. Lakes of the first group have usually become salt 
through a decrease in the rainfall of the region in which they 
occur. The water begins to get salt when the evaporation from 
the lake exceeds the inflow. The inflowing waters bring in a 
small amount of saline and alkaline matter, which becomes 
more and more concentrated as the evaporation increases. 
In lakes of the second group the waters were salt at the outset. 
If inflow exceeds evaporation they become fresher, and may 
ultimately become quite fresh. If the evaporation exceeds the 
inflow they diminish in size, and their waters become more and 
more salt and bitter. The first lake which occupied the basin 
of the Great Salt Lake of Utah appears to have been fresh, then 
with a change of climate to have become a salt lake. Another 
change of climate taking place, the level of the lake rose until it 
overflowed, the outlet being by the Snake river; the lake then 
became fresh. This expanded lake has been called Lake Bonne- 
ville, which covered an area of about 17,000 sq. m. Another 



This table embraces examples of several types of salt lakes. In the 
Koko-nor, Aral and open Caspian Seas we have examples of the 
moderately salt, non-saturated waters. In the Karabugas, a branch 
gulf of the Caspian, Urmia and the Dead Seas we have examples of 
saturated waters containing principally chlorides. Lake Van is an 
example of the alkaline seas which also occur in Egypt, Hungary 
and other countries. Their peculiarity consists in the quantity of 
carbonate of soda dissolved in their waters, which is collected by the 
inhabitants for domestic and commercial purposes. 

The following analyses by Dr Bourcart give an idea of the chemical 
composition of the water of fresh-water lakes in grams per litre: — 





Tanay. 


Bleu. 


Marjelen. 


St Gothard. 


Si0 2 .... 


0-003 


0-0042 


0-0014 


0-0008 


Fe 2 3 +Al 2 3 




0-0012 


0-0006 


0-0008 


trace 


NaCl . . . 




0-0017 








Na 2 S0 4 








0-0011 


0-0038 


0-0031 


0-00085 


Na 2 C0 3 














0-00128 


K 2 S0 4 








0-0021 


0-0028 


0-0044 




K 2 CO, 












0-0003 


0-00130 


MgS0 4 








0-006 


0-0305 






MgC0 3 








0-0046 


0-0158 


o-oco8 


0-00015 


CaS0 4 
















CaC0 3 








0-107 


0-1189 


0-0061 


0-00178 


MnO . 








0-001 









88 



LAKE 



(b) Movements and Temperature of Lake- Waters. — (i) In addition 
to the rise and fall of the surface-level of lakes due to rainfall and 
evaporation, there is a transference of water due to the action of wind 
which results in raising the level at the end to which the wind is 
blowing. In addition to the well-known progressive waves there are 
also stationary waves or " seiches " which are less apparent. A 
seiche is a standing oscillation of a lake, usually in the direction 
of the longest diameter, but occasionally transverse. In a motion 
of this kind every particle of the water of the lake oscillates syn- 
chronously with every other, the periods and phases being the same 
for all, and the orbits similar but of different dimensions and 
not similarly situated. Seiches were first discovered in 1730 by 
Fatio de Duillier, a well-known Swiss engineer, and were first 
systematically studied by Professor Forel in the Lake of Geneva. 
Large numbers of observations have been made by various observers 
in lakes in many parts of the world. Henry observed a fifteen-hour 
seiche in Lake Erie, which is 396 kilometres in length, and Endros 
recorded a seiche of fourteen seconds in a small pond only in metres 
in length. Although these waves cause periodical rising and falling 
of the water-level, they are generally inconspicuous, and can only be 
recorded by a registering apparatus, a limnograph. Standard work 
has been done in the study of seiches by the Lake Survey of Scot- 
land under the immediate direction of Professor Chrystal, who has 
given much attention to the hydrodynamical theories of the pheno- 
menon. Seiches are probably due to several factors acting together 
or separately, such as sudden variations of atmospheric pressure, 
changes in the strength or direction of the wind. Explanations such 
as lunar attraction and earthquakes have been shown to be un- 
tenable as a general cause of seiches. 

2. The water temperature of lakes may change with the season 
from place to place and from layer to layer; these changes are 
brought about by insolation, by terrestrial radiation, by contract with 
the atmosphere, by rain, by the inflow of rivers and other factors, 
but the most important of all these are insolation and terrestrial 
radiation. Fresh water has its greatest density at a temperature of 
39-2° F., so that water both above and below this temperature floats 
to the surface, and this physical fact largely determines the water 
stratification in a lake. In salt lakes the maximum density point is 
much lower, and does not come into play. In the tropical type of 
fresh-water lake the temperature is always higher than 39° F., and the 
temperature decreases as the depth increases. In the polar type the 
temperature is always lower than 39 F., and the temperature 
increases from the surface downwards. In the temperate type the 
distribution of temperature in winter resembles the polar type, 
and in summer the tropical type. In Loch Ness and other deep 
Scottish lochs the temperature in March and April is 41 ° to 42 " F., 
and is then nearly uniform from top to bottom. As the sun comes 
north, and the mean air temperature begins to be higher than the 
surface temperature, the surface waters gain heat, and this heating 
goes on till the month of August. About this time the mean air 
temperature falls below the surface temperature, and the loch begins 
to part with its heat by radiation and conduction. The temperature 
of the deeper layers beyond 300 ft. is only slightly affected throughout 
the whole year. In the autumn the waters of the loch are divided 
into two compartments, the upper having a temperature from 49° to 
55° F., the deeper a temperature from 41° to 45°. Between these lies 
the discontinuity-layer (Sprungschicht of the Germans), where there 
is a rapid fall of temperature within a very short distance. In 
August this discontinuity-layer is well marked, and lies at a depth of 
about 150 ft.; as the season advances this layer gradually sinks 
deeper, and the layer of uniform temperature above it increases in 
depth, and slowly loses heat, until finally the whole loch assumes 
a nearly uniform temperature. Many years ago Sir John Murray 
showed by means of temperature observations the manner in which 
large bodies of water were transferred from the windward to the lee- 
ward end of a loch, and subsequent observations seem to show that, 
before the discontinuity-layer makes its appearance, the currents 
produced by winds are distributed through the whole mass of the 
loch. When, however, this layer appears, the loch is divided into 
two current-systems, as shown in the following diagram : — 



Direction of Wind 




Current systems in a loch induced by wind at the surface. (After 
Wedderburn.) 

AB, Discontinuity layer. E, Secondary surface current. 

C, Surface current. F, Secondary return current. 

D, Primary return current. 

Another effect of the separation of the loch into two compartments 
by the surface of discontinuity is to render possible the temperature- 
seiche. The surface-current produced by the wind transfers a large 
quantity of warm water to the lee end of the loch, with the result that 
the surface of discontinuity is deeper at the lee than at the windward 



end. When the wind ceases, a temperature-seiche is started, just 
as an ordinary seiche is started in a basin of water which has been 
tilted. This temperature-seiche has been studied experimentally 
and rendered visible by superimposing a layer of paraffin on a layer 
of water. 

Wedderburn estimates the quantity of heat that enters Loch Ness 
and is given out again during the year to be approximately sufficient 
to raise about 30,000 million gallons of water from freezing-point to 
boiling-point. Lakes thus modify the climate of the region in which 
they occur, both by increasing its humidity and by decreasing 
its range of temperature. They cool and moisten the atmosphere 
by evaporation during summer, and when they freeze in winter a 
vast amount of latent heat is liberated, and moderates the fall of 
temperature. 

Lakes act as reservoirs for water, and so tend to restrain floods, 
and to promote regularity of flow. They become sources of 
mechanical power, and as their waters are purified by allowing the 
sediment which enters them to settle, they become valuable sources 
of water-supply for towns and cities. In temperate regions small 
and shallow lakes are likely to freeze all over in winter, but deep 
lakes in similar regions do not generally freeze, owing to the fact that 
the low temperature of the air does not continue long enough to cool 
down the entire body of water to the maximum density point. Deep 
lakes are thus the best sources of water-supply for cities, for in 
summer they supply relatively cool water and in winter relatively 
warm water. Besides, the number of organisms in deep lakes is 
less than in small shallow lakes, in which there is a much higher 
temperature in summer, and consequently much greater organic 
growth. The deposits, which are formed along the shores and on the 
floors of lakes, depend on the geological structure and nature of the 
adjacent shores. 

Biology. — Compared with the waters of the ocean those of 
lakes may safely be said to contain relatively few animals and 
plants. Whole groups of organisms — the Echinoderms, for 
instance — are unrepresented. In the oceans there is a much 
greater uniformity in the physical and chemical conditions 
than obtains in lakes. In lakes the temperature varies widely. 
To underground lakes light does not penetrate, and in these 
some of the organisms may be blind, for example, the blind 
crayfish (Cambarus pellucidus) and the blind fish (Amblyopsis 
spelaeus) of the Kentucky caves. The majority of lakes are 
fresh, while some are so salt that no organisms have been found 
in them. ' The peaty matter in other lakes is so abundant that 
light does not penetrate to any great depth, and the humic acids 
in solution prevent the development of some species. Indeed, 
every lake has an individuality of its own, depending upon 
climate, size, nature of the bottom, chemical composition 
and connexion with other lakes. While the ocean contains 
many families and genera not represented in lakes, almost 
every genus in lakes is represented in the ocean. 

The vertebrates, insects and flowering plants inhabiting lakes vary 
much according to latitude, and are comparatively well known to 
zoologists and botanists. The micro-fauna and flora have only 
recently been studied in detail, and we cannot yet be said to know 
much about tropical lakes in this respect. Mr James Murray, who 
has studied the Scottish lakes, records in over 400 Scottish lochs 724 
species (the fauna including 447 species, all invertebrates, and the 
flora comprising 277 species) belonging to the following groups; the 
list must not be regarded as in any way complete : — 

Fauna. 
Mollusca . 
Hydrachnida . 
Tardigrada 
Insecta 
Crustacea 
Bryozoa 
Worms 
Rotifera 
Gastrotricha . 
Coelenterata . 
Porifera 
Protozoa . 





Flora. 




7 species Phanerogamia . 


65 species 


17 


, Equisetaceae 


1 ., 


30 


, Selaginellaceae 


1 t< 


7 


, Characeae 


6 „ 


78 


, Musci 


18 „ 


7 


, Hepaticae 


2 ,, 


25 


, Florideae 


2 ,, 


181 


, Chlorophyceae 


142 ,, 


2 


, Bacillariaceae 


26 „ 


1 


, Myxophyceae 


10 ,, 


1 


, Peridiniaceae 


4 .. 


91 


■ 





447 



277 



These organisms are found along the shores, in the deep waters, 
and in the surface waters of the lakes. 

The littoral region is the most populous part of lakes ; the existence 
of a rooted vegetation is only possible there, and this in turn supports 
a rich littoral fauna. The greater heat of the water along the margins 
also favours growth. The great majority of the species in Scottish 
lochs are met with in this region. Insect larvae of many kinds are 
found under stones or among weeds. Most of the Cladocera, and the 



LAKE 



89 



Mollusc: 
Crustacea : 



3 Worms: 



Insect: 
Infusoria: 



Copepoda of the genus Cyclops, and the Harpacticidae are only found 
in this region. Water-mites, nearly all the Rotifers, Gastrotricha, 
Tardigrada and Molluscs are found here, and Rhizopods are abund- 
ant. A large number of the littoral species in Loch Ness extends 
down to a depth of about 300 ft. 

The abyssal region, in Scottish lochs, lies, as a rule, deeper than 
300 ft., and in this deep region a well-marked association of animals 
appears in the muds on the bottom, but none of them are peculiar 
to it: they all extend into the littoral zone, from which they were 
originally derived. In Loch Ness the following sparse population 
was recorded: — 

Pisidium pusillum (Gmel). 
Cyclops viridis, J urine. 
Candona Candida (Mull). 
Cypria ophthalmica, Jurine. 
Stylodrilus gabreteae, Vejd. 
Oligochaete, not determined. 
Automolos morgiensis (Du Plessis). 
Chironomus (larva). 

Several, ectoparasites on Pisidium and Cyclops, 
not determined. 

In addition, the following were found casually at great depths in 
Loch Ness: Hydra, Limnaea peregra, Proales daphnicola and 
Lynceus aflinis. 

The pelagic region of the Scottish lakes is occupied by numerous 
microscopic organisms, belonging to the Zooplankton and Phyto- 
plankton. Of the former group 30 species belonging to the Crustacea, 
Rotifera and Protozoa were recorded in Loch Ness. Belonging to the 
second group 150 species were recorded, of which 120 were Desmids. 
Some of these species of plankton organisms are almost universal in 
the Scottish lochs, while others are quite local. Some of the species 
occur all the year through, while others have only been recorded in 
summer or in winter. The great development of Algae in the surface 
waters, called " flowering of the water " (Wasserbliithe) , was observed 
in August in Loch Lomond; a distinct " flowering," due to Chloro- 
phyceae, has been observed in shallow lochs as early as July. It 
is most common in August and September, but has also been 
observed in winter. 

The plankton animals which are dominant or common, both over 
Scotland and the rest of Europe, are : — 
Diaptomus gracilis. 
Daphnia hyalina. 
Diaphanosoma brachyurum. 
Leptodora kindtii. 
Conochilus unicornis. 
Asplanchna priodonla. 
Polyarthra platyptera. 
Anuraea cochlearis. 
Notholca longispina. 
Ceratium hirundinella. 
Asterionella. 
All of these, according to Dr Lund, belong to the genera! plankton 
association of the European plain, or are even cosmopolitan. 

The Scottish plankton on the whole differs from the plankton of 
the central European plateau, and from the cosmopolitan fresh- 
water plankton, in the extraordinary richness of the Phytoplankton 
in species of Desmids, in the conspicuous arctic element among the 
Crustacea, in the absence or comparative rarity of the species 
commonest in the general European plankton. Another peculiarity 
is the local distribution of some of the Crustacea and many of the 
Desmids. 

The derivation of the whole lacustrine population of the Scottish 
lochs does not seem to present any difficulty. The abyssal forms 
have been traced to the littoral zone without any perceptible modi- 
fications. The plankton organisms are a mingling of European and 
arctic species. The cosmopolitan species may enter the lochs by 
ordinary migration. It is probable that if the whole plankton could 
be annihilated, it would be replaced by ordinary migration within a 
few years. The eggs and spores of many species can be dried up 
without injury, and may be carried through the air as dust from one 
lake to another; others, which would not bear desiccation, might 
be carried in mud adhering to the feet 0/ aquatic birds and in various 
other ways. The arctic species may be survivors from a period when 
arctic conditions prevailed over a great part of Europe. What are 
known as " relicts " of a marine fauna have not been found in the 
Scottish fresh-water lochs. 

It is somewhat remarkable that none of the organisms living in 
fresh-water lochs has been observed to exhibit the phenomenon of 
phosphorescence, although similar organisms in the salt-water lochs 
a few miles distant exhibit brilliant phosphorescence. At similar 
depths in the sea-lochs there is usually a great abundance of life 
when compared with that found in fresh-water lochs. 

length, Depth, Area and Volume of Lakes. — In the following 
table will be found the length, depth, area and volume of some 
of the principal lakes of the world. 1 Sir John Murray estimates 
1 Divergence between certain of these figures and those quoted 
elsewhere in this work may be accounted for by the slightly different 
results arrived at by various authorities. 



the volume of water in the 560 Scottish lochs recently surveyed 
at 7 cub. m., and the approximate volume of water in all the 
lakes of the world at about 2000 cub. m., so that this last number 
is but a small fraction of the volume of the ocean, which he 
previously estimated at 324 million cub. m. It may be recalled 
that the total rainfall on the land of the globe is estimated at 
29,350 cub. m., and the total discharge from the rivers of the 
globe at 6524 cub. m. 

British Lakes 





Length 


Depth 


Area 


Volume in 




in 


in 


in 


million 


- ; 


Miles. 


Feet. 


sq. m. 


cub. ft. 


I. England — 




Max. 


Mean. 






Windermere 


10-50 


219 


78-5 


5-69 


12,250 


Ullswater . 


7-35 


205 


83 


3-44 


7,870 


Wastwater 


3-00 


258 


134-5 


I-I2 


4,128 


Coniston W 


iter 5-41 


184 


79 


1-89 


4,000 


Crummock 












Water . 


2-50 


144 


87-5 


0-97 


2,343 


Ennerdale 












Water . 


2-40 


148 


62 


I-I2 


1.978 


Bassenthwa 


ite 










Water . 


3-83 


70 


18 


2-06 


1,023 


Derwentwal 


Ler 2-87 


72 


18 


2-06 


1,010 


Haweswatei 


■ • 2-33 


103 


39-5 


o-54 


589 


Buttermere 


1-26 


94 


54-5 


0-36 


537 


II. Wales— 












Llyn Cawly 


d . 1-62 


222 


109-1 


0-18 


941 


Llyn C welly 


n . 1-20 


122 


74-1 


o-35 


713 


Llyn Padan 


1 . 2-00 


94 


52-4 


o-43 


632 


Llyn Llyda^ 


V . I-II 


190 


77-4 


0-19 


409 


Llyn Peris 


I-IO 


114 


63-9 


0-19 


344 


Llyn Dulyn 


0-31 


189 


104-2 


0-05 


156 


III. Scotland- 












Ness 


24-23 


754 


433-02 


21-78 


263,162 


Lomond 


22-64 


623 


121-29 


27-45 


92,805 


Morar . 


n-68 


1017 


284-00 


10-30 


81,482 


Tay 


H-55 


508 


199-08 


10-19 


56,550 


Awe 


25-47 


307 


104-95 


14-85 


43,451 


Maree . 


13-46 


367 


125-30 


11-03 


38,539 


Lochy . 


9-78 


53i 


228-95 


5-91 


37,726 


Rannoch . 


9-70 


440 


167-46 


7-37 


34,387 


Shiel . . 


17-40 


420 


132-73 


7-56 


27,986 


Arkaig 


12-00 


359 


152-71 


6-24 


26,573 


Earn . 


6-46 


287 


I37-83 


3-91 


14,421 


Treig . . 


5-10 


436 


207-37 


2-41 


13,907 


Shin 


17-22 


162 


51-04 


8-70 


12,380 


Fannich 


6-92 


282 


108-76 


3-60 


10,920 


Assynt 


6-36 


282 


IOI-IO 


3-10 


8,73i 


Quoich 


6-95 


281 


104-60 


2-86 


8,345 


Glass . 


4-03 


365 


159-07 


1-86 


" 8,265 


Fionn (Ca 


rn- 










more) 


5-76 


144 


57-79 


3-52 


5,667 


Laggan 


7-04 


174 


67-68 


2-97 


■v6oi 


Loyal . 


4-46 


217 


65-21 


2-55 


4,628 


IV. Ireland — 












Neagh . 


17 


102 


40 


153 


161,000 


Erne (Lowe 


r) . 24 


226 


43 


43 


62,000 


Erne (Uppt 


r) ■ 13 


89 


10 


15 


5,000 


Corrib . 


27 


152 


30 


68 


59,000 


Mask . 


10 


191 


52 


35 


55,ooo 


Derg . 


24 


119 


3° 


49 


47,000 




European C 


ONTINEt 


<tal Lakes 






Length 


De 


pth 


Area 


Volume in 




in 


i 


n 


in 


million 




Miles. 


F 


;et. 


sq. m. 


cub. ft. 






Max. 


Mean. 






Ladoga 


• • 125 


732 


300 


7000 


43,200,000 


Onega 


• ■ H5 


740 


200 


3800 


2 1 ,000,000 


Vener 


■ • 93 


292 


108 


2149 


6,357,ooo 


Geneva . 


• • 45 


1015 


506 


225 


3,175,000 


Vetter 


. . 68 


413 


128 


733 


2,543,000 


Mjosen . 


■ • 57 


1483 




139 


2,882,000 


Garda 


. - 38 


1 124 


446 


143 


1,766,000 


Constance 


42 


827 


295 


208 


1,711,000 


Ochrida . 


- • 19 


942 


479 


105 


1,391,000 


Maggiore 


■ • 42 


1220 


574 


82 


1,310,000 


Como 


• ■ 30 


1345 


513 


56 


794,000 


Hornafvan 


• • 7 


1391 


253 


93 


1 777,000 



9° 



LAKE CHARLES— LAKE DISTRICT 



African Lakes 





Length 

in 
Miles. 


Depth 

in 
Feet. 


Area 

in 

sq. m. 


Volume in 
million 
cub. ft. 


Victoria Nyanza 
Nyasa 
Tanganyika . 


200 
350 
420 


Max. 
. 240 
2580 
2100 


Mean. 


26,200 
14,200 
12,700 


5,800,000 
396,000,000 
283,000,000 



Asiatic Lakes 





Length 

in 
Miles. 


Depth 

in 
Feet. 


Area 

in 
sq. m. 


Volume in 
million 
cub. ft. 


Aral .... 
Baikal . . . 
Balkash . 
Urmia 


265 
330 

323 
80 


Max. 
222 

5413 
33 
50 


Mean. 
52 

15 


24,400 

11,580 

7,000 

1.750 


43,600,000 

274,000,000 

4,880,000 

732,000 



American Lakes 





Length 


Depth 


Area 


Volume in 




in 


in 


in 


million 




Miles. 


Feet. 


sq. m. 


cub. ft. 






Max. 


Mean. 






Superior . 


412 


1008 


475 


31,200 


413,000,000 


Huron 


263 


730 


250 


23,800 


166,000,000 


Michigan 


335 


870 


325 


22,450 


203,000,000 


Erie .... 


240 


210 


70 


9,960 


19,500,000 


Ontario . 


190 


738 


300 


7,240 


61,000,000 


Titicaca . 


120 


924 


347 


3,200 


30,900,000 





New Zealand Lakes 






Length 


Depth 


Area 


Volume in 




in 


in 


in 


million 




Miles 


Feet. 


sq. m. 


cub. ft. 






Max. 


Mean. 






Taupo 


25 


534 


367 


238-0 


2,435,000 


Wakatipu 


49 


1242 


707 


1 12-3 


2,205,000 


Manapouri . 


19 


1458 


328 


56-0 


512,000 


Rotorua . 


7-5 


120 


39 


31-6 


34,000 


\\ aikarimoana . 


7-25 


846 


397 


14 -7 


166,000 


Wairaumoana 


5-25 


375 


175 


61 


30,000 


Rotoiti . . . 


107 


230 


69 


14-2 


27,000 



Authorities.— F. A. Forel, " Handbuch der Seenkunde: allge- 
meine Limnologie," Bibliothek geogr. Handbilcher (Stuttgart, 1901), 
Le Leman, monographie limnologique (3 vols., Lausanne, 1892-1901); 
A. Delebecque, Les Lacs francais, text and plates (Paris, 1898); 
H. R. Mill, " Bathymetrical Survey of the English Lakes," Geogr. 
Journ. vol. vi. pp. 46 and 135 (1895); Jehu, " Bathymetrical and 
Geological Study of the Lakes of Snowdonia," Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Edin. vol. xl. p. 419 (1902); Sir John Murray and Laurence Pullar, 
" Bathymetrical Survey of the Freshwater Lochs of Scotland," Geogr. 
Journ. (1900 to 1908, re-issued in six volumes, Edinburgh, 1910); 
W. Halbfass, " Die Morphometrie der europaischen Seen," Zeitschr. 
Gesell. Erdkunde Berlin (Jahrg. 1903, p. 592; 1904, p. 204); I. C. 
Russell, Lakes of North America (Boston and London, 1895); 
O. Zacharias, " Forschungsberichte aus der biologischen Station 
zu Plon " (Stuttgart); F. E. Bourcart, Les Lacs alpins suisses: etude 
chimique et physique (Geneva, 1906); G. P. Magrini, Limnologia 
(Milan, 1907). (J. Mo.) 

LAKE CHARLES, a city of Louisiana, U.S.A., capital of 
Calcasieu Parish, 30 m. from the Gulf of Mexico and about 218 m. 
(by rail) W. of New Orleans. Pop. (1889) 838, (1890) 3442, 
(1900) 6680 (2407 negroes); (1910) 11,449. It is served by the 
Louisiana & Texas (Southern Pacific System), the St Louis, 
Watkins & Gulf, the Louisiana & Pacific and the Kansas City 
Southern railways. The city is charmingly situated on the shore 
of Lake Charles, and on the Calcasieu river, which with some 
dredging can be made navigable for large vessels for 132 m. 
from the Gulf. It is a winter resort. Among the principal 
buildings are a Carnegie library, the city hall, the Government 
building, the court house, St Patrick's sanatorium, the masonic 
temple and the Elks' club. Lake Charles is in the prairie region of 
southern Louisiana, to the N. of which, covering a large part of the 
state, are magnificent forests of long-leaf pine, and lesser lowland 



growths of oak, ash, magnolia, cypress and other valuable 
timber. The Watkins railway extending to the N.E. and the 
Kansas City Southern extending to the N.W. have opened up 
the very best of the forest. The country to the S. and W. is 
largely given over to rice culture. Lake Charles is the chief 
centre of lumber manufacture in the state, and has rice mills, 
car shops and an important trade in wool. Ten miles W. are 
sulphur mines (product in 1907 about 362,000 tons), which with 
those of Sicily produce a large part of the total product of the 
world. Jennings, about 34 m. to the E., is the centre of oil 
fields, once very productive but now of diminishing importance. 
Welsh, 23 m. E., is the centre of a newer field; and others lie 
to the N. Lake Charles was settled about 1852, largely by 
people from Iowa and neighbouring states, was incorporated 
as a town in 1857 under the name of Charleston and again in 
1867 under its present name, and was chartered as a city in 1886. 
The city suffered severely by fire in April 1910. 

LAKE CITY, a town and the county-seat of Columbia county, 
Florida, U.S.A., 59 m. by rail W. by S. of Jacksonville. Pop. 
(1900) 4013, of whom 2159 were negroes; (1905) 6509; (1910) 
5032. Lake City is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the 
Seaboard Air Line and the Georgia Southern & Florida railways. 
There are ten small lakes in the neighbourhood, and the town 
is a winter and health resort. It is the seat of Columbia College 
(Baptist, 1907); the Florida Agricultural College was opened 
here in 1883, became the university of Florida in 1903, and in 
1905 was abolished by the Buckman Law. Vegetables and fruits 
grown for the northern markets, sea-island cotton and tobacco 
are important products of the surrounding country, and Lake 
City has some trade in cotton, lumber, phosphates and turpentine. 
The town was first settled about 1826 as Alligator; it was 
incorporated in 1854; adopted the present name in 1859; 
and in 1901, with an enlarged area, was re-incorporated. 

LAKE DISTRICT, in England, a district containing all the 
principal English lakes, and variously termed the Lake Country, 
Lakeland and " the Lakes." It falls within the north-western 
counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire (Furness 
district), about one-half being within the first of these. Although 
celebrated far outside the confines of Great Britain as a district 
of remarkable and strongly individual physical beauty, its area 
is only some 700 sq. m., a circle with radius of 15 m. from the 
central point covering practically the whole. Within this circle, 
besides the largest lake, Windermere, is the highest point in 
England, Scafell Pike; yet Windermere is but 10J m. in length, 
and covers an area of 5-69 sq. m., while Scafell Pike is only 
3210 ft. in height. But the lakes show a wonderful variety of 
character, from open expanse and steep rock-bound shores to 
picturesque island-groups and soft wooded banks; while the 
mountains have always a remarkable dignity, less from the 
profile of their summits than from the bold sweeping lines of 
their flanks, unbroken by vegetation, and often culminating 
in sheer cliffs or crags. At their feet, the flat green valley floors 
of the higher elevations give place in the lower parts to lovely 
woods. The streams are swift and clear, and numerous small 
waterfalls are characteristic of the district. To the north, west 
and south, a flat coastal belt, bordering the Irish Sea, with its 
inlets Morecambe Bay and Solway Firth, and broadest in the 
north, marks off the Lake District, while to the east the valleys 
of the Eden and the Lune divide it from the Pennine mountain 
system. Geologically, too, it is individual. Its centre is of 
volcanic rocks, complex in character, while the Coal-measures 
and New Red Sandstone appear round the edges. The district 
as a whole is grooved by a main depression, running from north 
to south along the valleys of St John, Thirlmere, Grasmere' and 
Windermere, ■ surmounting a pass (Dunmail Raise) of only 
783 ft.; while a secondary depression, in the same direction, 
runs along Derwentwater, Borrowdale, Wasdale and Wastwater, 
but here Sty Head Pass, between Borrowdale and Wasdale, 
rises to 1600 ft. The centre of the 15-m. radius lies on the 
lesser heights between Langstrath and Dunmail Raise, which 
may, however, be the crown of an ancient dome of rocks, " the 
dissected skeleton of which, worn by the warfare of air and rain 



LAKE DWELLINGS 



9 J 



and ice, now alone remains " (Dr H. R.Mill, " Bathymetrical 
Survey of the English Lakes," Geographical Journal, vi. 48). 
The principal features of the district may be indicated by follow- 
ing this circle round from north, by west, south and east. 

The river' Derwent (q.v.), rising in the tarns and "gills" or 
" ghylls " (small streams running in deeply-grooved clefts) north of 
Sty Head Pass and the Scafell mass flows north through the wooded 
Borrowdale and forms Derwentwater and B assent hwaite. These 
two lakes are in a class apart from all the rest, being broader for their 
length, and quite shallow (about 18 ft. average and 70 ft. maximum), 
as distinct from the long, narrow and deep troughs occupied by the 
other chief lakes, which average from 40 to 135 ft. deep. Derwent- 
water (q.v.), studded with many islands, is perhaps the most beautiful 
of all. Borrowdale is joined on the east by the bare wild dale of 
Langstrath, and the Greta joins the Derwent immediately below 
Derwentwater; the town of Keswick lying near the junction. 
Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite occupy a single depression, a flat 
alluvial plain separating them. From Seatoller in Borrowdale a road 
traverses Honister Pass (1100 ft.), whence it descends westward, 
beneath the majestic Honister Crags, where green slate is quarried, 
into the valley containing Buttermere (94 ft. max. depth) and 
Crummock Water (144 ft.), drained by the Cocker. Between this 
and the Derwent valley the principal height is Grasmoor (2791 ft.) ; 
southward a steep narrow ridge (High Style, 2643) divides it from 
Ennerdale, containing Ennerdale Water (148 ft. max. depth), which is 
fed by the Liza and drained by the Ehen. A splendid range separates 
this dale from Wasdale and its tributary Mosedale, including Great 
Gable (2949 ft.), Pillar (2927), with the precipitous Pillar Rock on 
the Ennerdale flank and Steeple (2746). Wasdale Head, between 
Gable and the Scafell range, is peculiarly grand, with dark grey 
screes and black crags frowning above its narrow bottom. On this 
side of Gable is the fine detached rock, Napes Needle. Wastwater, 
3 m. in length, is the deepest lake of all (258 ft.), its floor, like those 
of Windermere and Ullswater, sinking below sea-level. Its east 
shore consists of a great range of screes. East of Wasdale lies the 
range of Scafell (q.v.), its chief points being Scafell (3162 ft.), Scafell 
Pike (3210), Lingmell (2649) and Great End (2984), while the line is 
continued over Esk Hause Pass (2490) along a fine line of heights 
(Bow Fell, 2960; Crinkle Crags, 2816), to embrace the head of 
Eskdale. The line then descends to Wrynose Pass (1270 ft.), from 
which the Duddon runs south through a vale of peculiar richness in 
its lower parts; while the range continues south to culminate in the 
Old Man of Coniston (2633) with the splendid Dow Crags above 
Goats Water. The pleasant vale of Yewdale drains south to Coniston 
Lake ($§ m. long, 184 ft. max. depth), east of which a lower, well- 
wooded tract, containing two beautiful lesser lakes, Tarn Hows and 
Esthwaite Water, extends to Windermere (q.v.). This lake collects 
waters by the Brathay from Langdale, the head of which, between 
Bow Fell and Langdale Pikes (2401 ft.), is very fine; and by the 
Rothay from Dunmail Raise and the small lakes of Grasmere and 
Rydal Water, embowered in woods. East of the Rothay valley and 
Thirlmere lies the mountain mass including Helvellyn (3118 ft.), 
Fairfield (2863) and other points, with magnificent crags at several 
places on the eastern side towards Grisedale and Patterdale. These 
dales drain to Ullswater (205 ft. max., second to Windermere in area), 
and so north-east to the Eden. To the east and south-east lies the 
ridge named High Street (2663 ft.), from the Roman road still trace- 
able from south to north along its summit, and sloping east again to 
* the sequestered Hawes Water (103 ft. max.), a curiously shaped lake 
nearly divided by the delta of the Measand Beck. There remains the 
Thirlmere valley. Thirlmere itself was raised in level, and adapted 
by means of a dam at the north end, as a reservoir for the water- 
supply of Manchester in 1890-1894. It drains north by St John's 
Vale into the Greta, north of which again rises a mountain-group of 
which the chief summits are Saddleback or Blencathra (2847 ft.) and 
the graceful peak of Skiddaw (3054). The most noteworthy water- 
falls are — Scale Force (Dano-Norwegian fors, foss) , besidesCrummock, 
Lodore near Derwentwater, Dungeon Gill Force, beside Langdale, 
Dalegarth Force in Eskdale, Aira near Ullswater, sung by Words- 
worth, Stock Gill Force and Rydal Falls near Ambleside. 

The principal centres in the Lake District are Keswick (Derwent- 
water), Ambleside, Bowness, Windermere and Lakeside (Winder- 
mere), Coniston and Boot (Eskdale), all of which, except Ambleside 
and Bowness (which nearly joins Windermere) are accessible by rail. 
The considerable village of Grasmere lies beautifully at the head of 
the lake of that name; and above Esthwaite is the small town of 
Hawkshead, with an ancient church, and picturesque houses curiously 
built on the hill-slope and sometimes spanning the streets. There are 
regular steamer services on Windermere and Ullswater. Coaches 
and cars traverse the main roads during the summer, but many of 
the finest dales and passes are accessible only on foot or by ponies. 
All the mountains offer easy routes to pedestrians, but some of them, 
as Scafell, Pillar, Gable (Napes Needle), Pavey Ark above Langdale 
and Dow Crags near Coniston, also afford ascents for experienced 
climbers. 

This mountainous district, having the sea to the west, records an 
unusually heavy rainfall. Near Seathwaite, below Styhead Pass, 
the largest annual rainfall in the British Isles is recorded, the average 



(1870-1899) being 133-53 in., while 173-7 was measured in 1903 
and 243-98 in. in 1872. At Keswick the annual mean is 60-02, at 
Grasmere about 80 ins. The months of maximum rainfall at Seath. 
waite are November, December and January and September. 

Fish taken in the lakes include perch, pike, char and trout in 
Windermere, Ennerdale, Bassenthwaite, Derwentwater, &c, and the 
gwyniad or fresh-water herring in Ullswater. The industries of the 
Lake District include slate quarrying and some lead and zinc mining, 
and weaving, bobbin-making and pencil-making. 

Setting aside London and Edinburgh, no locality in the British 
Isles is so intimately associated with the history of English literature 
as the Lake District. In point of time the poet whose name is first 
connected with the region is Gray, who wrote a journal of his tour in 
1769. But it was Wordsworth, a native of Cumberland, born on the 
outskirts of the Lake District itself, who really made it a Mecca for 
lovers of English poetry. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty 
were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at 
Hawkshead, and afterwards as a resident at Grasmere (1799-1813) 
and Rydal Mount (1813-1850). In the churchyard of Grasmere the 
poet and his wife lie buried ; and very near to them are the remains 
of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet), who himself lived many years 
at Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Southey, the friend of Words- 
worth, was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803-1843), and 
was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge 
lived some time at Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at 
Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 Christopher North (John Wilson) was 
settled at. Windermere. De Quincey spent the greater part of the 
years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Words- 
worth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place 
of residence of Dr Arnold (of Rugby), who spent there the vacations 
of the last ten years of his life; and of Harriet Martineau, who built 
herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick Mrs Lynn Linton was 
born in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Lake, was the 
home of Ruskin during the last years of his life. In addition to 
these residents or natives of the locality, Shelley, Scott, Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, Clough, Crabb Robinson, Carlyle, Keats, Tennyson, 
Matthew Arnold, Mrs Hemans, Gerald Massey and others of less 
reputation made longer or shorter visits, or were bound by ties of 
friendship with the poets already mentioned. The Vale of St John, 
near Keswick, recalls Scott's Bridal of Triermain. But there is a 
deeper connexion than this between the Lake District and English 
letters. German literature tells of several literary schools, or groups 
of writers animated by the same ideas, and working in the spirit of 
the same principles and by the same poetic methods. The most 
notable instance — indeed it is almost the only instance — of the kind 
in English literature is the Lake School of Poets. Of this school the 
acknowledged head and founder was Wordsworth, and the tenets 
it professed are those laid down by the poet himself in the famous 
preface to the edition of The Lyrical Ballads which he published in 
1800. Wordsworth's theories of poetry — the objects best suited for 
poetic treatment, the characteristics of such treatment and the 
choice of diction suitable for the purpose — may be said to have 
grown out of the soil and substance of the lakes and mountains, and 
out of the homely lives of the people, of Cumberland and Westmore- 
land. 

See Cumberland, Lancashire, Westmorland. The following 
is a selection from the literature of the subject: Harriet Martineau, 
The English Lakes (Windermere, 1858) ; Mrs Lynn Linton, The Lake 
Country (London, 1864); E. Waugh, Rambles in the Lake Country 
(1861) and In the Lake Country (1880); W. Knight, Through the 
Wordsworth Country (London, 1890) ; H. D. Rawnsley, Literary 
Associations of the English Lakes (2 vols., Glasgow, 1894) and Life 
and Nature of the English Lakes (Glasgow, 1899); Stopford Brooke, 
Dove Cottage, Wordsworth' s Home from 1800 to 1808; A. G. Bradley, 
The Lake District, its Highways and Byeways (London, 1901); Sir 
John Harwood, History of the Thirlmere Water Scheme (1895); for 
mountain-climbing, Col. J. Brown, Mountain Ascents in Westmor- 
land and Cumberland (London, 1888); Haskett-Smith, Climbing in 
the British Isles, part. i. ; Owen G. Jones, Rock-climbing in the 
English Lake District, 2nd ed. by W. M. Crook (Keswick, 1900). 

LAKE DWELLINGS, the term employed in archaeology for 
habitations constructed, not on the dry land, but within the 
margins of lakes or creeks at some distance from the shore. 

The villages of the Guajiros in the Gulf of Maracaibo are 
described by Goering as composed of houses with low sloping 
roofs perched on lofty piles and connected with each other by 
bridges of planks. Each house consisted of two apartments; 
the floor was formed of split stems of trees set close together 
and covered with' mats; they were reached from the shore by 
dug-out canoes poled over the shallow waters, and a notched 
tree trunk served as a ladder. The custom is also common in 
the estuaries of the Orinoco and Amazon. A similar system 
prevails in New Guinea. Dumont d'Urville describes four such 
villages in the Bay of Dorei, containing from eight to fifteen 
blocks or clusters of houses, each block separately built on piles, 



9 2 



LAKE DWELLINGS 



and consisting of a row of distinct dwellings. C. D. Cameron 
describes three villages thus built on piles in Lake Mohrya, or 
Moria, in Central Africa, the motive here being to prevent surprise 
by bands of slave-catchers. Similar constructions have been 
described by travellers, among the Dyaks of Borneo, in Celebes, 
in the Caroline Islands, on the Gold Coast of Africa, and in other 
places. 

Hippocrates, writing in the 5th century B.C., says of the people 
of the Phasis that their country is hot and marshy and subject 
to frequent inundations, and that they live in houses of timber 
and reeds constructed in the midst of the waters, and use boats 
of a single tree trunk. Herodotus, writing also in the 5th 
century B.C., describes the people of Lake Prasias as living in 
houses constructed on platforms supported on piles in the middle 
of the lake, which are approached from the land by a single 
narrow bridge. Abulfeda the geographer, writing in the 13th 
century, notices the fact that part of the Apamaean Lake was 
inhabited by Christian fishermen who lived on the lake in wooden 
huts built on piles, and Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury) 
mentions that the Rumelian fishermen on Lake Prasias " still 
inhabit wooden cottages built over the water, as in the time of 
Herodotus." 

The records of the wars in Ireland in the 16th century show 
that the petty chieftains of that time had their defensive strong- 
holds constructed in the " freshwater lochs " of the country, 
and there is record evidence of a similar system in the western' 
parts of Scotland. The archaeological researches of the past 
fifty years have shown that such artificial constructions in lakes 
were used as defensive dwellings by the Celtic people from an 
early period to medieval times (see Crannog) . Similar researches 
have also established the fact that in prehistoric times nearly 
all the lakes of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining countries 
— in Savoy and the north of Italy, in Austria and Hungary and 
in Mecklenburg and Pomerania — were peopled, so to speak, 
by lake-dwelling communities, living in villages constructed on 
platforms supported by piles at varying distances from the 
shores. The principal groups are those in the Lakes of Bourget, 
Geneva, Neuchatel, Bienne, Zurich and Constance lying to the 
north of the Alps, and in the Lakes Maggiore, Varese, Iseo and 
Garda lying to the south of that mountain range. Many smaller 
lakes, however, contain them, and they are also found in peat 
moors on the sites of ancient lakes now drained or silted up, as 
at Laibach in Carniola. In some of the larger lakes the number 
of settlements has been very great. Fifty are enumerated in the 
Lake of Neuchatel, thirty-two in the Lake of Constance, twenty- 
four in the Lake of Geneva, and twenty in the Lake of Bienne. 
The site of the lake dwelling of Wangen, in the Untersee, Lake of 
Constance, forms a parallelogram more than 700 paces in length 
by about 120 paces in breadth. The settlement at Morges, 
one of the largest in the Lake of Geneva, is 1200 ft. long by 150 
ft. in breadth. The settlement of Sutz, one of the largest in the 
Lake of Bienne, extends over six acres, and was connected with 
the shore by a gangway nearly 100 yds. long and about 40 ft. 
wide. 

The substructure which supported the platforms on which 
the dwellings were placed was most frequently of piles driven 
into the bottom of the lake. Less frequently it consisted of a 
stack of brushwood or fascines built up from the bottom and 
strengthened by stakes penetrating the mass so as to keep it 
from spreading. When piles were used they were the rough 
stems of trees of a length proportioned to the depth of the water, 
sharpened sometimes by fire and at other times chopped to a 
point by hatchets. On their level tops the beams supporting 
the platforms were laid and fastened by wooden pins, or inserted 
in mortices cut in the heads of the piles. In some cases the 
whole construction was further steadied and strengthened by 
cross beams, notched into the piles below the supports of the 
platform. The platform itself was usually composed of rough 
layers of unbarked stems, but occasionally it was formed of 
boards split from larger stems. When the mud was too soft to 
afford foothold for the piles they were mortised into a framework, 
of tree trunks placed horizontally on the bottom of the lake. 



On the other hand, when the bottom was rocky so that the piles 
could not be driven, they were steadied at their bases by being 
enveloped in a mound of loose stones, in the manner in which 
the foundations of piers and breakwaters are now constructed. 
In cases where piles have not been used, as at Niederwil and 
Wauwyl, the substructure is a mass of fascines or faggots laid 
parallel and crosswise upon one another with intervening layers 
of brushwood or of clay and gravel, a few piles here and there 
being fixed throughout the mass to serve as guides or stays. At 
Niederwil the platform was formed of split boards, many of 
which were 2 ft. broad and 2 or 3 in. in thickness. 

On these substructures were the huts composing the settle- 
ment; for the peculiarity of these lake dwellings is that they 
were pile villages, or clusters of huts occupying a common 
platform. The huts themselves were quadrilateral in form. 
The size of each dwelling is in some cases marked by boards 
resting edgeways on the platform, like the skirting boards over 
the flooring of the rooms in a modern house. The walls, which 
were supported by posts, or by piles of greater length, were 
formed of wattle-work, coated with clay. The floors were of 
clay, and in each floor there was a hearth constructed of flat 
slabs of stone. The roofs were thatched with bark, straw, reeds 
or rushes. As the superstructures are mostly gone, there is no 
evidence as to the position and form of the doorways, or the size, 
number and position of the windows, if there were any. In one 
case, at Schussenried, the house, which was of an oblong quad- 
rangular form, about S3 by 23 ft., was divided into two rooms 
by a partition. The outer room, which was the smaller of the 
two, was entered by a doorway 3 ft. in width facing the south. 
The access to the inner room was by a similar door through the 
partition. The walls were formed of split tree-trunks set upright 
and plastered with clay; and the flooring of similar timbers 
bedded in clay. In other cases the remains of the gangways or 
bridges connecting the settlements with the shore have been 
discovered, but often the village appears to have been accessible 
only by canoes. Several of these single-tree canoes have been 
found, one of which is 43 ft. in length and 4 ft. 4 in. in its greatest 
width. It is impossible to estimate with any degree of certainty 
the number of separate dwellings of which any of these villages 
may have consisted, but at Niederwil they stood almost con- 
tiguously on the platform, the space between them not exceeding 
3 ft. in width. The size of the huts also varied considerably. 
At Niederwil they were 20 ft. long and 12 ft. wide, while at 
Robenhausen they were about 27 ft. long by about 22 ft. wide. 

The character of the relics shows that in some cases the settle- 
ments have been the dwellings of a people using no materials 
but stone, bone and wood for their implements, ornaments and 
weapons; in others, of a people using bronze as well as stone and . 
bone; and in others again the occasional use of iron is disclosed. 
But, though the character of the relics is thus changed, there is no 
corresponding change in the construction and arrangements of 
the dwellings. The settlement in the Lake of Moosseedorf, 
near Bern, affords the most perfect example of a lake dwelling 
of the Stone age. It was a parallelogram 70 ft. long by 50 ft. 
wide, supported on piles, and having a gangway built on faggots 
connecting it with the land. The superstructure had been 
destroyed by fire. The implements found in the relic bed under 
it were axe-heads of stone, with their haftings of stag's horn and 
wood; a flint saw, set in a handle of fir wood and fastened with 
asphalt; flint flakes and arrow-heads; harpoons of stag's horn 
with barbs; awls, needles, chisels, fish-hooks and other imple- 
ments of bone; a comb of yew wood 5 in. long; and a skate 
made out of the leg bone of a horse. The pottery consisted 
chiefly of roughly-made vessels, some of which were of large size, 
others had holes under the rims for suspension, and many were 
covered with soot, the result of their use as culinary vessels. 
Burnt wheat, barley and linseed, with many varieties of seeds 
and fruits, were plentifully mingled with the bones of the s'tag, 
the ox, the swine, the sheep and the goat, representing the 
ordinary food of the inhabitants, while remains of the beaver, 
the fox, the hare, the dog, the bear, the horse, the elk and the 
bison were also found. 



LAKE DWELLINGS 



93 



The settlement of Robenhausen, in the moor which was 
formerly the bed of the ancient Lake of Pfaffikon, seems to have 
continued in occupation after the introduction of bronze. The 
site covers nearly 3 acres, and is estimated to have contained 
100,000 piles. In some parts three distinct successions of 
inhabited platforms have been traced. The first had been 
destroyed by fire. It is represented at the bottom of the lake 
by a layer of charcoal mixed with implements of stone and bone 
and other relics highly carbonized. The second is represented 
above the bottom by a series of piles with burnt heads, and in 
the bottom by a layer of charcoal mixed with corn, apples, 
cloth, bones, pottery and implements of stone and bone, separated 
from the first layer of charcoal by 3 ft. of peaty sediment inter- 
mixed with relics of the occupation of the platform. The piles 
of the third settlement do not reach down to the shell marl, 
but are fixed in the layers representing the first and second 
settlements. They are formed of split oak trunks, while those 
of the two first settlements are round stems chiefly of soft wood. 
The huts of this last settlement appear to have had cattle stalls 
between them, the droppings and litter forming heaps at the lake 
bottom. The bones of the animals consumed as food at this 
station were found in such numbers that 5 tons were collected 
in the construction of a watercourse which crossed the site. 
Among the wooden objects recovered from the relic beds were 
tubs, plates, ladles and spoons, a flail for threshing corn, a last 
for stretching shoes of hide, celt handles, clubs, long-bows of 
yew, floats and implements of fishing and a dug-out canoe 12 ft. 
long. No spindle-whorls were found, but there were many 
varieties of cloth, platted and woven, bundles of yarn and balls 
of string. Among the tools of bone and stag's horn were 
awls, needles, harpoons, scraping tools and haftings for stone 
axe-heads. The implements of stone were chiefly axe-heads 
and arrow-heads. Of clay and earthenware there were many 
varieties of domestic dishes, cups and pipkins, and crucibles 
or melting pots made of clay and horse dung and still retaining 
the drossy coating of the melted bronze. 

The settlement of Auvernier in the Lake of Neuchatel is one 
of the richest and most considerable stations of the Bronze age. 
It has yielded four bronze swords, ten socketed spear-heads, 
forty celts or axe-heads and sickles, fifty knives, twenty socketed 
chisels, four hammers and an anvil, sixty rings for the arms and 
legs, several highly ornate torques or twisted neck rings, and 
upwards of two hundred hair pins of various sizes up to 16 in. 
in length, some having spherical heads in which plates of gold 
were set. Moulds for sickles, lance-heads and bracelets were 
found cut in stone or made in baked clay. From four to five 
hundred vessels of pottery finely made and elegantly shaped are 
indicated by the fragments recovered from the relic bed. The Lac 
de Bourget, in Savoy, has eight settlements, all of the Bronze 
age. These have yielded upwards of 4000 implements, weapons 
and ornaments of bronze, among which were a large proportion 
of moulds and founders' materials. A few stone implements 
suggest the transition from stone to bronze; and the occasional 
occurrence of iron weapons and pottery of Gallo-Roman origin 
indicates the survival of some of the settlements to Roman times. 

The relative antiquity of the earlier settlements of the Stone 
and Bronze ages is not capable of being deduced from existing 
evidence. " We may venture to place them," says Dr F. Keller, 
" in an age when iron and bronze had been long known, but had 
not come into our districts in such plenty as to be used for the 
common purposes of household life, at a time when amber had 
already taken its place as an ornament and had become an object 
of traffic." It is now considered that the people who erected 
the lake dwellings of Central Europe were also the people who 
were spread over the mainland. The forms and the ornamenta- 
tion of the implements and weapons of stone and bronze found 
in the lake dwellings are the same as those of the implements 
and weapons in these materials found in the soil of the adjacent 
regions, and both groups must therefore be ascribed to the 
industry of one and the same people. Whether dwelling on the 
land or dwelling in the lake, they have exhibited so many 
•indications of capacity, intelligence, industry and social organi- 



zation that they cannot be considered as presenting, even in 
their Stone age, a very low condition of culture or civilization. 
Their axes were made of tough stones, sawn from the block 
and ground to the fitting shape. They were fixed by the butt in 
a socket of stag's horn, mortised into a handle of wood. Their 
knives and saws of flint were mounted in wooden handles and 
fixed with asphalt. They made and used an endless variety of 
bone tools. Their pottery, though roughly finished, is well made, 
the vessels often of large size and capable of standing the fire 
as cooking utensils. For domestic dishes they also made wooden 
tubs, plates, spoons, ladles and the like. The industries of 
spinning and weaving were largely practised. They made nets 
and fishing lines, and used canoes. They practised agriculture, 
cultivating several varieties of wheat and barley, besides millet 
and flax. They kept horses, cattle, sheep, goats and swine. 
Their clothing was partly of linen and partly of woollen fabrics 
and the skins of their beasts. Their food was nutritious and 
varied, their dwellings neither unhealthy nor incommodious. 
They lived in the security and comfort obtained by social 
organization, and were apparently intelligent, industrious and 
progressive communities. 

There is no indication of an abrupt change from the use of 
stone to the use of metal such as might have occurred had the 
knowledge of copper and bronze, and the methods of working 
them, been introduced through the conquest of the original 
inhabitants by an alien race of superior culture and civilization. 
The improved cultural conditions become apparent in the 
multiplication of the varieties of tools, weapons and ornaments 
made possible by the more adaptable qualities of the new 
material; and that the development of the Bronze age culture 
in the lake dwellings followed the same course as in the surround- 
ing regions where the people dwelt on the dry land is evident 
from the correspondence of the types of implements, weapons, 
ornaments and utensils common to both these conditions of 
life. 

Other classes of prehistoric pile-structures akin to the lake 
dwellings are the Terremare of Italy and the Terpen of Holland. 
Both of these are settlements of wooden huts erected on piles, 
not over the water, but on flat land subject to inundations. 
The terremare (so named from the marly soil of which they 
are composed) appear as mounds, sometimes of very considerable 
extent, which when dug into disclose the remains and relic beds 
of the ancient settlements. They are most abundant in the 
plains of northern Italy traversed by the Po and its tributaries, 
though similar constructions have been found in Hungary in the 
valley of the Theiss. These pile-villages were often surrounded 
by an earthen rampart within which the huts were erected in 
more or less regular order. Many of them present evidence of 
having been more than once destroyed by fire and reconstructed, 
while others show one or more reconstructions at higher levels 
on the same site. The contents of the relic beds indicate that 
they belong for the most part to the age of bronze, although in 
some cases they may be referred to the latter part of the Stone 
age. Their inhabitants practised agriculture and kept the 
common domestic animals, while their tools, weapons and 
ornaments were mainly of similar character to those of the 
contemporary lake dwellers of the adjoining regions. Some of 
the Italian terremare show quadrangular constructions made 
like the modern log houses, of undressed tree trunks superposed 
longitudinally and overlapping at the ends, as at Castione in the 
province of Parma. A similar mode of construction is found in 
the pile-village on the banks of the Save, near Donja Dolina 
in Bosnia, described in 1904 by Dr Truhelka. Here the larger 
houses had platforms in front of them forming terraces at different 
levels descending towards the river. There was a cemetery 
adjacent to the village in which both unburnt and cremated 
interments occurred, the former predominating. From the 
general character of the relics this settlement appeared to belong 
to the early Iron age. The Terpen of Holland appear as mounds 
somewhat similar to those of the terremare, and were also pile 
structures, on low or marshy lands subject to inundations from 
the sea. Unlike the terremare and the lake dwellings they do 



94 



LAKE GENEVA— LAKSHMI 



not seem .to belong to the prehistoric ages, but yield indications 
of occupation in post-Roman and medieval times. 

Authorities. — The materials for the investigation of this singular 
phase of prehistoric life were first collected and systematized by Dr 
Ferdinand Keller (1800-1881 ), of Zurich, and printed in Mittheilungen 
der Antiquarischen Gesellschafl in Zurich, vols, ix.-xxii., 4to (1855- 
1886). The substance of these reports has been issued as a separate 
work in England, The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and other parts 
of Europe, by Dr Ferdinand Keller, translated and arranged by 
John Edward Lee, 2nd ed. (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1878). Other works 
on the same subject are Frederic Troyon, Habitations lacustres des 
temps anciens et modernes (Lausanne, i860) ; E. Desor, Les Palafittes 
ou constructions lacustres du lac de Neuch&tel (Paris, 1865) ; E. Desor 
and L. Favre, Le Bel Age du bronze lacustre en Suisse (Paris, 1874); 
A. Perrin, Etude prehislorique sur la Savoie specialement a I' epoque 
lacustre (Les Palafittes du lac de Bourget, Paris, 1870); Ernest 
Chantre, Les Palafittes ou constructions lacustres du lac de Paladru 
(Chambery, 1871); Bartolomeo Gastaldi, Lake Habitations and 
prehistoric Remains in the Turbaries and Marl-beds of Northern and 
Central Italy, translated by C. H. Chambers (London, 1865); Sir 
John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Prehistoric Times (4th ed., London, 
1878); Robert Munro, The Lake-Dwellings of Europe (London, 1890), 
with a bibliography of the subject. (J. An.) 

LAKE GENEVA, a city of Walworth county, Wisconsin, 
U.S.A., 65 m. N.W. of Chicago. Pop. (iqoo) 2585, of whom 
468 were foreign-born; (1905) 3449; (1910) 3079. It is served 
by the Chicago & Northwestern railway. Tdie city is pictur- 
esquely situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (9 m. long and 
i| to 3 m. wide), a beautiful body of remarkably clear water, fed 
by springs, and encircled by rolling hills covered with thick 
groves of hardwood trees. The region is famous as a summer 
resort, particularly for Chicago people. The city is the seat 
of Oakwood Sanitarium, and at Williams Bay, 6 m. distant, 
is the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago. Dairying 
is the most important industrial interest. The first settlement 
on Lake Geneva was made about 1833. The city was chartered 
in 1893. 

LAKE OF THE WOODS, a lake in the south-west of the 
province of Ontario, Canada, bordering west on the province of 
Manitoba, and south on the state of Minnesota. It is of 
extremely irregular shape, and contains many islands. Its 
length is 70 m., breadth 10 to 50 m., area 1500 sq. m. It 
lies in the centre of the Laurentian region between Lakes 
Winnipeg and Superior, and an area of 36,000 sq. m. drains 
to it. It collects the waters of many rivers, the chief being 
Rainy river from the east, draining Rainy Lake. By the Winni- 
peg river on the north-east it discharges into Lake Winnipeg. 
At its source Winnipeg river is 1057 ft. above the sea, and drops 
347 ft. in its course of 165 m. The scenery both on and around 
the lake is exceedingly beautiful, and the islands are largely 
occupied by the summer residences of city merchants. Kenora, 
a flourishing town at the source of the Winnipeg river, is the 
centre of the numerous lumbering and mining enterprises of 
the vicinity. 

LAKE PLACID, a village in Essex county, New York, U.S.A., 
on the W. shore of Mirror Lake, near the S. end of Lake Placid, 
about 42 m. N.W. of Ticonderoga. Pop. (1905) 1514; (1910) 
1682. The village is served by the Delaware & Hudson railway. 
The region is one of the most attractive in the Adirondacks, 
and is a much frequented summer resort. There are four good 
golf courses here, and the village has a well-built club house, 
called the " Neighborhood House." The village lies on the 
narrow strip of land (about | m.) between Mirror Lake (about 
1 m. long, N. and S., and \ m. wide), and Lake Placid, about 
5 m. long (N.N.E. by S.S.W.), and about 15 m. (maximum) 
broad; its altitude is 1864 ft. The lake is roughly divided, 
from N. to S. by three islands — Moose, the largest, and Hawk, 
both privately owned, and Buck — and is a beautiful sheet of 
water in a picturesque setting of forests and heavily wooded 
hills and mountains. Among the principal peaks in the vicinity 
are Whiteface Mountain (4871 ft.), about 3 m. N.W. of the N. 
end of the lake; McKenzie Mountain (3872 ft.), about 1 m. 
to the W., and Pulpit Mountain (2658 ft.), on the E. shore. 
The summit of Whiteface Mountain commands a fine view, 
with Gothic (4738 ft.), Saddleback (4530 ft.), Basin (4825 ft.), 
Marcy (5344 ft.), and Mclntyre (5210 ft.) mountains about 10 m. 



to the S. and Lake Champlain to the E., and to the N.E. may be 
seen, on clear days, the spires of Montreal. In the valleys E. 
and S. are the headwaters of the famous Ausable river. About 
2 m. E. of the village, at North Elba, is the grave of the aboli- 
tionist, John Brown, with its huge boulder monument, and near 
it is another monument which bears the names of the 20 persons 
who bought the John Brown farm and gave it to the state. 
The railway to the village was completed in 1893. The village 
was incorporated in 1900. 

LAKEWOOD, a village of Ocean county, New Jersey, U.S.A., 
in the township of Lakewood, 59 m. S. by W. of New York city, 
and 8 m. from the coast, on the Central Railroad of New Jersey. 
Pop. (1900) of the township, including the village, 3094; (1905) 
4265; (1910) 5149. Lakewood is a fashionable health and 
winter resort, and is situated in the midst of a pine forest, 
with two small lakes, and maay charming walks and drives. 
In the village there are a number of fine residences, large hotels, 
a library and a hospital. 'The winter temperature is 10-12 F. 
warmer than in New York. The township of Lakewood was 
incorporated in 1892. 

LAKH (from the Sans, laksha, one hundred thousand), a 
term used in British India, in a colloquial sense to signify a 
lakh of rupees (written 1,00,000), which at the face value of the 
rupee would be worth £10,000, but now is worth only £6666. 
The term is also largely used in trade returns. A hundred 
lakhs make a crore. 

LAKHIMPUR, a district of British India in the extreme east 
of the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam. Area, 4529 sq. m. 
It lies along both banks of the Brahmaputra for about 400 m.; 
it is bounded N. by the Daphla, Miri, Abor and Mishmi hills, 
E. by the Mishmi and Kachin hills, S. by the watershed of the 
Patkai range and the Lohit branch of the Brahmaputra, and W. 
by the districts of Darrang and Sibsagar. The Brahmaputra 
is navigable for steamers in all seasons as far as Dibrugarh, in 
the rainy season as far as Sadiya; its navigable tributaries 
within the district are the Subansiri, Dibru and Dihing. The 
deputy-commissioner in charge exercises political control over 
numerous tribes beyond the inner surveyed border. The most 
important of these tribes are the Miris, Abors, Mishmis, Khamtis, 
Kachins and Nagas. In 1901 the population was 371,396, 
an increase of 46 % in the decade. The district has enjoyed 
remarkable and continuous prosperity. At each successive 
census the percentage of increase has been over 40, the present 
population being more than three times as great as that of 1872. 
This increase is chiefly due to the numerous tea gardens and to 
the coal mines and other enterprises of the Assam Railways 
and Trading Company. Lakhimpur was the first district into 
which tea cultivation was introduced by the government, and 
the Assam Company began operations here in 1840. The 
railway, known as the Dibru-Sadiya line, runs from Dibrugarh 
to Makum, with two branches to Talap and Margherita, and 
has been connected across the hills with the Assam-Bengal 
railway. The coal is of excellent quality, and is exported by 
river as far as Calcutta. The chief oil-wells are at Digboi. The 
oil is refined at Margherita, producing a good quality of kerosene 
oil and first-class paraffin, with wax and other by-products. 
The company also manufactures bricks and pipes of various 
kinds. Another industry is cutting timber, for the manufacture 
of tea-chests, &c. 

Lakhimpur figures largely in the annals of Assam as the region 
where successive invaders from the east first reached the Brahma- 
putra. The Bara Bhuiyas, originally from the western provinces of 
India, were driven out by the Chutias (a Shan race), and these in 
their turn gave place to their more powerful brethren, the Ahoms, 
in the 13th century. The Burmese, who had ruined the native 
kingdoms, at the end of the 18th century, were in 1825 expelled by 
the British, who placed the southern part of the country, together 
with Sibsagar under the rule of Raja Purandhar Singh; but it was 
not till 1838 that the whole was taken under direct British adminis- 
tration. The headquarters are at Dibrugarh. 
See Lakhimpur District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1905). 

LAKSHMI (Sans, for " mark," " sign," generally used in 
composition with punya, "prosperous"; hence "good sign," 
" good fortune "), in Hindu mythology, the wife of Vishnu " 



LALAING— LALLY-TOLLENDAL 



95 



worshipped as the goddess of love, beauty and prosperity. She 
has many other names, the chief being Loka mata (" mother of 
the world "), Padma (" the lotus "), Padma laya (" she who 
dwells on a lotus ") and Jaladhija (" the ocean-born "). She 
is represented as of a bright golden colour and seated on a lotus. 
She is said to have been born from the sea of milk when it was 
churned from ambrosia. Many quaint myths surround her 
birth. In the Rig Veda her name does not occur as a goddess. 
LALAING, JACQUES DE (c. 1420-1453), Flemish knight, 
was originally in the service of the duke of Cleves and afterwards 
in that of the duke of Burgundy, Philip III., the Good, gaining 
great renown by his prowess in the tiltyard. The duke of 
Burgundy entrusted him with embassies to the pope and the 
king of France (145 1), and subsequently sent him to put down 
the revolt of the inhabitants of Ghent, in which expedition he 
was killed. His biography, Le Livre des faits de messire Jacques 
de Lalaing, which has been published several times, is mainly 
the work of the Burgundian herald and chronicler Jean le 
Fevre, better known as Toison d'or; the Flemish historiographer 
Georges Chastellain and the herald Charolais also took part in 
its compilation. 

LALANDE, JOSEPH JEROME LEFRANCAIS DE (1732-1807), 
French astronomer, was born at Bourg (department of Ain), 
on the nth of July 1732. His parents sent him to Paris to 
study law; but the accident of lodging in the H6tel Cluny, where 
J. N. Delisle had his observatory, drew him to astronomy, and 
he became the zealous and favoured pupil of both Delisle and 
Pierre Lemonnier. He, however, completed his legal studies, 
and was about to return to Bourg to practise there as an advocate, 
when Lemonnier obtained permission to send him to Berlin, to 
make observations on the lunar parallax in concert with those 
of N. L. Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope. The successful 
execution of his task procured for him, before he was twenty-one, 
admission to the Academy of Berlin, and the post of adjunct 
astronomer to that of Paris. He now devoted himself to the 
improvement of the planetary theory, publishing in 1759 a 
corrected edition of Halley's tables, with a history of the cele- 
brated comet whose return in that year he had aided Clairault 
to calculate. In 1762 J. N. Delisle resigned in his favour the 
chair of astronomy in the College de France, the duties of which 
were discharged by Lalande for forty-six years. His house 
became an astronomical seminary, and amongst his pupils 
were J. B. J. Delambre, G. Piazzi, P. Mechain, and his own 
nephew Michel Lalande. By his publications in connexion 
with the transit of 1769 he won great and, in a measure, deserved 
fame. But his love of notoriety and impetuous temper com- 
promised the respect due to his scientific zeal, though these 
faults were partially balanced by his generosity and benevolence. 
He died on the 4th of April 1807. 

Although his investigations were conducted with diligence rather 
than genius, the career of Lalande must be regarded as of eminent 
service to astronomy. As a lecturer and writer he gave to the 
science unexampled popularity; his planetary tables, into which he 
introduced corrections for mutual perturbations, were the best 
available up to the end of the 18th century; and the Lalande prize, 
instituted by him in 1802 for the chief astronomical performance of 
each year, still testifies to his enthusiasm for his favourite pursuit. 
Amongst his voluminous works are Traite a" astronomic (2 vols., I7 6 4; 
enlarged .edition, 4 vols., 1771-1781 ; 3rd ed., 3 vols., 1792) ; Histoire 
cileste francaise (1801), giving the places of 50,000 stars; Biblio- 
graphie astronomique (1803), with a history of astronomy from 1781 
to 1802 ; Astronomie des dames (1785) ; Abrege de navigation (1793) ; 
Voyage d'un franqois en Italie (1769), a valuable record of his travels 
in 1765-1766. He communicated above one hundred and fifty 
papers to the Paris Academy of Sciences, edited the Connoissance des 
temps (1759-1774), and again (1794-1807), and wrote the concluding 
2 vols, of the 2nd edition of Montucla's Histoire des mathematiques 
(1802). 

See Memoires de I'Institut, t. viii. (1807) (J. B. J. Delambre); 
Delambre, Hist, de Vastr. au XVIII' sibcle, p. 547; Magazin encyclo- 
pedique, ii. 288 (1810) (Mme de Salm); J. S. Bailly, Hist, de I'astr. 
moderne, t. iii. (ed. 1785); J. Madler, Geschichte der Himmelskunde, 
ii. 141; R. Wolf, Gesch. der Astronomie; J. J. Lalande, Bibl. astr. 
p. 428; J. C. Poggendorff, Biog. Lit. Handworterbuch ; M. Marie, 
Hist, des sciences, ix. 35. 

LAIJN, a town of north-western Spain, in the province of 
Pontevedra. Pop. (1900) 16,23s. Lalin is the centre of the 



trade in agricultural products of the fertile highlands between 
the Deza and Arnego rivers. The local industries are tanning 
and the manufacture of paper. Near Lalin are the ruins of the 
Gothic abbey of Carboeiro. 

LA LINEA, or La Linea de la Concepcion, a town of Spain, 
in the province of Cadiz, between Gibraltar and San Roque. 
Pop. (1900) 31,802. La Linea, which derives its name from 
the line or boundary dividing Spanish territory from the district 
of Gibraltar, is a town of comparatively modern date and was 
formerly looked upon as a suburb of San Roque. It is now a 
distinct frontier post and headquarters of the Spanish com- 
mandant of the lines of Gibraltar. The fortifications erected 
here in the 16th century were dismantled by the British in 1810, 
to prevent the landing of French invaders, and all the existing 
buildings are modern. They include barracks, casinos, a theatre 
and a bull-ring, much frequented by the inhabitants and garrison 
of Gibraltar. La Linea has some trade in cereals, fruit and 
vegetables; it is the residence of large numbers of labourers 
employed in Gibraltar. 

LALITPUR, a town of British India, in Jhansi district, United 
Provinces. Pop. (1901) 11,560. It has a station on the Great 
Indian Peninsula railway, and a large trade in oil-seeds, hides and 
ghi. It contains several beautiful Hindu and Jain temples. 
It was formerly the headquarters of a district of the same name, 
which was incorporated with that of Jhansi in 1891. The 
Bundela chiefs of Lalitpur were among those who most eagerly 
joined the Mutiny, and it was only after a severe struggle that 
the district was pacified. 

LALLY, THOMAS ARTHUR, Comte de, Baron de Tollendal 
( 1 702-1 766), French general, was born at Romans, Dauphin6, 
in January 1702, being the son of Sir Gerard O'Lally, an Irish 
Jacobite who married a French lady of noble family, from 
whom the son inherited his titles. Entering the French army 
in 1721 he served in the war of 1734 against Austria; he was 
present at Dettingen (1743), and commanded the regiment de 
Lally in the famous Irish brigade at Fontenoy (May 1745). He 
was made a brigadier on the field by Louis XV. He had previ- 
ously been mixed up in several Jacobite plots, and in 1745 
accompanied Charles Edward to Scotland, serving as aide-de- 
camp at the battle of Falkirk (January 1746). Escaping to 
France, he served with Marshal Saxe in the Low Countries, 
and at the capture of Maestricht (1748) was made a marSchal 
de camp. When war broke out with England in 1756 Lally was 
given the command of a French expedition to India. He 
reached Pondicherry in April 1758, and at the outset met with 
some trifling military success. He was a man of courage and a 
capable general; but his pride and ferocity made him disliked 
by his officers and hated by his soldiers, while he regarded the 
natives as slaves, despised their assistance, arid trampled on their 
traditions of caste. In consequence everything went wrong with 
him. He was unsuccessful in an attack on Tanjore, and had 
to retire from the siege of Madras (1758) owing to the timely 
arrival of the British fleet. He was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote 
at Wandiwash (1760), and besieged in Pondicherry and forced 
to capitulate (1761). He was sent as a prisoner of war to England. 
While in London, he heard that he was accused in France of 
treachery, and insisted, against advice, on returning on parole to 
stand his trial. He was kept prisoner for nearly two years 
before the trial began; then, after many painful delays, he was 
sentenced to death (May 6, 1766), and three days later beheaded. 
Louis XV. tried to throw the responsibility for what was un- 
doubtedly a judicial murder on his ministers and the public, 
but his policy needed a scapegoat, and he was probably well 
content not to exercise his authority to save an almost friendless 
foreigner. 

See G. B. Malleson, The Career of Count Lally (1865); " Z's " 
(the marquis de Lally-Tollendal) article in the Biographie Michaud; 
and Voltaire's CEuvres completes. The legal documents are pre- 
served in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 

LALLY-TOLLENDAL, TROPHIME GERARD, Marquis de 
(1751-1830), was born at Paris on the 5th of March 1751. He 
was the legitimized son of the comte de Lally and only discovered 



9 6 



LALO— LAMAISM 



the secret of his birth on the day of his father's execution, when 
he resolved to devote himself to clearing his father's memory. 
He was supported by Voltaire, and in 1778 succeeded in persuad- 
ing Louis XVI. to annul the decree which had sentenced the 
comte de Lallyj but the parlement of Rouen, to which the case 
was referred back, in 1784 again decided in favour of Lally's 
guilt. The case was retried by other courts, but Lally's innocence 
was never fully admitted by the French judges. In 1779 Lally- 
Tollendal bought the office of Grand bailli of Etampes, and in 
1789 was a deputy to the states-general for the noblesse of Paris. 
He played some part in the early stages of the Revolution, but 
was too conservative to be in sympathy with all even of its 
earlier developments. He threw himself into opposition to the 
" tyranny " of Mirabeau, and condemned the epidemic of re- 
nunciation which in the session of the 4th of August 1789 
destroyed the traditional institutions of France. Later in the 
year he emigrated to England. During the trial of Louis XVI. 
by the National Convention (1793) he offered to defend the 
king, but was not allowed to return to France. He did not 
return till the time of the Consulate. Louis XVIII. created 
him a peer of France, and in 18 16 he became a member of the 
French Academy. From that time until his death, on the nth 
of March 1830, he devoted himself to philanthropic work, 
especially identifying himself with prison reform. 

See his Plaidoyer pour Louis XVI. (London, 1793); Lally- 
Tollendal was also in part responsible for the Memoires, attributed 
to Joseph Weber, concerning Marie Antoinette (1804); he further 
edited the article on his father in the Biographie Michaud; see also 
Arnault, Discours prononce aux funerailles de M. le marquis de Lally- 
Tollendal le 13 mars 1830 (Paris) ; Gautbier de Brecy, Necrologie de 
M. le marquis de Lally-Tollendal (Paris, undated); Voltaire, CEuvres 
completes (Paris, 1889), in which see the analytical table of contents, 
vol. ii. 

LALO, EDOUARD (1823-1892), French composer, was born 
at Lille, on the 27th of January 1823. He began his musical 
studies at the conservatoire at Lille, and in Paris attended the 
violin classes of Habeneck. For several years Lalo led a modest 
and retired existence, playing the viola in the quartet party 
organized by Armingaud and Jacquard, and in composing 
chamber music. His early works include two trios, a quartet, 
and several pieces for violin and pianoforte. In 1867 he took 
part in an operatic competition, an opera from his pen, entitled 
Fiesque, obtaining the third place out of forty-three. This 
work was accepted for production at the Paris Opera, but delays 
occurred, and nothing was done. Fiesque was next offered to the 
Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, and was about to be produced 
there when the manager became bankrupt. Thus, when nearly 
fifty years of age, Lalo found himself in difficulties. Fiesque 
was never performed, but the composer published the pianoforte 
score, and eventually employed some of the music in other works. 
After the Franco-German war French composers found their 
opportunity in the concert-room. Lalo was one of these, and 
during the succeeding ten years several interesting works from 
his pen were produced, among them a sonata for violoncello, a 
" divertissement " for orchestra, a violin concerto and the 
Symphonie Espagnole for violin and orchestra, one of his best- 
known compositions. In the meanwhile he had written a second 
opera, Le Roi d'Ys, which he hoped would be produced at the 
Opera. The administration offered him the " scenario " of a 
ballet instead. Lalo was obliged to be content with this, and 
set to work with so much energy that he fell ill, the last scenes 
of the ballet being orchestrated by Gounod. Namouna, the 
ballet in question, was produced at the Opera in 1882. Six 
years later, on the 7th of May 1888, Le Roi d'Ys was brought 
out at the Opera Comique, and Lalo was at last enabled to taste 
the sweets of success. Unfortunately, fame came to him too 
late in life. A pianoforte concerto and the music to Niron, a 
pantomimic piece played at the Hippodrome in 1 891, were his 
last two works. He had begun a new opera, but had, only 
written the first act when, on the 23rd of April 1892, he died. 
This opera, La Jacquerie, was finished by Arthur Coquard, and 
was produced in 1895 at Monte Carlo, Aix-les-Bains and 
finally in Paris. Lalo had distinct originality, discernible in his 



employment of curious rhythmic devices. His music is ever 
ingenious and brilliantly effective. 

LA MADDALENA, an island 25 m. from the N.E. coast of 
Sardinia. Pop. (1901) 8361. Napoleon bombarded it in 1793 
without success, and Nelson made it his headquarters for some 
time. It is now an important naval station of the Italian fleet, 
the anchorage being good, and is strongly fortified. A bridge 
and an embankment connect it with Caprera. It appears to 
have been inhabited in Roman times. 

LAMAISM, a system of doctrine partly religious, partly political. 
Religiously it is the corrupt form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet 
and Mongolia. It stands in a relationship to primitive Buddhism 
similar to that in which Roman .Catholicism, so long as the 
temporal power of the pope was still in existence, stood to 
primitive Christianity. The ethical and metaphysical ideas 
most conspicuous in the doctrines of Lamaism are not confined 
to the highlands of central Asia, they are accepted in great 
measure also in Japan and China. It is the union of these ideas 
with a hierarchical system, and with the temporal sovereignty 
of the head of that system in Tibet, which constitutes what is 
distinctively understood by the term Lamaism. Lamaism 
has acquired a special interest to the student of comparative 
history through the instructive parallel which its history presents 
to that of the Church of Rome. 

The central point of primitive Buddhism was the doctrine 
of " Arahatship " — a system of ethical and mental self-culture, 
in which deliverance was found from all the mysteries 
and sorrows of life in a change of heart to be reached The 

" Great 

here on earth. This doctrine seems, to have been vehicle." 
held very nearly in its original purity from the time 
when it was propounded by Gotama in the 6th century B.C. 
to the period in which northern India was conquered by the 
Huns about the commencement of the Christian era. Soon after 
that time there arose a school of Buddhist teachers who called 
their doctrine the " Great Vehicle." It was not in any contradic- 
tion to the older doctrine, which they contemptuously called the 
" Little Vehicle," but included it all, and was based upon it. 
The distinguishing characteristic of the newer school was the 
importance which it attached to " Bodhisatship." The older 
school had taught that Gotama, who had propounded the doctrine 
of Arahatship, was a Buddha, that only a Buddha is capable 
of discovering that doctrine, and that a Buddha is a man who 
by self-denying efforts, continued through many hundreds of 
different births, has acquired the so-called Ten Paramitds or 
cardinal virtues in such perfection that he is able, when sin and 
ignorance have gained the upper hand throughout the world, 
to save the human race from impending ruin. But until the 
process of perfection has been completed, until the moment 
when at last the sage, sitting under the Wisdom tree acquires 
that particular insight or wisdom which is called Enlightenment 
or Buddhahood, he is still only a Bodhisat. The link of connexion 
between the various Bodhisats in the future Buddha's successive 
births is not a soul which is transferred from body to body, 
but the karma, or character, which each successive Bodhisat 
inherits from his predecessors in the long chain of existences. 
Now the older school also held, in the first place, that, when a 
man had, in this life, attained to Arahatship, his karma would 
not pass on to any other individual in another life — or in other 
words, that after Arahatship there would be no rebirth; and, 
secondly, that four thousand years after the Buddha had pro- 
claimed the Dhamma or doctrine of Arahatship, his teaching 
would have died away, and another Buddha would be required to 
bring mankind once more to a knowledge of the truth. The 
leaders of the Great Vehicle urged their followers to seek to 
attain, not so much to Arahatship, which would involve only 
their own salvation, but to Bodhisatship, by the attainment of 
which they would be conferring the blessings of the Dhamma 
upon countless multitudes in the long ages of the future. By 
thus laying stress upon Bodhisatship, rather than upon Arahat- 
ship, the new school, though they doubtless merely thought 
themselves to be carrying the older orthodox doctrines to their 
logical conclusion, were really changing the central point of 



LAMAISM 



97 



Buddhism, and were altering the direction of their mental vision. 
It was of no avail that they adhered in other respects in the main 
to the older teaching, that they professed to hold to the same 
ethical system, that they adhered, except in a few unimportant 
details, to the old regulations of the order of the Buddhist mendi- 
cant recluses. The ancient books, preserved in the Pali Pitakas, 
being mainly occupied with the details of Arahatship, lost their 
exclusive value in the eyes of those whose attention was being 
directed to the details of Bodhisatship. And the opinion that 
every leader in their religious circles, every teacher distinguished 
among them for his sanctity of life, or for his extensive learning, 
was a Bodhisat, who might have and who probably had inherited 
the karma of some great teacher of old, opened the door to a 
flood of superstitious fancies. 

It is worthy of note that the new school found its earliest 
professors and its greatest expounders in a part of India outside 
the districts to which the personal influence of Gotama and of his 
immediate followers had been confined. The home of early 
Buddhism was round about Kosala and Magadha; in the 
district, that is to say, north and south of the Ganges between 
where Allahabad now lies on the west and Rajgir on the east. 
The home of the Great Vehicle was, at first, in the countries 
farther to the north and west. Buddhism arose in countries 
where Sanskrit was never more than a learned tongue, and where 
the exclusive claims of the Brahmins had never been universally 
admitted. The Great Vehicle arose in the very stronghold of 
Brahminism, and among a people to whom Sanskrit, like Latin 
in the middle ages in Europe, was the literary lingua franca. 
The new literature therefore, which the new movement called 
forth, was written, and has been preserved, in Sanskrit — its 
principal books of Dharma, or doctrine, being the following nine: 
(i) Prajnd-pdramitd; (2) Garida-vyuha; (3) Dasa-bhumiS-vara; 
(4) Samddhi-rdja; (5) Lankdvatdra; (6) Saddharma-pundarika; 
(7) Tathdgata-guhyaka; (8) Lalita-vistara; (o) Suvarna-prabhdsa. 
The date of none of these works is known with any certainty, 
but it is highly improbable that any one of them is older than the 
6th century after the death of Gotama. Copies of all of them 
were brought to Europe by Mr B. H. Hodgson, and other copies 
have been received since then; but only one of them has as 
yet been published in Europe (the Lalita Vistara, edited by 
Lofmann), and only two have been translated into any European 
language. These are the Lalita Vistara, translated into French, 
through the Tibetan, by M. Foucaux, and the Saddharma 
Putidarika, translated into English by Professor Kern. The 
former is legendary work, partly in verse, on the life of Gotama, 
the historical Buddha; and the latter, also partly in verse, 
is devoted to proving the essential identity of the Great and the 
Little Vehicles, and the equal authenticity of both as doctrines 
enunciated by the master himself. 

Of the authors of these nine works, as of all the older Buddhist 
works with one or two exceptions, nothing has been ascertained. 
The founder of the system of the Great Vehicle is, however, 
often referred to under the name of Nagarjuna, whose probable 
date is about a.d. 200. 

Together with Nagarjuna, other early teachers of the Great 
V'ehicle whose names are known are Vasumitra, Vasubandhu, 
Aryadeva, Dharmapala and Guriamati — all of whom were 
looked upon as Bodhisats. As the newer school did not venture 
so far as to claim as Bodhisats the disciples stated in the older 
books to have been the contemporaries of Gotama (they being 
precisely the persons known as Arahats), they attempted to 
give the appearance of age to the Bodhisat theory by representing 
the Buddha as being surrounded, not only by his human com- 
panions the Arahats, but also by fabulous beings, whom they 
represented as the Bodhisats existing at that time. In the 
opening words of each Mahayana treatise a list is given of such 
Bodhisats, who were beginning, together with the historical 
Bodhisats, to occupy a position in the Buddhist church of 
those times similar to that occupied by the saints in the corre- 
sponding period of the history of Christianity in the Church of 
Rome. And these lists of fabulous Bodhisats have now a distinct 
historical importance. For they grow in length in the later 

xvi. 4 



works; and it is often possible by comparing them one with 
another to fix, not the date, but the comparative age of the 
books in which they occur. Thus it is a fair inference to draw 
from the shortness of the list in the opening words of the Lalita 
Vistara, as compared with that in the first sections of the Sad- 
dharma Putidarika, that the latter work is much the younger 
of the two, a conclusion supported also by other considerations. 
Among the Bodhisats mentioned in the Saddharma Pundarika, 
and not mentioned in the Lalita Vistara, as attendant on the 
Buddha are Manju-srI and Avalokitesvara. That these saints 
were already acknowledged by the followers of the Great Vehicle 
at the beginning of the 5th century is clear from the fact that 
Fa Hien, who visited India about that time, says that " men 
of the Great Vehicle " were then worshipping them at Mathura, 
not far from Delhi (F. H., chap. xvi.). These were supposed to 
be celestial beings who, inspired by love of the human race, 
had taken the so-called Great Resolve to become future Buddhas, 
and who therefore descended from heaven when the actual 
Buddha was on earth, to pay reverence to him, and to learn 
of him. The belief in them probably arose out of the doctrine 
of the older school, which did not deny the existence of the 
various creations of previous mythology and speculation, but 
allowed of their actual existence as spiritual beings, and only 
deprived them of all power over the lives of men, and declared 
them to be temporary beings liable, like men, to sin and ignor- 
ance, and requiring, like men, the salvation of Arahatship. 
Among them the later Buddhists seem to have placed their 
numerous Bodhisats; and to have paid especial reverence to 
Manju-srI as the personification of wisdom, and to Avalokite- 
swara as the personification of overruling love. The former 
was afterwards identified with the mythical first Buddhist 
missionary, who is supposed to have introduced civilization 
into Tibet about two hundred and fifty years after the death of 
the Buddha. 

The way was now open to a rapid fall from the simplicity 
of early Buddhism, in which men's attention was directed 
to the various parts of the system of self-culture, 
to a belief in a whole pantheon of saints or angels, mys uc 
which appealed more strongly to the half-civilized trinities. 
races among whom the Great Vehicle was now pro- 
fessed. A theory sprang up which was supposed to explain 
the marvellous powers of the Buddhas by representing them 
as only the outward appearance, the reflection, as it were, or 
emanation, of ethereal Buddhas dwelling in the skies. These 
were called Dhydni Buddhas, and their number was supposed 
to be, like that of the Buddhas, innumerable. Only five of 
them, however, occupied any space in the speculative world 
in which the ideas of the later Buddhists had now begun to 
move. But, being Buddhas, they were supposed to have their 
Bodhisats; and thus out of the five last Buddhas of the earlier 
teaching there grew up five mystic trinities, each group con- 
sisting of one of these five Buddhas, his prototype in heaven 
the Dhyani Buddha, and his celestial Bodhisat. Among these 
hypothetical beings, the creations of a sickly scholasticism, 
hollow abstractions without life or reality, the particular trinity 
in which the historical Gotama was assigned a subordinate 
place naturally occupied the most exalted rank. Amitabha, 
the Dhyani-Buddha of this trinity, soon began to fill the largest 
place in the minds of the new school; and Avalokiteswara, 
his Bodhisat, was looked upon with a reverence somewhat less 
than his former glory. It is needless to add that, under the 
overpowering influence of these vain imaginations, the earnest 
moral teachings of Gotama became more and more hidden from 
view. The imaginary saints grew and flourished. Each new 
creation, each new step in the theory, demanded another, 
until the whole sky was filled with forgeries of the brain, and 
the nobler and simpler lessons of the founder of the religion 
were hidden beneath the glittering stream of metaphysical 
subtleties. 

Still worse results followed on the change of the earlier point 
of view. The acute minds of the Buddhist pandits, no longer 
occupied with the practical lessons of Arahatship, turned their 

11 



98 



LAMAISM 



attention, as far as it was not engaged upon their hierarchy 
of mythological beings, to questions of metaphysical speculation, 
which, in the earliest Buddhism, are not only discouraged 
but forbidden. We find long treatises on the nature of being, 
idealistic dreams which have as little to do with the Bodhisatship 
that is concerned with the salvation of the world as with the 
Arahatship that is concerned with the perfect life. Only one 
lower step was possible, and that was not long in being taken. 
The animism common alike to the untaught Huns and to their 
Hindu conquerors, but condemned in early Buddhism, was 
allowed to revive. As the stronger side of Gotama's teaching 
was neglected, the debasing belief in rites and ceremonies, 
and charms and incantations, which had been the especial object 
of his scorn, began to spread like the Birana weed warmed 
by a tropical sun in marsh and muddy soil. As in India, after 
the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva 
and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism 
from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan 
tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra 
system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was 
incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism. 

The founder of this system seems to have been Asanga, an 
influential monk of Peshawar, who wrote the first text-book of 

the creed, the Yogdchchdra Bhumi Sdstra, in the 6th 
Tantra century a.d. Hsuan Tsang, who travelled in the first 
system. half of the 7th, found the monastery where Asanga had 

lived in ruins, and says that he had lived one thousand 
years after the Buddha. 1 Asanga managed with great dexterity 
to reconcile the two opposing systems by placing a number of 
Saivite gods or devils, both male and female, in the inferior 
heavens of the then prevalent Buddhism, and by representing 
them as worshippers and supporters of the Buddha and of 
Avalokitesvara. He thus made it possible for the half-converted 
and rude tribes to remain Buddhists while they brought offerings, 
and even bloody offerings, to these more congenial shrines, and 
while their practical belief had no relation at all to the Truths 
or the Noble Eightfold Path, but busied itself almost wholly 
with obtaining magic powers (Siddhi), by means of magic phrases 
{Dhdrani), and magic circles (Mandala). Asanga's happy idea 
bore but too ample fruit. In his own country and Nepal, the 
new wine, sweet and luscious to the taste of savages, completely 
disqualified them from enjoying any purer drink; and now in 
both countries Saivism is supreme, and Buddhism is even nomin- 
ally extinct, except in some outlying districts of Nepal. But this 
full effect has only been worked out in the lapse of ages; the 
Tantra literature has also had its growth and its development, 
and some unhappy scholar of a future age may have to trace 
its loathsome history. The nauseous taste repelled even the 
self-sacrificing industry of Burnouf, when he found the later 
Tantra books to be as immoral as they are absurd. " The pen," 
he says, " refuses to transcribe doctrines as miserable in respect 
of form as they are odious and degrading in respect of meaning." 
Such had been the decline and fall of Buddhism considered 
as an ethical system before its introduction into Tibet. The 
manner in which its order of mendicant recluses, at first founded 
to afford better opportunities to those who wished to carry 
out that system in practical life, developed at last into a hier- 
archical monarchy will best be understood by a sketch of the 
history of Tibet. 

Its real history commences with Srong Tsan Gampo, who 
was born a little after 6oo a.d., and who is said in the Chinese 
chronicles to have entered, in 634, into diplomatic 
ooiitical relationship with Tai Tsung, one of the emperors of 
history. the Tang dynasty. He was the founder of the present 
capital of Tibet, now known as Lhasa; and in the 
year 622 (the same year as that in which Mahomet fled from 
Mecca) he began the formal introduction of Buddhism into 
Tibet. For this purpose he sent the minister Thumi Sambhota, 
afterwards looked upon as an incarnation of Manju-sri, to India, 
there to collect the sacred books, and to learn and translate them. 

1 Watters's Yuan Chwang, edited by Rhys Davids and Bushell, 
i. 210, 356, 271. 



Thumi Sambhota accordingly invented an alphabet for the 
Tibetan language on the model of the Indian alphabets then in 
use. And, aided by the king, who is represented to have been 
an industrious student and translator, he wrote the first books 
by which Buddhism became known in his native land. The 
most famous of the works ascribed to him is the Mani Kambum, 
"the Myriad of Precious Words" — a treatise chiefly on religion, 
but which also contains an account of the introduction of 
Buddhism into Tibet, and of the closing part of the life of Srong 
Tsan Gampo- He is also very probably the author of another 
very ancient standard work of Tibetan Buddhism, the Samatog, 
a short digest of Buddhist morality, on which the civil laws of 
Tibet have been founded. It is said in the Mani Kambum to 
have fallen from heaven in a casket (Tibetan, samatog), and, like 
the last-mentioned work, is only known to us in meagre abstract. 
King Srong Tsan Gampo's zeal for Buddhism was shared 
and supported by his two queens, Bribsun, a princess from Nepal, 
and Wen Ching, a princess from China. They are related to 
have brought with them sacred relics, books and pictures, 
for whose better preservation two large monasteries were erected. 
These are the cloisters of La Brang (Jokhang) and Ra Moche, 
still, though much changed and enlarged, the most sacred abbeys 
in Tibet, and the glory of Lhasa. The two queens have become 
semi-divine personages, and are worshipped under the name of 
the two Ddrd-Eke, the " glorious mothers," being regarded 
as incarnations of the wife of Siva, representing respectively 
two of the qualities which she personifies, divine vengeance 
and divine love. The former is worshipped by the Mongolians 
as Okkin Tengri, " the Virgin Goddess "; but in Tibet and 
China the r61e of the divine virgin is filled by Kwan Yin, a 
personification of Avalokitesvara as the heavenly word, who is 
often represented with a child in her arms. Srong Tsan Gampo 
has also become a saint, being looked upon as an incarnation 
of Avalokitesvara; and the description in the ecclesiastical 
historians of the measures he took for the welfare of his subjects 
do great credit to their ideal of the perfect Buddhist king. He is 
said to have spent his long reign in the building of reservoirs, 
bridges and canals; in the promotion of agriculture, horticulture 
and manufactures; in the establishment of schools and colleges; 
and in the maintenance of justice and the encouragement of 
virtue. But the degree of his success must have been slight. 
For after the death of himself and of his wives Buddhism gradu- 
ally decayed, and was subjected by succeeding kings to cruel 
persecutions; and it was not till more than half a century 
afterwards, under King Kir Song de Tsan, who reigned 740-786, 
that true religion is acknowledged by the ecclesiastical historians 
to have become firmly established in the land. 

This monarch again sent to India to replace the sacred books 
that had been lost, and to invite Buddhist pandits to translate 
them. The most distinguished of those who came j-/, e 
were Santa Rakshita, Padma Sambhava and Kamala Tibetan 
Sila, for whom, and for their companions, the king sacred 
built a splendid monastery still existing, at Samje, 
about three days' journey south-east of Lhasa. It was to them 
that the Tibetans owed the great collection of what are still 
regarded as their sacred books — the Kandjur. It consists of 
100 volumes containing 689 works, of which there are two or 
three complete sets in Europe, one of them in the India Office 
library. A detailed analysis of these scriptures has been pub- 
lished by the celebrated Hungarian scholar Csoma de Koros, 
whose authoritative work has been republished in French with 
complete indices and very useful notes by M. Leon Feer. These 
volumes contain about a dozen works of the oldest school of 
Buddhism, the Hinayana, and about 300 works, mostly very 
short, belonging to the Tantra school. But the great bulk of 
the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all 
the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist 
sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings 
are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, 
not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of 
the later forms of Indian Buddhism. 

The last king's second son, Lang Darma, concluded in May 822 



LAMAISM 



99 



The 
temporal 



a treaty with the then emperor of China (the twelfth of the Tang 
dynasty), a record of which was engraved on a stone put up in 
the above-mentioned great convent of La Brang (Jokhang), 
and is still to be seen there. 1 He is described in the church 
chronicles as an* incarnation of the evil spirit, and is said to have 
succeeded in suppressing Buddhism throughout the greater part 
of the land. The period from Srong Tsan Gampo down to the 
death of Lang Darma, who was murdered about a.d. 850, in a 
civil war, is called in the Buddhist books " the first introduction 
of religion." It was followed by more than a century of civil 
disorder and wars, during which the exiled Buddhist monks 
attempted unsuccessfully again and again to return. Many 
are the stories of martyrs and confessors who are believed to 
have lived in these troublous times, and their efforts were at 
last crowned with success, for in the century commencing with 
the reign of Bilamgur in 971 there took place " the second 
introduction of religion " into Tibet, more especially under the 
guidance of the pandit Atisha, who came to Tibet in 1041, and 
of his famous native pupil and follower Brom Ston. The long 
period of depression seems not to have been without a beneficial 
influence on the persecuted Buddhist church, for these teachers 
are reported to have placed the Tantra system more in the 
background, and to have adhered more strongly to the purer 
forms of the Mahayana development of the ancient faith. 

For about three hundred years the Buddhist church of Tibet 
was left in peace, subjecting the country more and more com- 
pletely to its control, and growing in power and in 
wealth. During this time it achieved its greatest 
victory, and underwent the most important change in 
reigntyot ; ts c }j arac ter and organization. After the reintroduc- 
' tion of Buddhism into the " kingdom of snow," the 
ancient dynasty never recovered its power. Its representatives 
continued for some time to claim the sovereignty; but the 
country was practically very much in the condition of Germany 
at about the same time — chieftains of almost independent power 
ruled from their castles on the hill-tops over the adjacent valleys, 
engaged in petty wars, and conducted plundering expeditions 
against the neighbouring tenants, whilst the great abbeys were 
places of refuge for the studious or religious, and their heads were 
the only rivals to the barons in social state, and in many respects 
the only protectors and friends of the people. Meanwhile 
Jenghiz Khan had founded the Mongol empire, and his grandson 
Kublai Khan became a convert to the Buddhism' of the Tibetan 
Lamas. He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in 
southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, 
head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous 
barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the 
abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire. 
Thus was the foundation laid at one and the same time of the 
temporal sovereignty of the Lamas of Tibet, and of the suzerainty 
over Tibet of the emperors of China. One of the first acts of the 
" head of the church " was the printing of a carefully revised 
edition of the Tibetan Scriptures — an undertaking which 
occupied altogether nearly thirty years and was not completed 
till 1306. 

Under' Kublai's successors in China the Buddhist cause 
flourished greatly, and the Sakya Lamas extended their power 
both at home and abroad. The dignity of abbot at Sakya 
became hereditary, the abbots breaking so far the Buddhist 
rule of celibacy that they remained married until they had 
begotten a son and heir. But rather more than half a century 
afterwards their power was threatened by a formidable rival 
at home, a Buddhist reformer. 

Tsongkapa, the Luther of Tibet, was born about 1357 on the 
spot where the famous monastery of Kunbum now stands. He 
very early entered the order, and studied at Sakya, 
1° Brigung and other monasteries. He then spent eight 

of Tibet. years as a hermit in Takpo in southern Tibet, where 
the comparatively purer teaching of Atisha (referred to 
above) was still prevalent. About 1390 he appeared as a public 

1 Published with facsimile and translation and notes in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1 879-1 880, vol. xii. 



teacher and reformer in Lhasa, and before his death in 1419 
there were three huge monasteries there containing 30,000 of his 
disciples, besides others in other parts of the country. His 
voluminous works, of which the most famous are the Svmbuii 
and the Lam Nim Tshenpo, exist in printed Tibetan copies in 
Europe, but have not yet been translated or analysed. But 
the principal lines on which his reformation proceeded are 
sufficiently attested. He insisted in the first place on the 
complete carrying out of the ancient rules of the order as to the 
celibacy of its members, and as to simplicity in dress. One 
result of the second of these two reforms was to make it necessary 
for every monk openly to declare himself either in favour of or 
against the new views. For Tsongkapa and his followers wore 
the yellow or orange-coloured garments which had been the 
distinguishing mark of the order in the lifetime of its founder, 
and in support of the ancient rules Tsongkapa reinstated the 
fortnightly rehearsal of the Patimokkha or " disburdenment " 
in regular assemblies of the order at Lhasa — a practice which 
had fallen into desuetude. He also restored the custom of the 
first disciples to hold the so-called Vassa or yearly retirement, 
and the public meeting of the order at its close. In all these 
respects he was simply following the directions of the Vinaya, 
or regulations of the order, as established probably in the time 
of Gotama himself, and as certainly handed down from the 
earliest times in the pitakas or sacred books. Further, he set 
his face against the Tantra system, and against the animistic 
superstitions which had been allowed to creep into life again. 
He laid stress on the self-culture involved in the practice of the 
paramitas or cardinal virtues, and established an annual national 
fast or week of prayer to be held during the first days of each 
year. This last institution indeed is not found in the ancient 
Vinaya, but was almost certainly modelled on the traditional 
account of the similar assemblies convoked by Asoka and other 
Buddhist sovereigns in India every fifth year. Laymen as well 
as monks take part in the proceedings, the details of which are 
unknown to us except from the accounts of the Catholic mission- 
aries — Fathers Hue- and Gabet — who describe the principal 
ceremonial as, in outward appearance, wonderfully like the 
high mass. In doctrine the great Tibetan teacher, who had no 
access to the Pali Pitakas, adhered in the main to the purer 
forms of the Mahayana school; in questions of church govern- 
ment he took little part, and did not dispute the titular supremacy 
of the Sakya Lamas. But the effects of his teaching weakened 
their power. The " orange-hoods," as his followers were called, 
rapidly gained in numbers and influence, until they so over- 
shadowed the " red-hoods," as the followers of the older sect 
were called, that in the middle of the 15th century the emperor 
of China acknowledged the two leaders of the new sect at that 
time as the titular overlords of the church and tributary rulers 
over the realm of Tibet. These two leaders were then known 
as the Dalai Lama and the Pantshen Lama, and were the abbots 
of the great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, near Lhasa, and at 
Tashi Lunpo, in Farther Tibet, respectively. Since that time 
the abbots of these monasteries have continued to exercise the 
sovereignty over Tibet. 

As there has been no further change in the doctrine, and no 
further reformation in discipline, we may leave the ecclesiastical 
history of Lamaism since that date unnoticed, and 
consider some principal points on the constitution of the ^° nstI j u " 
Lamaism of to-day. And first as to the mode of lamaism. 
electing successors to the two Great Lamas. It will 
have been noticed that it was an old idea of the northern 
Buddhists to look upon distinguished members of the order as 
incarnations of Avalokitesvara, of MafLju-srl, or of Amitabha. 
These beings were supposed to possess the power, whilst they 
continued to live in heaven, of appearing on earth in a Nirmdna- 
kaya, or apparitional body. In the same way the Pantshen Lama 
is looked upon as an incarnation, the Nirmana-kaya, of Amitabha, 
who had previously appeared under the outward form of 
Tshonkapa himself; and the Dalai Lama is looked upon as an 
incarnation of Avalokitesvara. Theoretically, therefore, the 
former, as the spiritual successor of the great teacher and also of 



IOO 



LAMALOU-LES-BAINS— LAMAR 



Amitabha, who occupies the higher place in the mythology of the 
Great Vehicle, would be superior to the latter, as the spiritual 
representative of Avalokitesvara. But practically the Dalai 
Lama, owing to his position in the capital, 1 has the political 
supremacy, and is actually called the Gyalpo Rinpotshe, " the 
glorious king " — his companion being content with the title 
Panlshen Rinpotshe, " the glorious teacher." When either of 
them dies it is necessary for the other to ascertain in whose body 
the celestial being whose outward form has been dissolved has 
been pleased again to incarnate himself. For that purpose the 
names of all male children born just after the death of the 
deceased Great Lama are laid before his survivor. He chooses 
three out of the whole number; their names are thrown into a 
golden casket provided for that purpose by a former emperor of 
China. The Chutuktus, or abbots of the great monasteries, then 
assemble, and after a week of prayer, the lots are drawn in their 
presence and in presence of the surviving Great Lama and of the 
Chinese political resident. The child whose name is first drawn is 
the future Great Lama; the other two receive each of them 500 
pieces of silver* The Chutuktus just mentioned correspond in 
many respects to the Roman cardinals. Like the Great Lamas, 
they bear the title of Rinpotshe or Glorious, and are looked upon 
as incarnations of one or other of the celestial Bodhisats of the 
Great Vehicle mythology. Their number varies from ten to a 
hundred; and it is uncertain whether the honour is inherent in 
the abbacy of certain of the greatest cloisters, or whether the Dalai 
Lama exercises the right of choosing them. Under these high 
officials of the Tibetan hierarchy there come the Chubil Khans, 
who fill the post of abbot to the lesser monasteries, and are also 
incarnations. Their number is very large; there are few monas- 
teries in Tibet or in Mongolia which do not claim to possess one of 
these living Buddhas. Besides these mystical persons there are in 
the Tibetan church other ranks and degrees, corresponding to the 
deacon, full priest, dean and doctor of divinity in the West. At 
the great yearly festival at Lhasa they make in the cathedral an 
imposing array, not much less magnificent than that of the clergy 
in Rome; for the ancient simplicity of dress has disappeared in 
the growing differences of rank, and each division of the spiritual 
army is distinguished in Tibet, as in the West, by a special 
uniform. The political authority of the Dalai Lama is confined 
to Tibet itself, but he is the acknowledged head also of the 
Buddhist church throughout Mongolia and China. He has no 
supremacy over his co-religionists in Japan, and even in China 



by half a mile in breadth, has narrow and dirty streets, and con^ 
tains a population of about 26,000. Unlike the ordinary Chinese 
town of the same rank, it is not walled. A busy trade is carried 
on between the Chinese and the Mongolians, who bring in their 
cattle, sheep, camels, hides and wool to barter for tea, tobacco, 
cotton and silk. At some distance from the Chinese town lies the 
Mongolian quarter, with two groups of lama temples and villages 
occupied by about 2300 priests. Dr Williamson {Journeys in 
North China, 1870) described the chief temple as a huge oblong 
building with an interior not unlike a Gothic church. Lama- 
miao is the seat of a manufactory of bronze idols and other 
articles of ritual, which find their way to all parts of Mongolia 
and Tibet. The craftsmen work in their own houses. 

LAMAR, LUCIUS QUINTUS CINCINNATUS (1825-1893), 
American statesman and judge, was born at the old " Lamar 
Homestead," in Putnam county, Georgia, on the 17th of 
September 1825. His father, Lucius Q. C. Lamar (1797-1834), 
was an able lawyer, a judge of the superior court of Georgia, 
and the compiler of the Laws of Georgia from 1810 to 1S19 
(1821). In 1845 young Lamar graduated from Emory College 
(Oxford, Ga.), and in 1847 was admitted to the bar. In 
1849 he removed to Oxford, Mississippi, and in 1850-1852 
was adjunct professor of mathematics in the state uni- 
versity. In 1852 he removed to Covington, Ga., to practise 
law, and in 1853 was elected a member of the Georgia House of 
Representatives. In 1855 he returned to Mississippi, and two 
years later became a member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives, where he served until December r86o, when he with- 
drew to become a candidate for election to the " secession " 
convention of Mississippi. He was elected to the convention, and 
drafted for it the Mississippi ordinance of secession. In the 
summer of i860 he had accepted an appointment to the chair of 
ethics and metaphysics in the university of Mississippi, but, 
having been appointed a lieutenant-colonel in the Confederate 
Army in the spring of 1861, he resigned his professorship. The 
colonel of his regiment (Nineteenth Mississippi) was killed early 
in the battle of Williamsburg, on the 5th of May 1862, and the 
command then fell to Lamar, but in October he resigned from 
the army. In November 1862 he was appointed by President 
Jefferson Davis special commissioner of the Confederacy to 
Russia; but he did not proceed farther than Paris, and his 
mission was soon terminated by the refusal of the Confederate 
Senate to confirm his appointment. In 1866 he was again 



there are many Buddhists who are not practically under his appointed to the chair of ethics and metaphysics in the uni- 



control or influence. 

The best work on La maism is still Koppen's Die Lamaische Hierarcliie 
und Kirche (Berlin, 1859). See also Bushell, " The Early History of 
Tibet," in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1879-1880, vol. 
xii.; Sanang Setzen's History of the East Mongols (in Mongolian, 
translated into German by J. Schmidt, Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen); 
" Analyse du Kandjur," by M. Leon Feer, in Annates du Musee 
Gaimet (1881); Schott, Ueber den Buddhismus in Hoch-Asien; 
Gutzlaff, Geschichte des Chinesischen Reiches; Hue and Gabet, 
Souvenirs Sun voyage dans la Tartarie, le Tibet, et la Chine 
(Paris, 1858); Pallas's Sammlung historischer Nachrichten iiber die 
Mongolischen Vblkerschaften; Babu Sarat Chunder Das's " Contri- 
butions on the Religion and History of Tibet," in the Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society, 1881; L. A. Waddell, The Buddhism of 
Tibet (London, 1895); A. H. Francke, History of Western Tibet 
(London, 1907); A. Grunwedel, Mythologie des Buddhismus in Tibet 
und der Mongolei (Berlin, 1900). (T. W. R. D.) 

LAMALOU-LES-BAINS, a watering-place of southern France 
in the department of Herault, 535 m. W. of Montpellier by rail, 
in a valley of the southern Cevennes. Pop. (1906) 720. The 
waters, which are both hot and cold, are used in cases of rheu- 
matism, sciatica, locomotor ataxy and nervous maladies. 

LAMA-MIAO, or Dolon-nor, a city of the province of Chih-li, 
China, 150 m. N. of Peking, in a barren sandy plain watered by 
the Urtingol, a tributary of the Shang-tu-ko. The town proper, 
almost exclusively occupied by Chinese, is about a mile in length 

1 This statement representing the substantial and historical 
position, is retained, in spite oi the crises of March 1910, when the 
Dalai Lama took refuge from the Chinese in India, and of 1904, when 
the British expedition occupied Lhasa and the Dalai Lama fled to 
China (see Tibet). 



versity of Mississippi, and in the next year was transferred to the 
chair of law, but in 1870, Republicans having become trustees 
of the university upon the readmission of the state into the 
Union, he resigned. From 1873 to 1877 he was again a Demo- 
cratic representative in Congress; from 1877 to 1885 he was a 
United States senator; from 1885 to January 1888 he was 
secretary of the interior; and from 1888 until his death at 
Macon, Ga., on the 23rd of January 1893, he was an associate 
justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In Congress 
Lamar fought the silver and greenback craze and argued forcibly 
against the protective tariff; in the department of the interior 
he introduced various reforms; and on the Supreme Court 
bench his dissenting opinion in the N eagle Case (based upon a 
denial that certain powers belonging to Congress, but not 
exercised, were by implication vested in the department of 
justice) is famous. But he is perhaps best known for the part he 
took after the Civil War in helping to effect a reconciliation 
between the North and the South. During the early secession 
movement he strove to arouse the white people of the South 
from their indifference, declaring that secession alone could save 
them from a doom similar to that of the former whites of San 
Domingo. He probably never changed his convictions as to the 
righteousness of the "lost cause"; but he accepted the result 
of the war as a final settlement of the differences leading to it, and 
strove to restore the South in the Union, and to effect the reunion 
of the nation in feeling as well as in government. This is in part 
seen from such speeches as his eulogy on Charles Sumner (27th 
of April 1874), his leadership in reorganizing the Democratic 



LAMARCK 



101 



party of his own state, and his counsels of peace in the disputed 
presidential election of 1876. 

See Edward Mayes, Lucius Q. C. Lamar: His Life, Times and 
Speeches (Nashville, Term., 1896). 

LAMARCK, JEAN BAPTISTE PIERRE ANTOINE DE 
MONET, Chevalier de (1744-1829), French naturalist, was 
born on the 1st of August 1 744, at Bazantin, a village of Picardy. 
He was an eleventh child; and his father, lord of the manor and 
of old family, but of limited means, having placed three sons 
in the army, destined this one for the church, and sent him to the 
Jesuits at Amiens, where he continued till his father's death. 
After this he would remain with the Jesuits no longer, and, not 
yet seventeen years of age, started for the seat of war at Bergen- 
op-Zoom, before which place one of his brothers had already 
been killed. Mounted on an old horse, with a boy from the 
village as attendant, and furnished by a lady with a letter of 
introduction to a colonel, he reached his destination on the 
evening before a battle. Next morning the colonel found that 
the new and very diminutive volunteer had posted himself in 
the front rank of a body of grenadiers, and could not be induced 
to quit the position. In the battle, the company which he had 
joined became exposed to the fire of the enemy's artillery, and 
in the confusion of retreat was forgotten. All the officers and 
subalterns were killed, and not more than fourteen men were left, 
when the oldest grenadiers seeing there were no more French 
in sight proposed to the young volunteer so soon become com- 
mandant to withdraw his men. This he refused to do without 
orders. These at last arrived; and for his bravery he was made 
an officer on the spot, and soon after was named to a lieutenancy. 
After the peace, the regiment was sent to Monaco. There 
one of his comrades playfully lifted him by the head, and to this 
it was imputed that he was seized with disease of the glands of the 
neck, so severe as to put a stop to his military career. He went 
to Paris and began the study of medicine, supporting himself by 
working in a banker's office He early became interested in 
meteorology and in physical and chemical speculations of a 
chimerical kind, but happily threw his main strength into 
botany, and in 1778 published his Flore fran^aise, a work in 
which by a dichotomous system of contesting characters he 
enabled the student with facility to determine species. This 
work, which went through several editions and long kept the field, 
gained for its author immediate popularity as well as admission 
to the Academy of Sciences. 

In 17S1 and 1782, under the title of botanist to the king, an 
appointment obtained for him by Buffon, whose son accompanied 
him. he travelled through various countries of Europe, extending 
his knowledge of natural history; and on his return he began 
those elaborate contributions to botany on which his reputation 
in that science principally rests, namely, the Dictionnaire de 
Botanique and the Illustrations de Genres, voluminous works 
contributed to the Encyclopedic Methodique (1785). In 1703, in 
consequence of changes in the organization of the natural history 
department at the Jardin du Roi, where he had held a botanical 
appointment since 1788, Lamarck was presented to a zoological 
chair, and called on to lecture on the Insecta and Vermes of 
Linnaeus, the animals for which he introduced the term In- 
vcrlcbrata. Thus driven, comparatively late in life, to devote his 
principal attention to zoology instead of botany, he had the 
misfortune soon after to suffer from impaired vision; and the 
malady resulted subsequently in total blindness. Yet his 
greatest zoological work, the Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertebres, was published from 1815 to 1822, with the 
assistance, in the last two volumes, of his eldest daughter and 
of P. A. Latreille (1 762-1833). A volume of plates of the fossil 
shells of the neighbourhood of Paris was collected in 1823 from 
his memoirs in the Annales des Museums. He died on the 18th 
of December 1S20. 



The 



iracter of Lamarck as a naturalist is remarkable alike 



for its excellences and its defects. His excellences were width 
of scope, fertility of ideas and a pre-eminent faculty of precise 
description, arising not only from a singularly terse style, but 
from a clear insight into both the distinctive features and the 



resemblances of forms. That part of his zoological work which 
constitutes his solid claim to the highest honour as a zoologist 
is to be found in his extensive and detailed labours in the depart- 
ments of living and fossil Invertebrata. His endeavours at 
classification of the great groups were necessarily defective on 
account of the imperfect knowledge possessed in his time in 
regard to many of them, e.g. echinoderms, ascidians and in- 
testinal worms; yet they are not without interest, particularly 
on account of the comprehensive attempt to unite in one great 
division as Articulata all those groups that appeared to present 
a segmented construction. Moreover, Lamarck was the first 
to distinguish vertebrate from invertebrate animals by the 
presence of a vertebral column, and among the Invertebrata 
to found the groups Crustacea, Arachnida and Annelida. In 
1785 {Hist, del' Acad.) he evinced his appreciation of the necessity 
of natural orders in botany by an attempt at the classification 
of plants, interesting, though crude and falling immeasurably 
short of the system which grew in the hands of his intimate 
friend A. L. de Jussieu. The problem of taxonomy has never 
been put more philosophically than he subsequently put it in his 
Animaux sans vertebres: " What arrangement must be given 
to the general distribution of animals to make it conformable to 
the order of nature in the production of these beings? " 

The most prominent defect in Lamarck must be admitted to 
have been want of control in speculation. Doubtless the specula- 
tive tendency furnished a powerful incentive to work, but it 
outran the legitimate deductions from observation, and led him 
into the production of volumes of worthless chemistry without 
experimental basis, as well as into spending much time on fruitless 
meteorological predictions. His Annuaires Meteor ologiques were 
published yearly from r8oo to 1810, and were not discontinued 
until after an unnecessarily public and brutal tirade from 
Napoleon, administered on the occasion of being presented 
with one of his works on natural history. 

To the general reader the name of Lamarck is chiefly interesting 
on account of his theory of the origin of life and of the diversities 
of animal forms. The idea, which appears to have been favoured 
by Buffon before him, that species were not throiigh all time 
unalterable, and that the more complex might have been 
developed from pre-existent simpler forms, became with Lamarck 
a belief or, as he imagined, a demonstration. Spontaneous 
generation, he considered, might be easily conceived as resulting 
from such agencies as heat and electricity causing in small 
gelatinous bodies an utricular structure, and inducing a " singular 
tension," a kind of " erethisme " or " orgasme "; and, having 
thus accounted for the first appearance of life, he explained 
the whole organization of animals and formation of different 
organs by four laws (introduction to his Histoire naturelle des 
animaux sans vertebres, 181 5): — 

1. " Life by its proper forces tends continually to increase the 
volume of every body possessing it, and to enlarge its parts, up to 
a limit which it brings about. 

2. " The production of a new organ in an animal body results from 
the supervention of a new want (besoin) continuing to make itself 
felt, and a new movement which this want gives birth to and en- 
courages. 

3. " The development of organs and their force of action are con- 
stantly in ratio to the employment of these organs. 

4. " All which has been acquired, laid down, or changed in the 
organization of individuals in the course of their life is conserved 
by generation and transmitted to the new individuals which proceed 
from those which have undergone those changes.' 

The second law is often referred to as Lamarck's hypothesis of 
the evolution of organs in animals by appetence or longing, 
although he does not teach that the animal's desires affect its 
conformation directly, but that altered wants lead to altered 
habits, which result in the formation of new organs as well as 
in modification, growth or dwindling of those previously existing. 
Thus, he suggests that, ruminants being pursued by carnivora, 
their legs have grown slender; and, their legs being only fit 
for support, while their jaws are weak, they have made attack 
with the crown of the head, and the determination of fluids 
thither has led to the growth of horns. So also the stretching 
of the giraffe's neck to reach the foliage he supposes to have led 



102 



LA MARGHERITA— LAMARTINE 



to its elongation; and the kangaroo, sitting upright to support 
the young in its pouch, he imagines to have had its fore-limbs 
dwarfed by disuse, and its hind legs and tail exaggerated by 
using them in leaping. The fourth law expresses the inheritance 
of acquired characters, which is denied by August Weismann 
and his followers. For a more detailed account of Lamarck's 
place in the history of the doctrine of evolution, see Evolution. 
LA MARGHERITA, CLEMENTE SOLARO, Count del (1702- 
1 869) , Piedmontese statesman, was born at Mondovi. He studied 
law at Siena and Turin, but Piedmont was at that time under 
French domination, and being devoted to the house of Savoy 
he refused to take his degree, as this proceeding would have 
obliged him to recognize the authority of the usurper; after the 
restoration of the Sardinian kingdom, however, he graduated. 
In 18 16 he entered the diplomatic service. Later he returned 
to Turin, and succeeded in gaining the confidence and esteem 
of King Charles Albert, who in 1835 appointed him minister of 
foreign affairs. A fervent Roman Catholic, devoted to the pope 
and to the Jesuits, friendly to Austria and firmly attached to 
the principles of autocracy, he strongly opposed every attempt 
at political innovation, and was in consequence bitterly hated 
by the liberals. When the popular agitation in favour of con- 
stitutional reform first broke out the king felt obliged to dispense 
with La Margherita's services, although he had conducted public 
affairs with considerable ability and absolute loyalty, even 
upholding the dignity of the kingdom in the face of the arrogant 
attitude of the cabinet of Vienna. He expounded his political 
creed and his policy as minister to Charles Albert (from February 
1835 to October 1847) in his Memorandum storico-politico, 
published in 185 1, a document of great interest for the study of 
the conditions of Piedmont and Italy at that time. In 1853 he 
was elected deputy for San Quirico, but he persisted in regarding 
his mandate as derived from the royal authority rather than 
as an emanation of the popular will. As leader of the Clerical 
Right in the parliament he strongly opposed Cavour's policy, 
which was eventually to lead to Italian unity, and on the estab- 
lishment of the kingdom of Italy he retired from public life. 

LA MARMORA, ALFONSO FERRERO (1804-1878), Italian 
general and statesman, was born at Turin on the 18th of 
November 1804. He entered the Sardinian army in 1823, and 
was a captain in March 1848, when he gained distinction and 
the rank of major at the siege of Peschiera. On the 5th of August 
1848 he liberated Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, from the 
Milan revolutionaries, and in October was promoted general 
and appointed minister of war. After suppressing the revolt of 
Genoa in 1849, he again assumed in November 1849 the portfolio 
of war, which, save during the period of his command of the 
Crimean expedition, he retained until 1859. Having recon- 
structed the Piedmontese army, he took part in the war of 1859 
against Austria; and in July of that year succeeded Cavour in 
the premiership. In i860 he was sent to Berlin and St Peters- 
burg to arrange for the recognition of the kingdom of Italy, 
and subsequently he held the offices of governor of Milan and 
royal lieutenant at Naples, until, in September 1864, he succeeded 
Minghetti as premier. In this capacity he modified the scope 
of the September Convention by a note in which he claimed 
for Italy full freedom of action in respect of national aspirations 
to the possession of Rome, a document of which Visconti Venosta 
afterwards took advantage when justifying the Italian occupation 
of Rome in 1870. In April 1866 La Marmora concluded an 
alliance with Prussia against Austria, and, on the outbreak of 
war in June, took command of an army corps, but was defeated 
at Custozza on the 23rd of June. Accused of treason by his fellow- 
countrymen, and of duplicity by the Prussians, he eventually 
published in defence of his tactics (1873) a series of documents 
entitled Un po' piii di luce sugli eventi dell' anno 1866 (More 
light on the events of 1866) a step which caused irritation in 
Germany, and exposed him to the charge of having violated 
state secrets. Meanwhile he had been sent to Paris in 1867 to 
oppose the French expedition to Rome, and in 1870, after the 
occupation of Rome by the Italians, had been appointed lieu- 
tenant-royal of the new capital. He died at Florence on the 5th 



of January 1878. La Marmora's writings include Un episodio 
del risorgimento italiano (Florence, 1875); and i" segreti di 
stato nel governo constituzionale (Florence, 1877). 

See G. Massani, // generate Alfonso La Marmora (Milan, 1880). 

LAMARTINE, ALPHONSE MARIE LOUIS DE PRAT DE 

(1790-1869), French poet, historian and statesman, was born at 
Macon on the 21st of October 1790. The order of his surnames 
is a controversial matter, and they are sometimes reversed. 
The family of Lamartine was good, and the title of Prat was 
taken from an estate in Franche Comte. His father was im- 
prisoned during the Terror, and only released owing to the events 
of the 9th Thermidor. Lamartine's early education was received 
from his mother. He was sent to school at Lyons in 1805, but 
not being happy there was transferred to the care of the Peres de 
la Foi at Belley, where he remained until 1809. For some time 
afterwards he lived at home, reading romantic and poetical 
literature, but in 181 1 he set out for Italy, where he seems to 
have sojourned nearly two years. His family having been steady 
royalists, he entered the Gardes du corps at the return of the 
Bourbons, and during the Hundred Days he sought refuge first in 
Switzerland and then at Aix-en-Savoie, where he fell in love, with 
abundant result's of the poetical kind. After Waterloo he re- 
turned to Paris. In 1818-1819 he revisited Switzerland, Savoy 
and Italy, the death of his beloved affording him new subjects 
for verse. After some difficulties he had his first book, the 
Meditations, poetiques et religieuses, published (1820). It was 
exceedingly popular, and helped him to make a position. He 
had left the army for some time; he now entered the diplomatic 
service and was appointed secretary to the embassy at Naples. 
On his way to his post he married, in 1823, at Geneva a young 
English lady, Marianne Birch, who had both money and beauty, 
and in the same year his Nouvelles meditations poetiques appeared. 
In 1824 he was transferred to Florence, where he remained five 
years. His Last Canto of Childe Harold appeared in 1825, and 
he had to fight a duel (in which he was wounded) with an Italian 
officer, Colonel Pepe, in consequence of a phrase in it. Charles X., 
on whose coronation he wrote a poem, gave him the order of the 
Legion of Honour. The Harmonies poetiques et religieuses 
appeared in 1829, when he had left Florence. Having refused 
an appointment in Paris under the Polignac ministry, he went on 
a special mission to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. In the same 
year he was elected to the Academy. Lamartine was in Switzer- 
land, not in Paris, at the time of the Revolution of July, and, 
though he put forth a pamphlet on " Rational Policy," he 
did not at that crisis take any active part in politics, refusing, 
however, to continue his diplomatic services under the new 
government. In 1832 he set out with his wife and daughter for 
Palestine, having been unsuccessful in his candidature for a seat 
in the chamber. His daughter Julia died at Beirut, and before 
long he received the news of his election by a constituency 
(Bergues) in the department of the Nord. He returned through 
Turkey and Germany, and made his first speech shortly after 
the beginning of 1834. Thereafter he spoke constantly, and 
acquired considerable reputation as an orator, — bringing out, 
moreover, many books in prose and verse. His Eastern travels 
{Voyage en Orient) appeared in 1835, his Chute d'un ange and 
Jocelyn in 1837, and his Recueillements, the last remarkable 
volume of his poetry, in 1839. As the reign of Louis Philippe 
went on, Lamartine, who had previously been a liberal royalist, 
something after the fashion of Chateaubriand, became more and 
more democratic in his opinions. He set about his greatest 
prose work, the Histoire des Cirondins, which at first appeared 
periodically, and was published as a whole in 1847. Like many 
other French histories, it was a pamphlet as well as a chronicle, 
and the subjects of Lamartine's pen became his models in 
politics. 

At the revolution of February Lamartine was one of the first 
to declare for a provisional government, and became a member 
of it, with the post of minister for foreign affairs. He was elected 
for the new constituent assembly in ten different departments, 
and was chosen one of the five members of the Executive Com- 
mittee. For a few months indeed Lamartine, from being a 



LAMARTINE 



103 



distinguished man of letters, an official of inferior rank in diplo- 
macy, and an eloquent but unpractical speaker in parliament, 
became one of the foremost men in Europe. His inexperience 
in the routine work of government, the utterly unpractical 
nature of his colleagues, and the turbulence of the Parisian mob, 
proved fatal to his chances. He gave some proofs of statesman- 
like ability, and his eloquence was repeatedly called into requisi- 
tion to pacify the Parisians. But no one can permanently 
carry on the government of a great country by speeches from the 
balcony of a house in the capital, and Lamartine found himself 
in a dilemma. So long as he held aloof from Ledru-Rollin and 
the more radical of his colleagues, the disunion resulting 
weakened the government; as soon as he effected an approxima- 
tion to them the middle classes fell off from him. The quelling 
of the insurrection of the 15th of May was his last successful 
act. A month later the renewal of active disturbances brought 
on the fighting of June, and Lamartine's influence was extin- 
guished in favour of Cavaignac. Moreover, his chance of renewed 
political pre-eminence was gone. He had been tried and found 
wanting, having neither the virtues nor the vices of his situation. 
In January 1849, though he was nominated for the presidency, 
only a few thousand votes were given to him, and three 
months later he was not even elected to the Legislative 
Assembly. 

The remaining story of Lamartine's life is somewhat melancholy. 
He had never been a rich man, nor had he been a saving one, and 
during his period of popularity and office he had incurred great 
expenses. He now set to work to repair his fortune by un- 
remitting literary labour. He brought out in the Presse (1849) a 
series of Confidences, and somewhat later a kind of autobiography, 
entitled Raphael. He wrote several historical works of more or 
less importance, the History of the Revolution of 1848, The 
History of the Restoration, The History of Turkey, The History 
of Russia, besides a large number of small biographical and 
miscellaneous works. In 1858 a subscription was opened for 
his benefit. Two years afterwards, following the example of 
Chateaubriand, he supervised an elaborate edition of his own 
works in forty-one volumes. This occupied five years, and while 
he was engaged on it his wife died (1863). He was now over 
seventy; his powers had deserted him, and even if they had not 
the public taste had entirely changed. His efforts had not 
succeeded in placing him in a position of independence; and at 
last, in 1867, the government of the Empire (from which he had 
perforce stood aloof, though he never considered it necessary to 
adopt the active protesting attitude of Edgar Quinet and Victor 
Hugo) came to his assistance, a vote of £20,000 being proposed 
in April of that year for his benefit by Emile Ollivier. This was 
creditable to both parties, for Lamartine, both as a distinguished 
man of letters and as a past servant of the state, had every 
claim to the bounty of his country. But he was reproached for 
accepting it by the extreme republicans and irreconcilables. 
He did not enjoy it long, dying on the 28th of February 
1869. „ _ ... 

As a statesman Lamartine was placed during his brief tenure of 
office in a position from which it would have been almost impossible 
for any man, who was not prepared and able to play the dictator, 
to emerge with credit. At no time in history were unpractical 
crotchets so rife in the heads of men as in 1848. But Lamartine 
could hardly have guided the ship of state safely even in much 
calmer weather. He was amiable and even estimable, the chief fault 
of his character being vanity and an incurable tendency towards 
theatrical effect, which makes his travels, memoirs and other personal 
records as well as his historical works radically untrustworthy. Nor 
does it appear that he had any settled political ideas. He did good 
by moderating the revolutionary and destructive ardour of the 
Parisian populace in 1848; but he had been perhaps more responsible 
than any other single person for bringing about the events of that 
year by the vague and frothy republican declamation of his Histoire 
des Girondins. 

More must be said of his literary position. Lamartine had the ad- 
vantage of coming at a time when the literary field, at least in the 
departments of belles lettres, was almost empty. The feeble school 
of descriptive writers, epic poets of the extreme decadence, fabulists 
and miscellaneous verse-makers, which the Empire had nourished 
could satisfy no one. Madame de Stael was dead; Chateaubriand, 
though alive, was something of a classic, and had not effected a full 



revolution. Lamartine did not himself go the complete length of the 
Romantic revival, but he went far in that direction. He availed 
himself of the reviving interest in legitimism and Catholicism which 
was represented by Bonald and Joseph de Maistre, of the nature 
worship of Rousseau and Bernardin de Saint Pierre, of the senti- 
mentalism of Madame de Stael, of the medievalism and the romance 
of Chateaubriand and Scott, of the maladie du Steele of Chateaubriand 
and Byron. Perhaps if his matter be very closely analysed it will be 
found that he added hardly anything of his own. But if the parts of 
the mixture were like other things the mixture itself was not. It 
seemed indeed to the immediate generation so original that tradition 
has it that the Meditations were refused by a publisher because they 
were in none of the accepted styles. They appeared when Lamartine 
was nearly thirty years old. The best of them, and the best thing 
that Lamartine ever did, is the famous Lac, describing his return to 
the little mountain tarn of Le Bourget after the death of his mistress, 
with whom he had visited it in other days. The verse is exquisitely 
harmonious, the sentiments conventional but refined and delicate, 
the imagery well chosen and gracefully expressed. There is an un- 
questionable want of vigour, but to readers of that day the want of 
vigour was entirely compensated by the presence of freshness and 
grace. Lamartine's chief misfortune in poetry was not only that his 
note was a somewhat weak one, but that he could strike but one. 
The four volumes of the Meditations, the Harmonies and the Recueille- 
ments, which contained the prime of his verse, are perhaps the most 
monotonous reading to be found anywhere in work of equal bulk by 
a poet of equal talent. They contain nothing but meditative lyrical 
pieces, almost any one of which is typical of the whole, though there is 
considerable variation of merit. The two narrative poems which 
succeeded the early lyrics, Jocelyn and the Chute d'un ange, were, 
according to Lamartine's original plan, parts of a vast " Epic of the 
Ages," some further fragments of which survive. Jocelyn had at one 
time more popularity in England than most French verse. La Chute 
d'un ange, in which the Byronic influence is more obvious than in 
any other of Lamartine's works, and in which some have also seen 
that of Alfred de Vigny, is more ambitious in theme, and less regu- 
lated by scrupulous conditions of delicacy in handling, than most of 
its author's poetry. It does, however, little more than prove that 
such audacities were not for him. 

As a prose writer Lamartine was very fertile. His characteristics 
in his prose fiction and descriptive work are not very different from 
those of his poetry. He is always and everywhere sentimental, 
though very frequently, as in his shorter prose tales {The Stone 
Mason of Saint-Point, Graziella, &c), he is graceful as well as 
sentimental. In his histories the effect is worse. It has been 
hinted that Lamartine's personal narratives are doubtfully trust- 
worthy; with regard to his Eastern travels some of the episodes 
were stigmatized as mere inventions. In his histories proper the 
special motive for embellishment disappears, but the habit of in- 
accuracy remains. As an historian he belongs exclusively to the 
rhetorical school a.s distinguished from the philosophical on the one 
hand and the documentary on the other. 

It is not surprising when these characteristics of Lamartine's work 
are appreciated to find that his fame declined with singular rapidity 
in France. As a poet he had lost his reputation many years before 
he died. He was entirely eclipsed by the brilliant and vigorous 
school who succeeded him with Victor Hugo at their head. His 
power of initiative in poetry was very small, and the range of poetic 
ground which he could cover strictly limited. He could only carry 
the picturesque sentimentalism of Rousseau, Bernardin de Saint 
Pierre and Chateaubriand a little farther, and clothe it in language 
and verse a little less antiquated than that of Chfinedolle and Mille- 
voye. He has been said to be a French Cowper, and the parallel holds 
good in respect of versification and of his relative position to the 
more daringly innovating school that followed, though not in respect 
of individual peculiarities. Lamartine in short occupied a kind of 
half-way house between the 18th century and the Romantic move- 
ment, and he never got any farther. When Matthew Arnold 
questioned his importance in conversation with Sainte-Beuve, the 
answer was, " He is important to us," and it was a true answer; but 
the limitation is obvious. In more recent years, however, efforts 
have been made by Brunetiere and others to remove it. The usual 
revolution of critical as of other taste, the oblivion of personal and 
political unpopularity, and above all the reaction against Hugo and 
the extreme Romantics, have been the main agents in this. La- 
martine has been extolled as a pattern of combined passion and 
restraint, as a model of nobility of sentiment, and as a harmonizer of 
pure French classicism in taste and expression with much, if not all, 
the better part of Romanticism itself. These oscillations of opinion 
are frequent, if not universal, and it is only after more than one or two 
swings that the pendulum remains at the perpendicular. The above 
remarks are an attempt to correct extravagance in either direction. 
But it is difficult to believe that Lamartine can ever permanently 
take rank among the first order of poets. 

The edition mentioned is the most complete one of Lamartine, but 
there are many issues of his separate works. After his death some 
poems and Memoir es inedits of his youth were published, and also 
two volumes of correspondence, while in 1893 Mile V. de Lamartine 
added a volume of Lettres to him. The change of views above re- 
ferred to may be studied in the detached articles of MM. Brunetiere, 



104 



LAMB 



Faguet, Lemaitre, &c, and in the more substantive work of Ch. de 
Pomairols, Lamartine (1889); E. Deschanel, Lamartine (1893); 
E. Zyrowski, Lamartine (1896); and perhaps best of all in the 
Preface to Emile Legouis' Clarendon Press edition of Jocelyn (1906), 
where a vigorous effort is made to combat the idea of Lamartine's 
sentimentality and femininity as a poet. (G. Sa.) 

LAMB, CHARLES (1775-1834), English essayist and critic, 
was born in Crown Office Row, Inner Temple, London, on the 
10th of February 1775. His father, John Lamb, a Lincolnshire 
man, who filled the situation of clerk and servant-companion 
to Samuel Salt, a member of parliament and one of the benchers 
of the Inner Temple, was successful in obtaining for Charles, 
the youngest of three surviving children, a presentation to 
Christ's Hospital, where the boy remained from his eighth to 
his fifteenth year (1782-1789). Here he had for a schoolfellow 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, his senior by rather more than two 
years, and a close and tender friendship began which lasted for 
the rest of the lives of both. When the time came for leaving 
school, where he had learned some Greek and acquired consider- 
able facility in Latin composition, Lamb, after a brief stay at 
home (probably spent, as his school holidays had often been, 
over old English authors in Salt's library) was condemned to the 
labours of the desk — " an inconquerable impediment " in his 
speech disqualifying him for the clerical profession, which, as 
the school exhibitions were usually only given to those preparing 
for the church, thus deprived him of the only means by which 
he could have obtained a university education. For a short 
time he was in the office of Joseph Paice, a London merchant, 
and then for twenty-three weeks, until the 8th of February 1792, 
he held a small post in the Examiner's Office of the South Sea 
House, where his brother John was established, a period which, 
although his age was but sixteen, was to provide him nearly 
thirty years later with materials for the first of the Essays of 
Elia. On the 5th of April 1792, he entered the Accountant's 
Office in the East India House, where during the next three and 
thirty years the hundred official folios of what he used to call 
his true " works " were produced. 

Of the years 1792-1795 we know little. At the end of 1794 
he saw much of Coleridge and joined him in writing sonnets in 
the Morning Post, addressed to eminent persons: early in 
1795 he met Southey and was much in the company of James 
White, whom he probably helped in the composition of the 
Original Letters of Sir John Falstajf; and at the end of the year 
for a short time he became so unhinged mentally as to necessitate 
confinement in an asylum. The cause, it is probable, was an 
unsuccessful love affair with Ann Simmons, the Hertfordshire 
maiden to whom his first sonnets are addressed, whom he would 
have seen when on his visits as a youth to Blakesware House, 
near Widford, the country home of the Plumer family, of which 
Lamb's grandmother, Mary Field, was for many years, until 
her death in 1792, sole custodian. 

It was in the late summer of 1796 that a dreadful calamity 
came upon the Lambs, which seemed to blight all Lamb's 
prospects in the very morning of life. On the 22 nd of September 
his sister Mary, " worn down to a state of extreme nervous 
misery by attention to needlework by day and to her mother 
at night," was suddenly seized with acute mania, in which she 
stabbed her mother to the heart. The calm self-mastery and 
loving self-renunciation which Charles Lamb, by constitution 
excitable, nervous and self-mistrustful, displayed at this crisis 
in his own history and in that of those nearest him, will ever 
give him an imperishable claim to the reverence and affection of 
all who are capable of appreciating the heroisms of common 
life. With the help of friends he succeeded in obtaining his 
sister's release from the life-long restraint to which she would 
otherwise have been doomed, on the express condition that he 
himself should undertake the responsibility for her safe keeping. 
It proved no light charge: for though no one was capable of 
affording a more intelligent or affectionate companionship than 
Mary Lamb during her periods of health, there was ever present 
the apprehension of the recurrence of her malady; and when 
from time to time the premonitory symptoms had become 
unmistakable, there was no alternative but her removal, which 



took place in quietness and tears. How deeply the whole course 
of Lamb's domestic life must have been affected by his singular 
loyalty as a brother needs not to be pointed out. 

Lamb's first appearance as an author was made in the year 
of the great tragedy of his life (1796), when there were published 
in the volume of Poems on Various Subjects by Coleridge four 
sonnets by " Mr Charles Lamb of the India House." In the 
following year he contributed, with Charles Lloyd, a pupil of 
Coleridge, some pieces in blank verse to the second edition of 
Coleridge's Poems. In 1797 his short summer holiday was 
spent with Coleridge at Nether Stowey, where he met the 
Wordsworths, William and Dorothy, and established a friendship 
with both which only his own death terminated. In 1798, under 
the influence of Henry Mackenzie's novel Julie de Roubigni, 
he published a short and pathetic prose tale entitled Rosamund 
Gray, in which it is possible to trace beneath disguised conditions 
references to the misfortunes of the author's own family, and 
many personal touches; and in the same year he joined Lloyd 
in a volume of Blank Verse, to which Lamb contributed poems 
occasioned by the death of his mother and his aunt Sarah Lamb, 
among them being his best-known lyric, " The Old Familiar 
Faces." In this year, 1798, he achieved the unexpected publicity 
of an attack by the Anti- Jacobin upon him as an associate of 
Coleridge and Southey (to whose Annual Anthology he had 
contributed) in their Jacobin machinations. In 1799, on the 
death of her father, Mary Lamb came to live again with her 
brother, their home then being in Pentonville; but it was not 
until 1800 that they really settled together, their first independent 
joint home being at Mitre Court Buildings in the Temple, where 
they lived until 1809. At the end of 1801, or beginning of 1802, 
appeared Lamb's first play John Woodvil, on which he set great 
store, a slight dramatic piece written in the style of the earlier 
Elizabethan period and containing some genuine poetry and 
happy delineation of the gentler emotions, but as a whole 
deficient in plot, vigour and character; it was held up to ridicule 
by the Edinburgh Review as a specimen of the rudest condition 
of the drama, a work by " a man of the age of Thespis." The 
dramatic spirit, however, was not thus easily quenched in Lamb, 

and his next effort was a farce, Mr H , the point of which lay 

in the hero's anxiety to conceal his name "Hogsflesh"; but 
it did not survive the first night of its appearance at Drury 
Lane, in December 1806. Its author bore the failure with rare 
equanimity and good humour — even to joining in the hissing — 
and soon struck into new and more successful fields of literary 
exertion. Before, however, passing to these it should be men- 
tioned that he made various efforts to earn money by journalism, 
partly by humorous articles, partly as dramatic critic, but 
chiefly as a contributor of sarcastic or funny paragraphs, " sparing 
neither man nor woman," in the Morning Post, principally in 
1803. 

In 1807 appeared Tales founded on the Plays of Shakespeare, 
written by Charles and Mary Lamb, in which Charles was 
responsible for the tragedies and Mary for the comedies; and 
in 1808, Specimens of English Dramatic Poets who lived about 
the time of Shakespeare, with short but felicitous critical notes. 
It was this work which laid the foundation of Lamb's reputation 
as a critic, for it was filled with imaginative understanding of 
the old playwrights, and a warm, discerning and novel apprecia- 
tion of their great merits. In the same year, 1808, Mary Lamb, 
assisted by her brother, published Poetry for Children, and a 
collection of short school-girl tales under the title Mrs 
Leicester's School; and to the same date belongs The Adventures 
of Ulysses, designed by Lamb as a companion to The Adventures 
of Telemachus. In 1810 began to appear Leigh Hunt's quarterly 
periodical, The Reflector, in which Lamb published much (includ- 
ing the fine essays on the tragedies of Shakespeare and on 
Hogarth) that subsequently appeared in the first collective 
edition of his Works, which he put forth in 1818. 

Between 1811, when The Reflector ceased, and 1820, he wrote 
almost nothing. In these years we may imagine him at his 
most social period, playing much whist and entertaining his 
friends on Wednesday or Thursday nights; meanwhile gathering 



LAMB— LAMBALLE, PRINCESSE DE 



105 



that reputation as a conversationalist or inspirer of conversation 
in others, which Hazlitt, who was at one time one of Lamb's 
closest friends, has done so much to celebrate. When in 1818 ap- 
peared the Works in two volumes, it may be that Lamb considered 
his literary career over. Before coming to 1820, and an event 
which was in reality to be the beginning of that career as it is 
generally known — the establishment of the London Magazine — 
it should be recorded that in the summer of 1819 Lamb, with his 
sister's full consent, proposed marriage to Fanny Kelly, the 
actress, who was then in her thirtieth year. Miss Kelly could 
not accept, giving as one reason her devotion to her mother. 
Lamb bore the rebuff with characteristic humour and fortitude. 
The establishment of the London Magazine in 1820 stimulated 
Lamb to the production of a series of new essays (the Essays 
of Elia) which may be said to form the chief corner-stone in 
the small but classic temple of his fame. The first of these, 
as it fell out, was a description of the old South Sea House, 
with which Lamb happened to have associated the name of a 
"gay light-hearted foreigner " called Elia, who was a clerk in 
the days of his service there. The pseudonym adopted on this 
occasion was retained for the subsequent contributions, which 
appeared collectively in a volume of essays called Elia, in 1823. 
After a career of five years the London Magazine came to an 
end; and about the same period Lamb's long connexion with 
the India House terminated, a pension of £450 (£441 net) having 
been assigned to him. The increased leisure, however, for which 
he had long sighed, did not prove favourable to literary pro- 
duction, which henceforth was limited to a few trifling contribu- 
tions to the New Monthly and other serials, and the excavation 
of gems from the mass of dramatic literature bequeathed to the 
British Museum by David Garrick, which Lamb laboriously 
read through in 1827, an occupation which supplied him for a 
time with the regular hours of work he missed so much. The 
malady of his sister, which continued to increase with ever 
shortening intervals of relief, broke in painfully on his lettered 
ease and comfort; and it is unfortunately impossible to ignore 
the deteriorating effects of an over-free indulgence in the use 
of alcohol, and, in early life, tobacco, on a temperament such as 
his. His removal on account of his sister to the quiet of the 
country at Enfield, by tending to withdraw him from the 
stimulating society of the large circle of literary friends who 
had helped to make his weekly or monthly " at homes " so 
remarkable, doubtless also tended to intensify his listlessness 
and helplessness. One of the brightest elements in the closing 
years of his life was the friendship and companionship of Emma 
Isola, whom he and his sister had adopted, and whose marriage 
in 1833 to Edward Moxon, the publisher, though a source of 
unselfish joy to Lamb, left him more than ever alone. While 
living at Edmonton, whither he had moved in 1833 so that his 
sister might have the continual care of Mr and Mrs Walden, 
who were accustomed to patients of weak intellect, Lamb was 
overtaken by an attack of erysipelas brought on by an accidental 
fall as he was walking on the London road. After a few days' 
illness he died on the 27th of December, 1834. The sudden death 
of one so widely known, admired and beloved, fell on the public 
as well as on his own attached circle with all the poignancy of 
a personal calamity and a private grief. His memory wanted 
no tribute that affection could bestow, and Wordsworth com- 
memorated in simple and solemn verse the genius, virtues and 
fraternal devotion of his early friend. 

Charles Lamb is entitled to a place as an essayist beside 
Montaigne, Sir Thomas Browne, Steele and Addison. He unites 
many of the characteristics of each of these writers — refined and 
exquisite humour, a genuine and cordial vein of pleasantry and 
heart-touching pathos. His fancy is distinguished by great delicacy 
and tenderness; and even his conceits are imbued with human 
feeling and passion. He had an extreme and almost exclusive 
partiality for earlier prose writers, particularly for Fuller, 
Browne and Burton, as well as for the dramatists of Shake- 
speare's time; and the care with which he studied them is 
apparent in all he ever wrote. It shines out conspicuously in 
his style, which has an antique air and is redolent of the 



peculiarities of the 17th century. Its quaintness has subjected 
the author to the charge of affectation, but there is nothing really 
affected in his writings. His style is not so much an imitation 
as a reflexion of the older writers; for in spirit he made himself 
their contemporary. A confirmed habit of studying them in 
preference to modern literature had made something of their 
style natural to him; and long experience had rendered it not 
only easy and familiar but habitual. It was not a masquerade 
dress he wore, but the costume which showed the man to most 
advantage. With thought and meaning often profound, though 
clothed in simple language, every sentence of his essays is 
pregnant. 

He played a considerable part in reviving the dramatic 
writers of the Shakesperian age; for he preceded Gifford and 
others in wiping the dust of ages from their works. In his 
brief comments on each specimen he displays exquisite powers 
of discrimination: his discernment of the true meaning of his 
author is almost infallible. His work was a departure in criticism. 
Former editors had supplied textual criticism and alternative 
readings: Lamb's object was to show how our ancestors felt 
when they placed themselves by the power of imagination in 
trying situations, in the conflicts of duty or passion or the strife 
of contending duties; what sorts of loves and enmities theirs 
were. 

As a poet Lamb is not entitled to so high a place as that which 
can be claimed for him as essayist and critic. His dependence 
on Elizabethan models is here also manifest, but in such a way 
as to bring into all the greater prominence his native deficiency 
in " the accomplishment of verse." Yet it is impossible, once 
having read, ever to forget the tenderness and grace of such 
poems as " Hester," " The Old Familiar Faces," and the lines 
" On an infant dying as soon as born " or the quaint humour of 
" A Farewell to Tobacco." As a letter writer Lamb ranks very 
high, and when in a nonsensical mood there is none to touch 
him. 

Editions and memoirs of Lamb are numerous. The Letters, with a 
sketch of his life by Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd, appeared in 1837; 
the Final Memorials of Charles Lamb by the same hand, after Mary 
Lamb's death, in 1848; Barry Cornwall's Charles Lamb: A Memoir, 
in 1866. Mr P. Fitzgerald's Charles Lamb: his Friends, his Haunts 
and his Boohs (1866); W. Carew Hazlitt's Mary and Charles Lamb 
(1874). Mr Fitzgerald and Mr Hazlitt have also both edited the 
Letters, and Mr Fitzgerald brought Talfourd to date with an edition 
of Lamb's works in 1870-1876. Later and fuller editions are those 
of Canon Ainger in 12 volumes, Mr Macdonald in 12 volumes and 
Mr E. V. Lucas in 7 volumes, to which in 1905 was added The Life 
of Charles Lamb, in 2 volumes. (E. V. L.) 

LAMB (a word common to Teutonic languages; cf. Ger. Lamm), 
the young of sheep. The Paschal Lamb or Agnus Dei is used as a 
symbol of Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God (John i. 29), and 
" lamb," like " flock," is often used figuratively of the members 
of a Christian church or community, with an allusion to Jesus' 
charge to Peter (John xxi. 15). The "lamb and flag" is an 
heraldic emblem, the dexter fore-leg of the lamb supporting a 
staff bearing a banner charged with the St George's cross. This 
was one of the crests of the Knights Templars, used on seals as 
early as 1241; it was adopted as a badge or crest by the Middle 
Temple, the Inner Temple using another crest of the Templars, 
the winged horse or Pegasus. The old Tangier regiment, now 
the Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment, bore a Paschal Lamb 
as its badge. From their colonel, Percy Kirke (q.v.), they were 
known as Kirke's Lambs. The exaggerated reputation of the 
regiment for brutality, both in Tangier and in England after 
Sedgmoor, lent irony to the nickname. 

LAMBALLE, MARIE THERfcSE LOUISE OF SAVOY- 
CARIGNANO, Princesse de (1749-1792), fourth daughter of 
Louis Victor of Carignano (d. 1774) (great-grandfather of King 
Charles Albert of Sardinia), and of Christine Henriette of Hesse- 
Rheinfels-Rothenburg, was born at Turin on the 8th of September 
1749. In 1767 she was married to Louis Alexandre Stanislaus de 
Bourbon, prince of Lamballe, son of the duke of Penthievre, a 
grandson of Louis XIV. 's natural son the count of Toulouse. Her 
husband dying the following year, she retired with her father-in- 
law to Rambouillet, where she lived until the marriage of the 



io6 



LAMBALLE— LAMBERT, D. 



dauphin, when she returned to court. Marie Antoinette, 
charmed by her gentle and naive manners, singled her out for 
a companion and confidante. The impetuous character of the 
dauphiness found in Madame de Lamballe that submissive 
temperament which yields to force of environment, and the two 
became fast friends. After her accession Marie Antoinette, in 
spite of the king's opposition, had her appointed superintendent 
of the royal household. Between 1776 and 1785 the comtesse de 
Polignac succeeded in supplanting her; but when the queen 
tired of the avarice of the Polignacs, she turned again to Madame 
de Lamballe. From 1785 to the Revolution she was Marie 
Antoinette's closest friend and the pliant instrument of her 
caprices. She came with the queen to the Tuileries and as her 
salon served as a meeting-place for the queen and the members 
of the Assembly whom she wished to gain over, the people believed 
her to be the soul of all the intrigues. After a visit to England in 
1791 to appeal for help for the royal family she made her will 
and returned to the Tuileries, where she continued her services 
to the queen until the 10th of August, when she shared her 
imprisonment in the Temple. On the 19th of August she was 
transferred to La Force, and having refused to take the oath 
against the monarchy, she was on the 3rd of September delivered 
over to the fury of the populace, after which her head was 
placed on a pike and carried before the windows of the queen. 

See George Bertin, Madame de Lamballe (Paris, 1888); Austin 
Dobson, Four Frenchwomen (1890); B. C. Hardy, Princesse de 
Lamballe (1908); Comte de Lescure, La Princesse de Lamballe. . . . 
d'apres des documents inedits (1864) ; some letters of the princess 
published by Ch. Schmidt in La Revolution francaise (vol. xxxix., 
1900); L. Lambeau, Essais sur la mort de madame la princesse de 
Lamballe (1902) ; Sir F. Montefiore, The Princesse de Lamballe (1896). 
The Secret Memoirs of the Royal Family of France . . . now first 
published from the Journal, Letters and Conversations of the Princesse 
de Lamballe (London, 2 vols., 1826) have since appeared in various 
editions in English and in French. They are attributed to Catherine 
Hyde, Marchioness Govion-Broglio-Solari, and are apocryphal. 

LAMBALLE, a town of north-western France, in the depart- 
ment of C6tes-du-Nord, on the Gouessant 13 m. E.S.E. of St 
Brieuc by rail. Pop. (1906) 4347. Crowning the eminence on 
which the town is built is a beautiful Gothic church (13th and 
14th centuries), once the chapel of the castle of the counts of 
Penthievre. La Noue, the famous Huguenot leader, was mortally 
wounded in 1591 in the siege of the castle, which was dismantled 
in 1626 by Richelieu. Of the other buildings, the church of St 
Martin (nth, 15th and 16th centuries) is the chief. Lamballe 
has an important haras (depot for stallions) and carries on trade 
in grain, tanning and leather-dressing; earthenware is manu- 
factured in the environs. Lamballe was the capital of the terri- 
tory of the counts of Penthievre, who in 1569 were made dukes. 
LAMBAYEQUE, a coast department of northern Peru, 
bounded N. by Piura, E. and S. by Cajamarca and Libertad. 
Area, 4614 sq. m. Pop. (1906 estimate) 93,070. It belongs to the 
arid region of the coast, and is settled along the river valleys 
where irrigation is possible. It is one of the chief sugar-producing 
departments of Peru, and in some valleys, especially near 
Ferrenafe, rice is largely produced. Four railways connect its 
principal producing centres with the small ports of Eten and 
Pimentel, viz.: Eten to Ferrenafe, 27 m.; Eten to Cayalti, 23 m.; 
Pimentel to Lambayeque, 15m.; and Chiclayo to Patapo, 15 m. 
The principal towns are Chiclayo, the departmental capital, 
with a population (1906 estimate) of 10,500, Ferrenafe 6000, 
and Lambayeque 4500. 

LAMBEAUX, JEF (Joseph Marie Thomas), (1852-1908), 
Belgian sculptor, was born at Antwerp. He studied at the 
Antwerp Academy of Fine Arts, and was a pupil of Jean Geefs. 
His first work, " War," was exhibited in 1871, and was followed 
by a long series of humorous groups, including " Children 
dancing," " Say ' Good Morning,' " " The Lucky Number " and 
" An Accident " (1875). He then went to Paris, where he 
executed for the Belgian salons " The Beggar " and " The Blind 
Pauper," and produced " The Kiss " (1881), generally regarded 
as his masterpiece. After visiting Italy, where he was much 
impressed by the works of Jean- Bologne, he showed a strong 
predilection for effects of force and motion. Other notable works 



are his fountain at Antwerp (1886), "Robbing the Eagle's 
Eyrie " (1890), " Drunkenness " (1893), " The Triumph of 
Woman," " The Bitten Faun " (which created a great stir at the 
Exposition Universelle at Liege in 1905), and "The Human 
Passions," a colossal marble bas-relief, elaborated from a sketch 
exhibited in 1889. Of his numerous busts may be mentioned 
those of Hendrik Conscience, and of Charles Bals, the burgomaster 
of Brussels. He died on the 6th of June 1908. 

LAMBERMONT, AUGUSTE, Baron (1819-1905), Belgian 
statesman, was born at Dion-le-Val in Brabant on the 25th ol 
March 1819. He came of a family of small farmer proprietors, 
who had held land during three centuries. He was intended for 
the priesthood and entered the seminary of Floreffe, but his 
energies claimed a more active sphere. He left the monastery for 
Louvain University. Here he studied law, and also prepared 
himself for the military examinations. At that juncture the 
first Carlist war broke out, and Lambermont hastened to the 
scene of action. His services were accepted (April 1838) and he 
was entrusted with the command of two small cannon. He also 
acted as A.D.C. to Colonel Durando. He greatly distinguished 
himself, and for his intrepidity on one occasion he was decorated 
with the Cross of the highest military Order of St Ferdinand. 
Returning to Belgium he entered the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs in 1842. He served in this department sixty-three years. 
He was closely associated with several of the most important 
questions in Belgian history during the last half of the 19th 
century — notably the freeing of the Scheldt. He was one of the 
very first Belgians to see the importance of developing the trade 
of their country, and at his own request he was attached to the 
commercial branch of the foreign office. The tolls imposed by the 
Dutch on navigation on the Scheldt strangled Belgian" trade, for 
Antwerp was the only port of the country. The Dutch had the 
right to make this levy under treaties going back to the treaty of 
Munster in 1648, and they clung to it still more tenaciously after 
Belgium separated herself in 1830-183 1 from the united kingdom 
of the Netherlands— the London conference in 1839 fixing the 
toll payable to Holland at 1-50 florins (3s.) per ton. From 1856 to 
1863 Lambermont devoted most of his energies to the removal of 
this impediment. In 1856 he drew up a plan of action, and he 
prosecuted it with untiring perseverance until he saw it embodied 
in an international convention seven years later. Twenty-one 
powers and states attended a conference held on the question at 
Brussels in 1863, and on the 15th of July the treaty freeing the 
Scheldt was signed. For this achievement Lambermont was 
made a baron. Among other important conferences in which 
Lambermont took a leading part were those of Brussels (1874) 
on the usages of war, Berlin (1884-1885) on Africa and the 
Congo region, and Brussels (1890) on Central African Affairs and 
the Slave Trade. He was joint reporter with Baron de Courcel 
of the Berlin conference in 1884-1885, and on several occasions 
he was chosen as arbitrator by one or other of the great European 
powers. But his great achievement was the freeing of the Scheldt, 
and in token of its gratitude the city of Antwerp erected a fine 
monument to his memory. He died on the 7th of March 1905. 

LAMBERT, DANIEL (1 770-1809), an Englishman famous for 
his great size, was born near Leicester on the 13th of March 
1770, the son of the keeper of the jail, to which post he succeeded 
in 1 791. About this time his size and weight increased enor- 
mously, and though he had led an active and athletic life he 
weighed in 1793 thirty-two stone (448 lb). In 1806 he resolved 
to profit by his notoriety, and resigning his office went up to 
London and exhibited himself. He died on the 21st of July 
1809, and at the time measured 5 ft. n in. in height and weighed 
52! stone (739 lb). His waistcoat, now in the Kings Lynn 
Museum, measures 102 in. round the waist. His coffin contained 
112 ft. of elm and was built on wheels. His name has been used 
as a synonym for immensity. George Meredith describes 
London as the "Daniel Lambert of cities," and Herbert Spencer 
uses the phrase " a Daniel Lambert of learning." His enormous 
proportions were depicted on a number of tavern signs, but the 
best portrait of him, a large mezzotint, is preserved at the 
British Museum in Lyson's Collectanea. 



LAMBERT, F.— LAMBERT, J. 



107 



LAMBERT, FRANCIS (c 1486-1530), Protestant reformer, 
was the son of a papal official at Avignon, where he was bom 
between 1485 and 1487. At the age of 15 he entered the 
Franciscan monastery at Avignon, and after 1517 he was an 
itinerant preacher, travelling through France, Italy and Switzer- 
land. His study of the Scriptures shook his faith in Roman 
Catholic theology, and by 1522 he had abandoned his order, 
and became known to the leaders of the Reformation in Switzer- 
land and Germany. He did not, however, identify himself 
either with Zwinglianism or Lutheranism; he disputed with 
Zwingli at Zurich in 1522, and then made his way to Eisenach 
and Wittenberg, where he married in 1523. He returned to 
Strassburg in 1524, being anxious to spread the doctrines of the 
Reformation among the French-speaking population of the 
neighbourhood. By the Germans he was distrusted, and in 1526 
his activities were prohibited by the city of Strassburg. He was, 
however, befriended by Jacob Sturm, who recommended him 
to the Landgraf Philip of Hesse, the most liberal of the German 
reforming princes. With Philip's encouragement he drafted 
that scheme of ecclesiastical reform for which he is famous. 
Its basis was essentially democratic and congregational, though 
it provided for the government of the whole church by means of 
a synod. Pastors were to be elected by the congregation, and the 
whole system of canon-law was repudiated. This scheme was 
submitted by Philip to a synod at Homburg; but Luther 
intervened and persuaded the Landgraf to abandon it. It was 
far too democratic to commend itself to the Lutherans, who had 
by this time bound the Lutheran cause to the support of princes 
rather than to that of the people. Philip continued to favour 
Lambert, who was appointed professor and head of the theo- 
logical faculty in the Landgraf's new university of Marburg. 
Patrick Hamilton (q. v.), the Scottish martyr, was one of his pupils; 
and it was at Lambert's instigation that Hamilton composed 
his Loci communes, or Patrick's Pleas as they were popularly 
called in Scotland. Lambert was also one of the divines who 
took part in the great conference of Marburg in 1529; he had 
long wavered between the Lutheran and the Zwinglian view 
of the Lord's Supper, but at this conference he definitely adopted 
the Zwinglian view. He died of the plague on the 18th of April 
1530, and was buried at Marburg. 

A catalogue of Lambert's writings is given in Haag's La France 
protestante. See also lives of Lambert by Baum (Strassburg, 1840); 
F. W. Hessencamp (Elberfeld, 1860), Stieve (Breslau, 1867) and Louis 
Ruffet (Paris, 1873); Lorimer, Life of Patrick Hamilton (1857); 
A. L. Richter, Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des 16. Jahrh. 
(Weimar, 1846); Hessencamp, Hessische Kirchenordnungen im 
Zeitalter der Reformation; Philip of Hesse's Correspondence with 
Bucer, ed. M. Lenz; Lindsay, Hist. Reformation; Allgemeine 
deutsche Biographic (A. F. P.) 

LAMBERT, JOHANN HEINRICH (1728-1777), German 
physicist, mathematician and astronomer, was born at Mul- 
hausen, Alsace, on the 26th of August 1728. He was the son of 
a tailor; and the slight elementary instruction he obtained 
at the free school of his native town was supplemented by his 
own private reading. He became book-keeper at Montbeliard 
ironworks, and subsequently (1745) secretary to Professor Iselin, 
the editor of a newspaper at Basel, who three years later recom- 
mended him as private tutor to the family of Count A. von Salis 
of Coire. Coming thus into virtual possession of a good library, 
Lambert had peculiar opportunities for improving himself in his 
literary and scientific studies. In 1759, after completing with 
his pupils a tour of two years' duration through Gottingen, 
Utrecht, Paris, Marseilles and Turin, he resigned his tutorship 
and settled at Augsburg. Munich, Erlangen, Coire and Leipzig 
became for brief successive intervals his home. In 1764 he 
removed to Berlin, where he received many favours at the hand 
of Frederick the Great and was elected a member of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Berlin, and in 1774 edited the Berlin 
Ephemeris. He died of consumption on the 25th of September 
1777- His publications show him to have been a man of original 
and active mind with a singular facility in applying mathematics 
to practical questions. 

His mathematical discoveries were extended and over- 



shadowed by his contemporaries. His development of the 
equation x m -\-px = q in an infinite series was extended by Leonhard 
Euler, and particularly by Joseph Louis Lagrange. In 1761 
he proved the irrationality of rr; a simpler proof was given 
somewhat later by Legendre. The introduction of hyperbolic 
functions into trigonometry was also due to him. His geometri- 
cal discoveries are of great value, his Die frcie Perspective (1759- 
1 774) being a work of great merit. Astronomy was also enriched 
by his investigations, and he was led to several remarkable 
theorems on conies which bear his name. The most important . 
are: (1) To express the time of describing an elliptic arc under 
the Newtonian law of gravitation in terms of the focal distances 
of the initial and final points, and the length of the chord joining 
them. (2) A theorem relating to the apparent curvature of the 
geocentric path of a comet. 

Lambert's most important work, Pyrometrie (Berlin, 1779), is a 
systematic treatise on heat, containing the records and full discus- 
sion of many of his own experiments. Worthy of special notice 
also are Photometria (Augsburg, 1760), Jnsigniores orbitae come- 
tarum proprietates (Augsburg, 1761), and Beitrdge zum Gebrau